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1 Search Problems (read Chapters 3 and 4 of Russell and Norvig) Many (perhaps most) AI problems can be considered search problems. This can be modeled.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Search Problems (read Chapters 3 and 4 of Russell and Norvig) Many (perhaps most) AI problems can be considered search problems. This can be modeled."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Search Problems (read Chapters 3 and 4 of Russell and Norvig) Many (perhaps most) AI problems can be considered search problems. This can be modeled on geographical search. Start with a list of actions that can be taken at various geographical points on the map and their consequences, formulated as conditionals of the form ((precondition & action) -> result) (proclaim '(special *planning-conditionals*)) (defun pcond (precondition action) (list '-> (list '& precondition (concatenate 'string "go to " action)) action))

2 2 Search Problems (defun precond (condit) (second (second condit))) (defun action (condit) (third (second condit))) (defun result (condit) (third condit))

3 3 Road Map of Romania Oradea Zerind Arad Timisoara Dobreta Mehadia Lugoj Sibiu Fagaras Rimnicu Vilcea Pitesti Cralova Giurgiu Bucharest Urziceni Etorie Hirsova Vasiui Iasi Neamt

4 4 Find Bucharest (setf *planning-conditionals* (list (pcond "Oradea" "Zerind") (pcond "Oradea" "Sibiu") (pcond "Arad" "Sibiu") (pcond "Sibiu" ”Fagaras") (pcond "Arad" "Timisoara") (pcond "Timisoara" "Lugoj") (pcond "Lugoj" "Mehadia") (pcond "Mehadia" "Craiova") (pcond "Craiova" "Rimnicu Vilcea") (pcond "Rimnicu Vilcea" "Sibiu") (pcond "Rimnicu Vilcea" "Pitesti") (pcond "Pitesti" "Bucharest") (pcond ”Fagaras" "Bucharest")... ))

5 5 Find Bucharest Given a starting point, a route to Bucharest will consist of a list of actions which, if performed in order, will end with our being in Bucharest. Routes can be characterized recursively: If there is a conditional ((town1 & action) -> town2) in *planning-conditionals* then (list action) is a route from town1 to town2. If there is a conditional ((town1 & action) -> town) in *planning-conditionals* and route is a route from town to town2, then (cons action route) is a route from town1 to town2.

6 6 Find Bucharest If we allow loops, there are infinitely many routes, so let us preclude loops. Non-circular routes that do not reuse actions in a list used-actions of actions can be characterized recursively: If there is a conditional ((town1 & action) -> town2) in *planning-conditionals* and action is not a member of used-actions, then (list action) is a non-circular route from town1 to town2. If there is a conditional ((town1 & action) -> town) in *planning-conditionals* and route is a non-circular route from town to town2 that does not reuse any members of (cons action used-actions), then (cons action route) is a non-circular route from town1 to town2. A non-circular route from town1 to town2 is a non-circular route that does not reuse “go to town1”. A B C D EF

7 7 Find Bucharest To avoid circularity, we must keep track of the actions already tried and not try them again. We also want to avoid going back through the starting point. (defun find-routes-from (town1 town2 &optional used-actions) (when (null used-actions) (setf used-actions (list (concatenate 'string "go to " town1)))) (let ((routes nil)) (dolist (condit *planning-conditionals*) (when (and (equal (precond condit) town1) (not (mem (action condit) used-actions))) (cond ((equal (result condit) town2) (push (list (action condit)) routes)) (t (let ((subroutes (find-routes-from (result condit) town2 (cons (action condit) used-actions)))) (dolist (subroute subroutes) (push (cons (action condit) subroute) routes))))))) routes))

