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Sustainable Leadership

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1 Sustainable Leadership
Welcome to Sustainable Leadership Andy Hargreaves

2 Sustainable development
Sustainable development, democracy and peace are indivisible as an idea whose time has come. Wangari Maathai

3 Development of the term “sustainability”
Term first coined by Lester Brown, founder of the World Watch Institute Sustainable development defined by Brundtland Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development Agenda 21, United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, Rio De Janeiro systematically addressed sustainable development United Nations Johannesburg Summit – developed practical goals for sustainable development Beginning of UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development

4 United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development 2005-2015

5 Sustainability Sustainability does not simply mean whether something can last. It addresses how particular initiatives can be developed without compromising the development of others in the surrounding environment, now and in the future. Hargreaves & Fink 2000

6 Sustainable leadership
Sustainable leadership matters, spreads and lasts. It is a shared responsibility that does not unduly deplete human or financial resources, and that cares for and avoids exerting damage on the surrounding educational and community environment. Hargreaves & Fink 2003

7 Sustainability Sustainability is the capacity of a system to engage in the complexities of continuous improvement consistent with deep values of human purpose. Fullan 2004

8 Educational Lessons of Environmental Sustainability
Rich diversity, not soulless standardization Taking the long view Act urgently for change, wait patiently for results Prudence about conserving and renewing human and financial resources Examine the impact of our improvement efforts on others All of us can be activists and make a difference Hargreaves & Fink 2006

9 Built to Last Companies
Put purpose before profit Preserve long-standing purposes amid the pursuit of change Start slowly, advance persistently Do not depend on a single, visionary leader Grow their own leadership, instead of importing others Learn from diverse experimentation Collins & Porras 1994

10 Seven principles of sustainable leadership
Depth Endurance Breadth Justice It matters It lasts It spreads It does not harm the surrounding environment Continued…

11 Seven principles of sustainable leadership
Diversity Resourcefulness Conservation It promotes diversity & cohesion It conserves expenditure It honours the past in creating the future

12 Repetitive change syndrome is
Unsustainability Repetitive change syndrome is Initiative overload + Change-related chaos Abrahamson 2004

13 Initiative Overload The tendency of organizations to launch more change initiatives than anyone could ever reasonably handle Abrahamson 2004

14 Change-related Chaos The continuous state of upheaval that results when so many waves of initiatives have worked through at the organization that hardly anyone knows which change they’re implementing or why Abrahamson 2004

15 Unsustainability Imposed, short-term targets (or adequate yearly progress) transgress every principle of sustainable leadership and learning Hargreaves & Fink 2006

16 Principle 1: Depth Sustainable leadership matters. It preserves, protects, and promotes deep and broad learning for all in relationships of care for others.

17 Nelson Mandela The human body has an enormous capacity for adjusting to trying circumstances. I have found that one can bear the unbearable if one can keep one’s spirits strong even when one’s body is being tested. Strong convictions are the secret of surviving deprivation: your spirit can be full even when your stomach is empty. 1. Depth

18 The Two Hungers In Africa, they say there are two hungers, the lesser hunger and the greater hunger. The lesser hunger is for the things that sustain life, the goods, and services, and the money to pay for them, which we all need. The greater hunger is for the answer to the question ‘why’, for some understanding of what life is for. Handy 1997 1. Depth

19 Product Integrity Clif Bar’s Philosophy of Sustainability
Sustaining… our brands our company our people our community our planet 1. Depth

20 Standards and Sustainability
Learning  Achievement  Testing NOT Testing  Achievement  Learning Hargreaves & Fink, 2006 1. Depth

21 The four pillars of learning
Learning to know Learning to do Learning to be Learning to live together UNESCO 1996 1. Depth

22 The four pillars of learning
Learning to know Learning to do Learning to be Learning to live together UNESCO 1996 Learning to live sustainably Hargreaves & Fink, 2006 1. Depth

23 Basics Old basics Literacy Numeracy Obedience Punctuality New basics
Multiliteracy Creativity Communication IT Teamwork Lifelong Learning Adaptation & Change Environmental Responsibility 1. Depth

24 Slow Knowing The unconscious realms of the human mind will successfully accomplish a number of important tasks if they are given the time. They will learn patterns of a degree of subtlety which normal consciousness cannot even see; make sense out of situations that are too complex to analyze; and get to the bottom of certain difficult issues much more successfully than the questing intellect. Claxton 1997 1. Depth

