Presentation on theme: "History of Australia. Aborigines Migrated from Southeast Asia to Australia 30,000-40,000 years ago during the last Ice Age –Lower sea levels exposed land."— Presentation transcript:
History of Australia
Aborigines Migrated from Southeast Asia to Australia 30,000-40,000 years ago during the last Ice Age –Lower sea levels exposed land between Australia and Asia Aborigine – means “from the beginning” Hunter-gatherers (nomadic) –Lived in small groups mostly along the coast where there were more plants and animals –Learned to adapt to what that region provided. Men hunted for food – used the spear and boomerang Women gathered nuts and berries
Specific groups developed along the coastlines and in the interior regions of Australia. –No specific leader in groups; all people were equal groups 200 languages or dialects –Shared a common culture... Even though they had distinct cultural traits. Groups traded extensively with each other. –Diversified the goods available –Helped keep the cultures similar –Kept different groups connected to each other
Religion: –Based on Dreamtime, which to Aborigines is when life began on Earth. –Spirits shaped the land and made plants/animals and people. –Eventually the spirits disappeared but still exist and may appear in many forms. –Aborigines believe earth is a link to the spiritual world and that the land is sacred They believe they have been entrusted as caretakers of the land.
Sacred Sites –Ayers Rock (Uluru) –Thousands of sites have been identified where rocks have been painted or engraved with human and animal shapes. Some have existed for thousands of years. Aborigines believe that these paintings were created in Dreamtime. Culture –No written language –Relied on song and word of mouth (stories) to pass information from one generation to the next(stories) Story of the Emu and the Jabiru –Because of Australia’s remote location, the Aborigines were untouched by outside influence until the arrival of Europeans in the 18 th century.
The Europeans Arrive Europeans first saw Australia from ships in the 1600s but never claimed - Dutch 1770 –British Captain James Cook explored the region and claimed it for Great Britain Offered Australia as a strategic location for the Royal Navy in the Far East and easy access to Eastern trade for merchants. 1700s –British prisons were very overcrowded so government decided to send many prisoners to Australia to settle the land Penal Colony... Most important use of the colony Used as a system for easing overcrowding of English jails.
–Prior to this, American colonies (Virginia, Maryland and Georgia) were used as criminal colonies. American Revolution changed their plan. First prisoners arrived in 1788, and built first settlement at Port Jackson (Sydney)... –Eventually established the colony of New South Wales –20% of the first convicts were women –British believed the best form of punishment was manual labor. Specialized jobs as carpenters, farmers, nurses and masons.
By 1839, 160,000 convicts had been sent to Australia –Most of the people living in Australia were either prisoners or people guarding them. –Penal colonies were established all over Australia. –In 1852, the British stopped sending prisoners to Australia. Prisoners eventually earned their freedoms and became respected citizens.
1851 –Gold discovered in southern Australia, leading to a rush of settlers –Free Settlers Also arrived in Australia to take advantage of cheap labor (convicts) and land... and the gold rush. As the population grew, new colonies were formed and settlements were established... Free settlers were the first to explore Australia. –Hobart, Brisbane, Melbourne, Perth and Adelaide Free Settlers learned to befriend the Aborigines in order to survive in the harsh climate –93,000 people arrived this year alone –Many people were building trading posts, businesses and farms
Impact of Colonization on Aborigines Initially, the Europeans were friendly with the Aborigines. –Many Aborigines thought the whites were the spirits of the dead. As more Europeans arrived, contact grew between the Europeans and the Aborigines –Many Aborigines died, mostly from exposure to diseases. Smallpox, Influenza, Tuberculosis – killed over 50% of Aborigines –Conflict started to increase when the Aborigines were forced off their land. Settlers also needed land in the interior for cattle and sheep ranches.
Aborigines pushed off the coast and into the interior region of the continent –Europeans wanted this portion of land. Without clear leadership, the Aborigines were unable to form a defense against the Europeans. Aborigines attempt to fight back against the European settlers, but British had guns and outnumbered the Aborigines. –Aborigines had little impact against the British guns. –Smaller population of Aborigines weakened by disease made European conquest easier.
Only the Aborigines that lived deep in the desert were left alone by the Europeans. Eventually, they lost their lands and were relocated to reservations in the Outback region Many were discriminated against and had few rights. –Most had to assimilate (become similar to things around you) and accept modern ways. Moved to big cities to live, work (low-paying jobs) and go to school
Australian Independence January 1, 1901: Australia became an independent nation –Melbourne was the capital until Canberra was completed in 1927 New government policies tried to end Aboriginal culture –Laws were put into place that tried to limit where Aborigines could live and work. –Took Aboriginal children away from their families. Aborigines begin to regain rights in the 1960s –Granted Australian citizenship in 1967 –1980s and 90s – Many Australians began to recognize their harsh treatment of the Aborigines. –2008 – formal apology was issued by the Prime Minister to the Aborigines for their mistreatment.