8 8 Find Bucharest (find-routes-from "Lugoj" "Bucharest") (("go to Timisoara" "go to Arad" "go to Sibiu" "go to Fagaras" "go to Bucharest") ("go to Timisoara" "go to Arad" "go to Sibiu" "go to Rimnicu Vilcea" "go to Craiova" "go to Pitesti" "go to Bucharest") ("go to Timisoara" "go to Arad" "go to Sibiu" "go to Rimnicu Vilcea" "go to Pitesti" "go to Bucharest") ("go to Timisoara" "go to Arad" "go to Zerind" "go to Oradea" "go to Sibiu" "go to Fagaras" "go to Bucharest") ("go to Timisoara" "go to Arad" "go to Zerind" "go to Oradea" "go to Sibiu" "go to Rimnicu Vilcea" "go to Craiova" "go to Pitesti" "go to Bucharest") ("go to Timisoara" "go to Arad" "go to Zerind" "go to Oradea" "go to Sibiu" "go to Rimnicu Vilcea" "go to Pitesti" "go to Bucharest") ("go to Mehadia" "go to Dobreta" "go to Craiova" "go to Rimnicu Vilcea" "go to Pitesti" "go to Bucharest") ("go to Mehadia" "go to Dobreta" "go to Craiova" "go to Rimnicu Vilcea" "go to Sibiu" "go to Fagaras" "go to Bucharest") ("go to Mehadia" "go to Dobreta" "go to Craiova" "go to Pitesti" "go to Rimnicu Vilcea" "go to Sibiu" "go to Fagaras" "go to Bucharest") ("go to Mehadia" "go to Dobreta" "go to Craiova" "go to Pitesti" "go to Bucharest")) We can also write the code to display the search as it goes along. (defun indent (n) (dotimes (x n) (princ ".")))

9 9 (defun find-routes-from (town1 town2 &optional used-actions (indent 0)) (when (null used-actions) (setf used-actions (list (concatenate 'string "go to " town1)))) (when (zerop indent) (terpri)) (let ((routes nil)) (dolist (condit *planning-conditionals*) (when (and(equal (precond condit) town1) (not (mem (action condit) used-actions))) (cond ((equal (result condit) town2) (push (list (action condit)) routes) (indent indent) (princ "Completing route with: ") (princ (action condit)) (terpri)) (t (indent indent) (princ "Trying: ") (princ (action condit)) (terpri) (let ((subroutes (find-routes-from (result condit) town2 (cons (action condit) used-actions) (1+ indent)))) (dolist (subroute subroutes) (push (cons (action condit) subroute) routes))))))) routes))

10 10 (find-routes-from "Lugoj" "Bucharest") Trying: go to Mehadia.Trying: go to Dobreta..Trying: go to Craiova...Trying: go to Rimnicu Vilcea....Trying: go to Sibiu.....Trying: go to Fagaras......Completing route with: go to Bucharest.....Trying: go to Oradea......Trying: go to Zerind Trying: go to Arad Trying: go to Timisoara.....Trying: go to Arad......Trying: go to Zerind Trying: go to Oradea......Trying: go to Timisoara....Trying: go to Pitesti.....Completing route with: go to Bucharest...Trying: go to Pitesti....Completing route with: go to Bucharest....Trying: go to Rimnicu Vilcea.....Trying: go to Sibiu......Trying: go to Fagaras Completing route with: go to Bucharest......Trying: go to Oradea Trying: go to Zerind Trying: go to Arad Trying: go to Timisoara......Trying: go to Arad Trying: go to Zerind Trying: go to Oradea Trying: go to Timisoara

11 11 Find Bucharest Sometimes we just want to find a single route (defun find-route-from (town1 town2 &optional used-actions) (when (null used-actions) (setf used-actions (list (concatenate 'string "go to " town1)))) (dolist (condit *planning-conditionals*) (when (and (equal (precond condit) town1) (not (mem (action condit) used-actions))) (cond ((equal (result condit) town2) (return-from find-route-from (list (action condit)))) (t (let ((subroute (find-route-from (result condit) town2 (cons (action condit) used-actions)))) (when subroute (return-from find-route-from (cons (action condit) subroute)))))))))

