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REPUBLICAN LEADERSHIP OF THE 1920S How did the relationship between big business & the government aid economic growth? TENSION BETWEEN CITY & COUNTRY SHAPED.

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Presentation on theme: "REPUBLICAN LEADERSHIP OF THE 1920S How did the relationship between big business & the government aid economic growth? TENSION BETWEEN CITY & COUNTRY SHAPED."— Presentation transcript:

1 REPUBLICAN LEADERSHIP OF THE 1920S How did the relationship between big business & the government aid economic growth? TENSION BETWEEN CITY & COUNTRY SHAPED COURSE OF POLITICS IN THE 1920S WARREN G. HARDING RETURN TO STABILITY & NORMALCY POWERFUL CABINET BECAUSE HE WASNT – DELEGATED ALL RESPONSIBILITY & ENDED UP HURTING HIS REPUTATION STATE – CHARLES EVANS HUGHES TREASURY – ANDREW MELLON COMMERCE – HERBERT HOOVER

2 THE OHIO GANG ATTORNEY GENERAL: H. DAUGHERTY INTERIOR: ALBERT FALL VETERANS BUREAU: CHARLES FORBES (WWI DRAFT DODGER)

3 DOMESTIC AFFAIRS – MELLON AT THE HELM ECONOMIC NATIONALISM FORDNEY-McCUMBER TARIFF 22; protectionist established the highest tariffs in history, with some duties up to 400% and an average of 40%. DEBT REDUCTION; tax cuts, decrease govt spending but rich benefit not those struggling 19TH AMENDMENT SHEPPARD TOWNER ACT 21: RURAL PRENATAL CARE (EXP. 29) 4 WAYS GOVERNMENT SUPPORTED BIG BUSINESS: 1) TARIFF 2) A. MELLON POLICIES 3) CUTBACKS AT FTC & PRO- BUSINESS APPOINTMENTS 4) HERBERT HOOVER

4 EFFECTS OF TARIFF RETURN TO PROTECTIONISM FARMERS HURT: SHARE OF NATIONAL INCOME DROPS BY 50% DOESNT ADDRESS PROBLEM OF OVER-PRODUCTION & DECLINING PRICES – NEED A NEW SOLUTION PREVENTS EURO. FROM PAYING OFF DEBT

5 FOREIGN AFFAIRS – INDEPENDENT INTERNATIONALISM involved in foreign affairs when it served our interest WASHINGTON NAVAL CONFERENCE 1921 a. US, GB, FR, ITALY & JAPAN b. 5 POWER TREATY – SPECIFIC RATIO OF BATTLESHIPS – 1 ST ATTEMPT AT NAVAL REDUCTION c. 4 POWER TREATY–US & JAPAN respect each others interests in islands in the Pacific d. 9 POWER TREATY– Chinas independence & Open Door

6 DEATH & SCANDALS I HAVE NO TROUBLE WITH MY ENEMIES, ITS MY DAMN FRIENDS THAT KEEP ME UP AT NIGHT *JULY 1923 VACATION OUT WEST & DIES OF HEART ATTACK. *1924 INVESTIGATIONS INTO RUMORS IN FULL SWING *TEAPOT DOME – LEASING OIL RESERVES FOR BRIBE: A. FALL JAILED * FORBES CONVICTED OF STEALING FUNDS & FLED TO EUROPE *DAUGHERTY ESCAPED CONVICTION IN 2 CRIMINAL TRIALS

7 COOLIDGE TAKES OFFICE AT HOME IN VERMONT BY HIS FATHERS SIDE PHILOSOHY WAS TO PRESIDE BENIGNLY NOT GOVERN THE NATION RAISED ETHICAL TONE IN D.C. EPITOMIZED MYTH OF AMERICAN SELF MADE MAN THE BUSINESS OF AMERICA IS BUSINESS – 1 OF MANY EPIGRAMS HE LIVED BY MORE CONSERVATIVE: SC UNDER TAFT OVERTURNS FED CHILD LABOR LAW, HIGHER TARIFFS, PROMOTED BUSINESS INTERESTS BUT NOT OTHER GROUPS

8 DOMESTIC AFFAIRS MELLON STAYS ON AS TREASURY SECRETARY, LOWERS TAX RATES FOR RICH, TRICKLE DOWN CONTINUES BIG BUSINESS & GOVERNMENT AS PARTNERS & LESS ADVERSARIAL REGULATORY BODIES, ICC & FTC, TURN INTO PRO-BUSINESS AGENCIES ECONOMY CONTINUED TO RISE SO COOLIDGE DIDNT HAVE TO DO MUCH

9 MISSISSIPPI FLOOD 1927 NO DUTY TO PROTECT AGAINST THE HAZARDS OF NATURE C. COOLIDGE

10 NO FARMER RELIEF MCNARY HAUGEN ACT 1924: 2X VETOED 27 & 28 » Purchase surplus at avg. price & resell abroad at market price (prices highest during 09-14) » Make up difference w/ tax on domestic sales of same commodities » Beware tyranny of bureaucratic regulation & control » Veto in 1928 leads many to vote Democratic next election

11 FOREIGN AFFAIRS: WAR DEBT & REPARATIONS LACK OF AWARENESS OF CONNECTION BETWEEN TARIFF & REPARATIONS DAWES PLAN 1924: $200M LOAN TO GER. YOUNG PLAN 1929: FURTHER REDUCTIONS BUT TOO LATE LOANS FROM U.S. TO GERMANY CEASE, ALLIED PAYMENTS STOP, GERMANY DEFAULTS DUE TO ECONOMIC CRISIS

12 KELLOGG-BRIAND PACT 1928: 62 NATIONS OUTLAW WAR FRENCH WANT US PROTECTION & COMMITTMENT 62 NATIONS SIGN PACT INEFFECTIVE DUE TO LACK OF ENFORCEMENT RENOUNCE WAR AS A SOLUTION TO INTERNATIONAL DISPUTES WAS NICE BUT…. U.S. PEACE MOVEMENT GROWING. PEOPLE WANTED PEACE BUT, NEITHER SURRENDER THEIR PREJUDICES & DISLIKES NOR BUILD THE DEFENSES NECESSARY TO MAKE IT SAFE TO INDULGE THESE PASSIONS

13 ELECTION OF 1928 HOOVER – DRY, PROTESTANT & NATIVE SMITH – WET, CATHOLIC & IMMIGRANT PERSONIFICATION OF DIVISIONS WITHIN AMERICA HOOVER 58% OF POPULAR VOTE DEMOCRATIC GAINS IN CITIES SHOWS SHIFT IN ELECTORATE


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