25 What does the doctor reply?
1. Depth

26 Activity 1. Depth

27 Slow forms of knowing are tolerant of the faint, fleeting, marginal and ambiguous like to dwell on details that do not fit or immediately make sense are relaxed, leisurely and playful are willing to explore without knowing what they are looking for see ignorance and confusion as the ground from which understanding may spring are receptive rather than proactive are happy to relinquish the sense of control over the directions the mind spontaneously takes treat seriously ideas that come ‘out of the blue’ Claxton, 1997 1. Depth

28 Slow schooling starts formal learning later reduces testing
increases curriculum flexibility emphasizes enjoyment doesn’t hurry the child rehabilitates play alongside purpose Honore, 2004 1. Depth

29 Leaders of Sustaining Learning
Passionately advocate and defend deep learning for all students Combine and commit to old and new basics Put learning, before achievement, before testing Make learning the paramount priority Become more knowledgeable about learning Make learning transparent Be omnipresent witnesses to learning Practise evidence-informed, inquiry-based leadership Promote assessment for learning Engage students in decisions about their learning Involve parents in their children’s learning Model effective adult learning Create the emotional conditions for learning Hargreaves & Fink, 2006 1. Depth

30 Principle 2: Endurance Sustainable leadership lasts. It preserves and advances the most valuable aspects of learning and life over time, year upon year, from one leader to the next.

31 Endurance It is a common defect in men not to consider in good weather the possibility of a tempest Machiavelli, 1532 All leaders, no matter how charismatic or visionary, eventually die Collins & Porras, 1994 Few things succeed less than leadership succession Hargreaves & Fink, 2006 2. Endurance

32 Approaches to succession
The public sector… Passively lets candidates emerge Focuses on the short term Handles succession informally The private sector… Actively recruits and encourages potential leaders Takes the long view Manages succession more formally Continued… 2. Endurance

33 Approaches to succession
The public sector… Seeks replacement for existing roles Selects in relation to current competencies Views succession planning as a cost The private sector… Defines future leadership skills and aptitudes Emphasises flexibility and lifelong learning in the face of changing needs Views succession planning as an asset 2. Endurance

34 Four Issues in Succession
Succession Planning Succession Management Succession Duration & Frequency Succession and the Self 2. Endurance

35 Succession Planning Patterns
Planned (purposeful) Unplanned (accidental/ unintentional) Hargreaves & Fink 2006 Continuity Discontinuity Planned Planned Continuity Discontinuity Unplanned Unplanned Continuity Discontinuity 2. Endurance

36 Good succession plans Are prepared long before the leader’s anticipated departure or even from the outset of their appointment Give other people proper time to prepare Are incorporated in all school improvement plans Are the responsibility of many, rather than the prerogative of lone leaders who tend to want to clone themselves Are based on a clear diagnosis of the school’s existing stage of development and future needs for improvement Are transparently linked to clearly defined leadership standards and competencies that are needed for the next phase of improvement 2. Endurance

37 Successful Succession Management
Distributes leadership effectively Builds strong professional communities Deepens and broadens the pools of leadership talent Establishes leadership development schools Stresses future leadership competencies Supports and sponsors aspiring school leaders Replaces charismatic leadership with inspirational leadership Plans early for the incumbent leader’s exit Moderates and monitors leadership succession frequency 2. Endurance

38 Three Cultures of Teaching
Veteran dominated serves experienced teacher interests feels exclusionary offers few leadership opportunities Novice orientated surrounded by fellow novices feels inclusive driven by enthusiasm rather than expertise Blended provides mentoring offers leadership reciprocal learning Johnson et al, 2004 2. Endurance

39 Sound succession, strong selves, through
Availability of counselling and coaching for exiting leaders Quick, clear and open communication of reasons for departure Acceptance of emotional confusion and vulnerability Celebration of the leader’s contributions Recognition that succession is subject to the four stages of grief – denial, awakening, reflection and execution Confrontation of the Messiah and Rebecca myths Prepares oneself and others early for the possibility of succession Hargreaves & Fink, 2006 2. Endurance

40 Principle 3: Breadth Sustainable leadership spreads. It sustains as well as depends on the leadership of others

41 Culture and Contract Regimes
- + Permissive Individualism Collaborative Cultures Contrived Collegiality Corrosive Individualism Professional Learning Communities Performance Training Sects - C U L T U R E = + 3. Breadth

42 Professional learning community
Learning & teaching focus Collaboration Achievement and Engagement Learning, reflection & review Use of evidence 3. Breadth