12 12 Reporting search (defun find-route-from (town1 town2 &optional used-actions (indent 0)) (when (null used-actions) (setf used-actions (list (concatenate 'string "go to " town1)))) (when (zerop indent) (terpri)) (dolist (condit *planning-conditionals*) (when (and (equal (precond condit) town1) (not (mem (action condit) used-actions))) (cond ((equal (result condit) town2) (return-from find-route-from (list (action condit)))) (t (indent indent) (princ "Trying: ") (princ (action condit)) (terpri) (let ((subroute (find-route-from (result condit) town2 (cons (action condit) used-actions) (1+ indent)))) (when subroute (return-from find-route-from (cons (action condit) subroute)))))))))

13 13 Going from Urziceni to Timisoara Oradea Zerind Arad Timisoara Dobreta Mehadia Lugoj Sibiu Fagaras Rimnicu Vilcea Pitesti Cralova Giurgiu Bucharest Urziceni Etorie Hirsova Vasiui Iasi Neamt

14 14 Oradea Zerind Arad Timisoara Dobreta Mehadia Lugoj Sibiu Fagaras Rimnicu Vilcea Pitesti Cralova Giurgiu Bucharest Urziceni Etorie Hirsova Vasiui Iasi Neamt Going from Urziceni to Timisoara breadth-first search

15 15 Oradea Zerind Arad Timisoara Dobreta Mehadia Lugoj Sibiu Fagaras Rimnicu Vilcea Pitesti Cralova Giurgiu Bucharest Urziceni Etorie Hirsova Vasiui Iasi Neamt Going from Urziceni to Timisoara breadth-first search

16 16 Oradea Zerind Arad Timisoara Dobreta Mehadia Lugoj Sibiu Fagaras Rimnicu Vilcea Pitesti Cralova Giurgiu Bucharest Urziceni Etorie Hirsova Vasiui Iasi Neamt Going from Urziceni to Timisoara breadth-first search

17 17 Oradea Zerind Arad Timisoara Dobreta Mehadia Lugoj Sibiu Fagaras Rimnicu Vilcea Pitesti Cralova Giurgiu Bucharest Urziceni Etorie Hirsova Vasiui Iasi Neamt Going from Urziceni to Timisoara breadth-first search

18 18 Oradea Zerind Arad Timisoara Dobreta Mehadia Lugoj Sibiu Fagaras Rimnicu Vilcea Pitesti Cralova Giurgiu Bucharest Urziceni Etorie Hirsova Vasiui Iasi Neamt Going from Urziceni to Timisoara breadth-first search

19 19 Oradea Zerind Arad Timisoara Dobreta Mehadia Lugoj Sibiu Fagaras Rimnicu Vilcea Pitesti Cralova Giurgiu Bucharest Urziceni Etorie Hirsova Vasiui Iasi Neamt Going from Urziceni to Timisoara breadth-first search

20 20 Oradea Zerind Arad Timisoara Dobreta Mehadia Lugoj Sibiu Fagaras Rimnicu Vilcea Pitesti Cralova Giurgiu Bucharest Urziceni Etorie Hirsova Vasiui Iasi Neamt Going from Urziceni to Timisoara breadth-first search

21 21 Oradea Zerind Arad Timisoara Dobreta Mehadia Lugoj Sibiu Fagaras Rimnicu Vilcea Pitesti Cralova Giurgiu Bucharest Urziceni Etorie Hirsova Vasiui Iasi Neamt Going from Urziceni to Timisoara breadth-first search

22 22 Oradea Zerind Arad Timisoara Dobreta Mehadia Lugoj Sibiu Fagaras Rimnicu Vilcea Pitesti Cralova Giurgiu Bucharest Urziceni Etorie Hirsova Vasiui Iasi Neamt Going from Urziceni to Timisoara breadth-first search

