Presentation on theme: "Physical Geography Australia New Zealand Oceania."— Presentation transcript:
Physical Geography Australia New Zealand Oceania
Where is Australia located?Australia Australia & Oceania are a group of islands located between Asia, Antarctica, & the Americas. –Australia is the world’s largest island & smallest continent. (about the size of the continental USA) –Over 25,000 islands make up the islands of Oceania.
Distance from other land areas has created very unique plants and animals that are found nowhere else on earth –Koalas, kangaroos, kiwis, platypus, wombat, dingo, etc.
LAND Australia: –Lies between the Pacific & Indian Oceans in the southern hemisphere –“The Outback” Vast desert areas in central Australia Semi-arid or dry lands... Hot and dry....desert Surrounded by dry scrub, grasslands and rainforests –Mild climate along the SW and SE coasts... Limited fertile soil
LAND Key landforms: –Deserts Great Victoria desert –Southern Australia –Receives 8-10 inches of rain per year Great Sandy desert –Mountains Great Dividing Range –Continental Divide Uluru (Ayers Rock) – sandstone rock –Monolith – single, large rock with a small portion sticking out of the ground »Stone Mountain is a monolith made out of granite. –Changes colors in the sunlight due to the iron content in the rock –1,142 feet tall, 6 miles around the base –Close to the geographical center of Australia –It is a sacred location for the Aborigines
Great Victoria Desert Great Sandy Desert
Great Dividing Range
WATER Rivers –Darling and Murray Rivers –Located in SE Australia Most people in Australia live along the SE coast –Fertile soil –Fresh water –Mild climate
–Australia has many good harbors for shipping and trade –What cities might these harbors be located in?
Great Barrier Reef –Largest coral reef in the world –Located off the NE coast of Australia –Over 1200 miles long... Located in the Coral Sea World’s largest collection of coral – over 400 types 1500 species of fish, 4000 types of mollusks (snails, clams, octopi, squid) Temperature never falls below 68 degrees on the reef
Summarizing Activity 1.Where do most Australians live? 2.What is the largest coral reef system in the world? 3.What body of water lies along the NE coastline of Australia? 4.What landmark is a sacred site of the local Aborigines? 5.What region covers the central area of Australia?
New Zealand’s Land –Located about 1200 miles SE of Australia –Made up of 2 main islands North Island and South Island Most of the land is used for pasture – sheep –Wide variety of landforms: Mountains - Southern Alps; tallest is Mt. Cook at 12,349 ft. Also rainforests, hills, valleys
Pacific Islands Pacific Islands - LAND –25,000 islands divided into 3 regions: Melanesia –N and E of Australia - most populated –Includes Papua New Guinea, Fiji, Solomon Islands Micronesia –Over 2000 islands mostly N of the equator –Includes Guam, Marshall Islands, Mariana Islands Polynesia –Largest island region in Pacific –Includes Hawaii, Tahiti, Cook Islands and Samoa
2 types of islands: –High islands Formed by volcanoes & usually have mountains Soil very fertile because of ash Mostly covered in tropical vegetation – including rainforests –Low islands Made up of reefs or atolls –Atoll - small coral islands in shape of a ring with a lagoon in center –More people live on high islands. Better soil, more fresh water and they are larger
Location, Climate & Natural Resources Location –Flattest continent in the world –Desert covers 2/3 of the land –Most fertile land is along the coasts Climate –Located below the equator... Seasons are opposite of Northern Hemisphere Summer is from December to March Winter is from June to August –Northern Areas Tropical Climate...warm to hot all year round, tropical rainforest Gets more rain than the other regions –Coastal Areas Plenty of rain year round Mild temperatures... SE and SW sections of the country... Temperate
–Interior Areas (central Australia) Stays dry year round... Hot and dry Less than 10 inches of rain per year
Natural Resources –Mining Uranium, natural gas, zinc Leading producer of diamonds and lead –Largest natural resource... Coal Major export of Australia –Wool Huge ranches in the Outback... 50,000 acres + World’s leading producer of wool
Where people choose to live... –Coastal towns have access to large industries and international businesses 80% of Australians live in cities (urban areas) 70% of cities have at least 100,000 people –Sydney has 3.5 million,...Melbourne has 3 million people –Small groups of indigenous Australians live in the Outback. Countryside is referred to as the “Bush”.. The “Outback” is the dry interior of the continent Small settlements grew in the Outback due to mining settlements
Australia’s Trade Determined by location, climate and natural resources –Location = trading partners Major trading partners = China, Japan, South Korea, India –Major supplier of natural resources to China –50% of Australian iron ore goes to China Imports most items from China and the USA –Largest imports are computers, machinery, petroleum and crude oil Tourism is also a major industry in Australia –25% of economy depends on tourism = $81 billion per year –Because Australia is an island, is trade easier or more difficult than for other countries?
–Climate & Natural Resources = what products are traded Coal – energy consumption Iron Ore – steel for buildings, cars and industrial machinery Gold – jewelry Natural resources account for 1/3 of the country’s economy
Summarizing Activity 1.What natural resource is used to provide energy for Australia? 2.Who are Australia’s major trading partners? 3.What is iron ore used to make? 4.Where does Australia import the majority of their items from?
Cultural Characteristics Language –English language... Transitioned to have its own unique accent and vocabulary Religion –70% claim to be Christians Almost 50% belong to either the Catholic or Anglican faiths Colonists and missionaries brought their Anglican faith with them to Australia
Ethnic Groups –Population: 21 million –Very diverse culture 90% are of European descent 2% are Aborigine 8% are Asian –British established a penal colony in Australia in Last continent discovered by the Europeans Currently largest portion of the population –Aborigines are the indigenous population 750,000 lived in Australia at the time of British arrival Forced towards the middle of the island... Today 1% of population are Aborigines
Australian culture is heavily influenced by the Aborigines –Art = sculptures, paintings, carvings Use art to tell about the Dreaming and their history –Dot painting »painting method in which pictures are made from dots instead of lines –Totems »Pictures of spirits that protect a family or tribe »Some dot paintings are totems. –Rock Art »Ancient method of documentation –Music = didgeridoo natural wooden trumpet