43 3. Breadth

44 Professional learning communities aren’t…
X Merely convivial and congenial – they are demanding and critical X Just a collection of stilted teams looking at data together X Obsessed with scores and results, instead of depth of learning X Forced and imposed, they are facilitated and supported X Ways to hijack teachers to carry out administrative agendas 3. Breadth

45 Communities and Sects Transform knowledge Shared enquiry
Professional learning communities Transform knowledge Shared enquiry Evidence informed Situated certainty Performance training sects Transfer knowledge Imposed requirements Results driven False certainty Continued… 3. Breadth

46 Communities and Sects Local solutions Joint responsibility
Professional learning communities Local solutions Joint responsibility Continuous learning Communities of practice Performance training sects Standardised scripts Deference to authority Intensive training Sects of performance 3. Breadth

47 Relationships It’s hard to eat something you’ve had a relationship with Hargreaves & Fullan, 1998 3. Breadth

48 Distributed leadership
sees leadership practice as a product of the interaction of school leaders, followers and their situation. Leadership practice involves multiple individuals within and outside formal leadership positions Leadership practice is not done to followers. Followers are themselves part of leadership practice. It is not the actions of individuals, but the interactions among them that matter most in leadership practice. Spillane, 2005 3. Breadth

49 Raising the temperature of distributed leadership
Too hot Anarchy Assertive distribution Emergent distribution Guided distribution Progressive delegation Traditional delegation Autocracy Too cold 3. Breadth

50 Principle 4: Justice Sustainable leadership does no harm to and actively improves the surrounding environment by finding ways to share knowledge and resources with neighboring schools and the local communities.

51 Sustainability and Social Justice
do not steal your neighbour’s capacity use multiple indicators of accountability emphasize collective accountability coach a less successful partner school make a definable contribution to the community your school is in pair with a school in a different social or natural environment collaborate with your competitors 4. Justice

52 Responsible leadership
Mutual relationships among the domains of ethical responsibility Starratt, 2005 4. Justice

53 Principle 5: Diversity Sustainable leadership promotes cohesive diversity and avoids aligned standardization of policy, curriculum, assessment, and staff development and training in teaching and learning. It fosters and learns from diversity and creates cohesion and networking among its richly varying components.

54 Differences You learn more from people who are different from you, than ones who are the same Hargreaves & Fullan, 1998 5. Diversity

55 Effective organizations are characterized by:
A framework of common and enduring values, goals and purposes Possession and development of variability or diversity in skills, talents and identities Processes that promote interaction and cross-pollination of ideas and influences across this variability Permeability to outside influences Emergence of new ideas, structures, and processes as diverse elements interconnect and new ones intrude from the outside Flexibility and adaptability in response to environmental change Resilience in the face of and in response to threats and adversity 5. Diversity

56 Networked learning communities
Enable and encourage schools to share and transfer the considerable knowledge already in existence that can help children learn better. Individual schools have limited knowledge, but collectively they have almost as much as they need. Stimulate the professional fulfilment and motivation that comes from learning and interacting with colleagues in ways that help teachers be more effective with their own students. Continued… 5. Diversity

57 Networked learning communities
Capitalize on positive diversity across teachers and schools who serve different kinds of students, or who vary in how they respond to them, rather than maintaining the negative diversity of cut-throat competition that prevents mutual learning and assistance, or than denying diversity altogether through imposition of standardized solutions. Provide teachers and others with opportunities for lateral leadership of people, programs and problem-solving beyond one’s own school setting. Continued… 5. Diversity

58 Other advantages they provide opportunities to draw on and develop evidence-informed, research-derived practice they promote innovation and its dissemination across large groups of interested schools they give teachers more of a voice in professional and school-based decision-making Continued… 5. Diversity

59 Other advantages they help personalize every school as a learning community, enabling them to adopt emergent solutions to their own needs, that are diffused and made available throughout the network, instead of being subjected to overly prescribed programmes. they are flexible and resilient in the face of crises or misdirected system initiatives that turn out to be unsuccessful – allowing new learning and fresh solutions to emerge and fill the gap that the false starts and failures have left behind. Jackson, 2006 5. Diversity

60 Network risks Restricted to enthusiasts Shared delusions
Self-indulgent Limited scale Unaccountable Over-regulation Over-participation 5. Diversity

61 Strong networks have… Strong branding, definite products
Clear moral purpose Clarity, focus, discipline Evidence informed substance Accessibility in real and chosen time Hacker ethic Embedded in altered structures Support from lateral leadership PLCs as nodes 5. Diversity