23 23 Oradea Zerind Arad Timisoara Dobreta Mehadia Lugoj Sibiu Fagaras Rimnicu Vilcea Pitesti Cralova Giurgiu Bucharest Urziceni Etorie Hirsova Vasiui Iasi Neamt Going from Urziceni to Timisoara breadth-first search

24 24 Oradea Zerind Arad Timisoara Dobreta Mehadia Lugoj Sibiu Fagaras Rimnicu Vilcea Pitesti Cralova Giurgiu Bucharest Urziceni Etorie Hirsova Vasiui Iasi Neamt Going from Urziceni to Timisoara breadth-first search

25 25 Oradea Zerind Arad Timisoara Dobreta Mehadia Lugoj Sibiu Fagaras Rimnicu Vilcea Pitesti Cralova Giurgiu Bucharest Urziceni Etorie Hirsova Vasiui Iasi Neamt Going from Urziceni to Timisoara breadth-first search

26 26 Oradea Zerind Arad Timisoara Dobreta Mehadia Lugoj Sibiu Fagaras Rimnicu Vilcea Pitesti Cralova Giurgiu Bucharest Urziceni Etorie Hirsova Vasiui Iasi Neamt Going from Urziceni to Timisoara breadth-first search

27 27 Oradea Zerind Arad Timisoara Dobreta Mehadia Lugoj Sibiu Fagaras Rimnicu Vilcea Pitesti Cralova Giurgiu Bucharest Urziceni Etorie Hirsova Vasiui Iasi Neamt Going from Urziceni to Timisoara breadth-first search

28 28 Oradea Zerind Arad Timisoara Dobreta Mehadia Lugoj Sibiu Fagaras Rimnicu Vilcea Pitesti Cralova Giurgiu Bucharest Urziceni Etorie Hirsova Vasiui Iasi Neamt Going from Urziceni to Timisoara breadth-first search

29 29 Oradea Zerind Arad Timisoara Dobreta Mehadia Lugoj Sibiu Fagaras Rimnicu Vilcea Pitesti Cralova Giurgiu Bucharest Urziceni Etorie Hirsova Vasiui Iasi Neamt Going from Urziceni to Timisoara breadth-first search

30 30 Oradea Zerind Arad Timisoara Dobreta Mehadia Lugoj Sibiu Fagaras Rimnicu Vilcea Pitesti Cralova Giurgiu Bucharest Urziceni Etorie Hirsova Vasiui Iasi Neamt Going from Urziceni to Timisoara breadth-first search

31 31 Oradea Zerind Arad Timisoara Dobreta Mehadia Lugoj Sibiu Fagaras Rimnicu Vilcea Pitesti Cralova Giurgiu Bucharest Urziceni Etorie Hirsova Vasiui Iasi Neamt Going from Urziceni to Timisoara breadth-first search

32 32 Oradea Zerind Arad Timisoara Dobreta Mehadia Lugoj Sibiu Fagaras Rimnicu Vilcea Pitesti Cralova Giurgiu Bucharest Urziceni Etorie Hirsova Vasiui Iasi Neamt Going from Urziceni to Timisoara depth-first search search

33 33 Oradea Zerind Arad Timisoara Dobreta Mehadia Lugoj Sibiu Fagaras Rimnicu Vilcea Pitesti Cralova Giurgiu Bucharest Urziceni Etorie Hirsova Vasiui Iasi Neamt Going from Urziceni to Timisoara depth-first search search

34 34 Oradea Zerind Arad Timisoara Dobreta Mehadia Lugoj Sibiu Fagaras Rimnicu Vilcea Pitesti Cralova Giurgiu Bucharest Urziceni Etorie Hirsova Vasiui Iasi Neamt Going from Urziceni to Timisoara depth-first search search

35 35 Oradea Zerind Arad Timisoara Dobreta Mehadia Lugoj Sibiu Fagaras Rimnicu Vilcea Pitesti Cralova Giurgiu Bucharest Urziceni Etorie Hirsova Vasiui Iasi Neamt Going from Urziceni to Timisoara depth-first search search

36 36 Oradea Zerind Arad Timisoara Dobreta Mehadia Lugoj Sibiu Fagaras Rimnicu Vilcea Pitesti Cralova Giurgiu Bucharest Urziceni Etorie Hirsova Vasiui Iasi Neamt Going from Urziceni to Timisoara depth-first search search

37 37 Oradea Zerind Arad Timisoara Dobreta Mehadia Lugoj Sibiu Fagaras Rimnicu Vilcea Pitesti Cralova Giurgiu Bucharest Urziceni Etorie Hirsova Vasiui Iasi Neamt Going from Urziceni to Timisoara depth-first search search

38 38 Oradea Zerind Arad Timisoara Dobreta Mehadia Lugoj Sibiu Fagaras Rimnicu Vilcea Pitesti Cralova Giurgiu Bucharest Urziceni Etorie Hirsova Vasiui Iasi Neamt Going from Urziceni to Timisoara depth-first search search

39 39 Oradea Zerind Arad Timisoara Dobreta Mehadia Lugoj Sibiu Fagaras Rimnicu Vilcea Pitesti Cralova Giurgiu Bucharest Urziceni Etorie Hirsova Vasiui Iasi Neamt Going from Urziceni to Timisoara depth-first search search

40 40 Oradea Zerind Arad Timisoara Dobreta Mehadia Lugoj Sibiu Fagaras Rimnicu Vilcea Pitesti Cralova Giurgiu Bucharest Urziceni Etorie Hirsova Vasiui Iasi Neamt Going from Urziceni to Timisoara depth-first search search

41 41 Oradea Zerind Arad Timisoara Dobreta Mehadia Lugoj Sibiu Fagaras Rimnicu Vilcea Pitesti Cralova Giurgiu Bucharest Urziceni Etorie Hirsova Vasiui Iasi Neamt Going from Urziceni to Timisoara depth-first search search

42 42 Oradea Zerind Arad Timisoara Dobreta Mehadia Lugoj Sibiu Fagaras Rimnicu Vilcea Pitesti Cralova Giurgiu Bucharest Urziceni Etorie Hirsova Vasiui Iasi Neamt Going from Urziceni to Timisoara depth-first search search

43 43 Oradea Zerind Arad Timisoara Dobreta Mehadia Lugoj Sibiu Fagaras Rimnicu Vilcea Pitesti Cralova Giurgiu Bucharest Urziceni Etorie Hirsova Vasiui Iasi Neamt Going from Urziceni to Timisoara depth-first search search

44 44 Oradea Zerind Arad Timisoara Dobreta Mehadia Lugoj Sibiu Fagaras Rimnicu Vilcea Pitesti Cralova Giurgiu Bucharest Urziceni Etorie Hirsova Vasiui Iasi Neamt Going from Urziceni to Timisoara depth-first search search

45 45 General Search For breadth-first search, we must store all the "partial routes" of length n, then systematically extend each one by adding a single additional step in as many ways as possible, and then repeat this indefinitely until we find a route from town1 to town2. A mechanism for doing this is to maintain a queue of partial routes. The members of the queue will be called "nodes. They are lists of actions, and it is convenient to make the first member of each list the town the route ends at. A search strategy is an algorithm for selecting which node on the queue to try extending next. Generally, the most efficient way of implementing search strategies is to use them to order the queue, and then always select the first member of the queue for expansion. So we will take a strategy to be a function which, when applied to a new node and an existing queue returns a new queue which results from inserting the node into the old queue in the appropriate place.