62 Networking and interaction
Paired schools University-school partnerships Internet communities Families of schools Collaborative accountability Professional networks 5. Diversity

63 Short-term strategies
Exam strategies Revision sessions Tutoring Recognition of achievements Pupil-teacher conferences Bananas and water 5. Diversity

64 Medium-term strategies
Teacher mentor programs SAM technology Data-driven assessment for targeted instruction Training days 5. Diversity

65 Long-term strategies Restructuring Student voice
Continuous improvement Teaching and learning 5. Diversity

66 Principle 6: Resourcefulness
Sustainable leadership develops and does not deplete material and human resources. It renews people’s energy. Sustainable leadership is prudent and resourceful leadership that wastes neither its money nor its people.

67 Two theories of energy Energy Entropy Restraint Energy Exchange
Renewal 6. Resourcefulness

68 Four Forms of Energy Renewal
Physical Renewal Emotional Renewal Intellectual Renewal Spiritual Renewal Loehr & Schwartz 6. Resourcefulness

69 Energy restraint No achievement without investment
Shared targets, not imposed ones Slow leading, slow learning Time Political continuity and stability 6. Resourcefulness

70 Three Sources of Renewal
Trust Confidence Positive emotion 6. Resourcefulness

71 Three forms of trust & betrayal
Communication Contract Competence Hargreaves, 2002 6. Resourcefulness

72 Trust involves reliability and predictability
reaching shared understanding assumptions of good faith trusting yourself as well as others trusting processes as well as people 6. Resourcefulness

73 Betrayal involves loss of trust or absence of trust
spectacular breakdowns of trust small, accumulated breaches of trust 6. Resourcefulness

74 Contractual trust meeting obligations completing contracts
Page 76 Contractual trust meeting obligations completing contracts keeping promises 6. Resourcefulness

75 …and Betrayal X not pulling one’s weight X poor work-rate or effort
X teaching the same thing X clockwatching X complaining without commitment X self-servingness 6. Resourcefulness

76 Competence Trust trust own & others’ capability effective delegation
providing professional growth & development 6. Resourcefulness

77 …and Betrayal X constant criticism/dissatisfaction with others
X martyrdom/inability to delegate X abandon people when faults first appear X recruitment and retention problems X micromanagement, scripting, standardization 6. Resourcefulness

78 Communication Trust clear, high-quality, open and
frequent communication sharing information, admitting mistakes telling the truth, keeping confidences 6. Resourcefulness

79 …and Betrayal X malicious / mischievous gossiping
X public shaming / humiliation in front of: colleagues superiors students X miscommunication/misunderstanding X self-servingness 6. Resourcefulness

80 Conclusion Many problems that we treat as being a result of other people’s contract or competence betrayal, are actually a result of their or our communication problems. In other words… Competence failures or contractual failures are often really communication failures. 6. Resourcefulness

81 Principle 7: Conservation
Page 83 Principle 7: Conservation Sustainable leadership respects and builds on the past in its quest to create a better future.

82 Modes of organisational forgetting
Established Knowledge New Knowledge Failure to consolidate DISSIPATION Failure to maintain DEGRADATION Accidental Abandoned innovation SUSPENSION Managed unlearning PURGING Purposeful DeHolan & Phillips, 2004 7. Conservation

83 The Past, Present & Future of Change
Acknowledge the past. Preserve the best. Learn from the rest. Wildness, diversity and disorder have value. The past is not pure. Do not romanticize it. The past has no Golden Age to which we should return. We view the past differently. We must therefore interpret it together. When we dismiss or demean the past, we fuel defensive nostalgia among its bearers. 7. Conservation

84 Creative Recombination for Renewal
From: Firing and rehiring Developing new communications Inventing new values Re-engineering new processes Complete restructuring To: Redeploying the talent companies already have Plugging into & reinventing existing social networks Reviving and renewing existing values Salvaging existing good Processes Reworking and rebuilding existing structures Abrahamson, 2004 7. Conservation

85 Stop, Start, Continue… STOP What is less valuable START
What is more valuable CONTINUE What remains highly valuable SUBVERT What is formally required but threatens what is valuable 7. Conservation

86 Conserving the past through…
Retreats that renew the vision Audits of the organization’s memories of analogous change Asset inventories of existing experience and knowledge Organizational abandonment meetings Appointments made mid-term to cultivate learning of the culture Storytelling to pass on wisdom Mentoring that runs in both directions Good written records Creation of blended professional cultures Creative recombination, not repetitive change 7. Conservation

87 Thank you

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