46 46 General Search Search for route from town1 to town2 Initialize queue to (list (list town1)) Initialize towns-tried to (list town1) Enter loop –If the queue is empty, return from loop. –Let node be the first element on the queue. Remove it from the queue. Let town0 be the first member (the "destination") of node. –for each planning conditional ((town0 & go-to-town) -> town) where town is not a member of towns-tried, let new-route be the result of adding go-to-town to the route in node and: If town = town2, return new-route. Otherwise, add town to towns-tried, and add (cons town new-route) to the queue, ordering the queue according to the search strategy.

47 47 General Search (defun SEARCH-FOR-ROUTE (town1 town2 strategy) (terpri) (princ town1) (terpri) (let ((queue (list (list town1))) (towns-tried (list town1))) (loop (when (null queue) (princ "No route found") (terpri) (return)) (let ((node (first queue))) (setf queue (cdr queue)) (indent (length (cdr node))) (princ "Trying: ") (princ (car node)) (terpri) (dolist (condit *planning-conditionals*) (let ((town (result condit))) (when (and (not (mem town towns-tried)) (equal (precond condit) (car node))) (cond ((equal town town2) (return-from search-for-route (reverse (cons (action condit) (cdr node))))) (t (push town towns-tried) (setf queue (funcall strategy (cons town (cons (action condit) (cdr node))) queue)))))))))))

48 48 General Search ; ; for depth-first search (defun depth-first (node queue) (cons node queue)) ;; for breadth-first search (defun breadth-first (node queue) (reverse (cons node (reverse queue))))

49 49 Depth-first Breadth-first Urziceni Trying: Urziceni.Trying: Hirsova.Trying: Vaslui.Trying: Bucharest..Trying: Eforie..Trying: Iasi..Trying: Giurgiu..Trying: Pitesti..Trying: Fagaras...Trying: Neamt...Trying: Craiova...Trying: Rimnicu Vilcea...Trying: Sibiu....Trying: Dobreta....Trying: Oradea....Trying: Arad ("go to Bucharest" "go to Fagaras" "go to Sibiu" "go to Arad" "go to Timisoara") Urziceni Trying: Urziceni.Trying: Bucharest..Trying: Fagaras...Trying: Sibiu....Trying: Rimnicu Vilcea.....Trying: Craiova......Trying: Dobreta Trying: Mehadia Trying: Lugoj ("go to Bucharest" "go to Fagaras" "go to Sibiu" "go to Rimnicu Vilcea" "go to Craiova" "go to Dobreta" "go to Mehadia" "go to Lugoj" "go to Timisoara")

50 50 General Search Using Structures (defstruct (town-node (:print-function print-town-node) (:conc-name nil)) (town-name nil) (route-to nil) (evaluation 0) (parent-node nil)) (defun print-town-node (node stream depth) (declare (ignore depth)) (princ (town-name node) stream)) defstruct automatically introduces a new function make-town-node, which is used as follows: (make-town-node :town-name name :route-to route :evaluation evaluation :parent-node node)

51 51 Defining structures also defines functions for accessing the slots. If town is a town-node, (town-name town) returns the resident of the town-name slot. If we had not set (:conc-name nil), we would have to access this using (town-node-town-name nil). We can use setf to set the values of the slots: (setf (town-name town) “Bucharest”). We cannot do that using setq.

52 52 General Search Using Structures (defun SEARCH-FOR-ROUTE (town1 town2 strategy &optional display?) (when display? (terpri) (princ town1) (terpri)) (let ((queue (list (make-town-node :town-name town1))) (towns-tried (list town1))) (loop (when (null queue) (princ "No route found") (terpri) (return)) (let ((node (first queue))) (setf queue (cdr queue)) (when display? (indent (length (route-to node))) (princ "Trying: ") (princ (town-name node)) (terpri)) (dolist (condit *planning-conditionals*) (let ((town (result condit))) (when (and (not (mem town towns-tried)) (equal (precond condit) (town-name node))) (cond ((equal (result condit) town2) (return-from search-for-route (reverse (cons (action condit) (route-to node))))) (t (push town towns-tried) (setf queue (funcall strategy (make-town-node :town-name town :route-to (cons (action condit) (route-to node)) :parent-node node) queue)))))))))))

53 53 General Search Using Structures ;; heuristic search orders the nodes on the queue in terms of their evaluations: (defun heuristic-search (node queue) (compute-evaluation node) (ordered-insert node queue #'(lambda (x y) (< (evaluation x) (evaluation y))))) (defun ordered-insert (x queue R) "queue is a list ordered by R, and x is a new member to be inserted into the right position in the ordering. This returns the new ordered list." (let ((head nil) (tail queue)) (loop (when (null tail) (return (reverse (cons x head)))) (let ((y (first tail))) (cond ((funcall R y x) (push y head) (setf tail (cdr tail))) (t (push x tail) (dolist (z head) (push z tail)) (return tail))))))) ;; for breadth-first search: (defun compute-evaluation (node) (setf (evaluation node) (length (route-to node))))

54 54 Optimal Search Search for route from town1 to town2 Initialize queue to (list (make-town-node :town-name town1)) Initialize towns-tried to (list town1) Enter loop –If the queue is empty, return from loop. –Let node be the first element on the queue. Remove it from the queue. Let town0 be the town-name of node. –If town0 = town2, return the route-to the node. –for each planning conditional ((town0 & go-to-town) -> town) where town is not a member of towns-tried, let new-route be the result of adding go-to-town to (route-to node) and add town to towns-tried, and add (make-town-node :town-name town :route-to (cons (action condit) (route-to node)) :parent-node node) to the queue, ordering by the quality of the route. If evaluations increase monotonically as you add nodes to routes, this will find an optimal route.

55 55 Optimal Search (defun SEARCH-FOR-OPTIMAL-ROUTE (town1 town2 strategy &optional display?) (when display? (terpri) (princ town1) (terpri)) (let ((queue (list (make-town-node :town-name town1))) (towns-tried (list town1))) (loop (when (null queue) (princ "No route found") (terpri) (return)) (let ((node (first queue))) (when (equal (town-name node) town2) (return (reverse (route-to node)))) (setf queue (cdr queue)) (when display? (indent (length (route-to node))) (princ "Trying: ") (princ (town-name node)) (terpri)) (dolist (condit *planning-conditionals*) (let ((town (result condit))) (when (and (not (mem town towns-tried)) (equal (precond condit) (town-name node))) ;; no conditional here (push town towns-tried) (setf queue (funcall strategy ;; generally heuristic-search (make-town-node :town-name town :route-to (cons (action condit) (route-to node)) :parent-node node) queue)))))))))

56 56 Optimal Search (proclaim '(special *distances*)) (setf *distances* (list '("Oradea" "Zerind" 71) '("Arad" "Zerind" 75) '("Oradea" "Sibiu" 151)...)) (defun distance (town1 town2) (third (find-if #'(lambda (x) (or (and (equal (first x) town1) (equal (second x) town2)) (and (equal (first x) town2) (equal (second x) town1)))) *distances*)))

57 57 Optimal Search (defun compute-evaluation (node) (setf (evaluation node) (+ (distance (town-name node) (town-name (parent-node node))) (evaluation (parent-node node))))) (search-for-optimal-route "Urziceni" "Timisoara" #'heuristic-search) ("go to Bucharest" "go to Pitesti" "go to Rimnicu Vilcea" "go to Sibiu" "go to Arad" "go to Timisoara") (search-for-route "Urziceni" "Timisoara" #'breadth-first) ("go to Bucharest" "go to Fagaras" "go to Sibiu" "go to Arad" "go to Timisoara") (search-for-route "Urziceni" "Timisoara" #'depth-first) ("go to Bucharest" "go to Fagaras" "go to Sibiu" "go to Rimnicu Vilcea" "go to Craiova" "go to Dobreta" "go to Mehadia" "go to Lugoj" "go to Timisoara")


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