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Effective Instruction, Differentiated Instruction,

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1 Effective Instruction, Differentiated Instruction,
Module 2: Effective Instruction, Differentiated Instruction, Behavior Management and PBIS Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education

2 Agenda Overview Day 1 Day 2 Questions from Module 1 Training
Effective Instruction Differentiated Instruction Understanding by Design Day 2 Behavior Management Positive Behavior Intervention and Supports (PBIS) Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education October 2008 2 MDE 2

3 Questions from Module 1 October 2008 3
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education 3 MDE 3

4 Essential Elements Matrix: Tier 1
5. Instructional delivery supported by scientifically based research Classroom observation demonstrates high quality classroom instruction Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education 4

5 Tier 1: Effective Instruction
Research-based effective teaching principles include: active engagement of students, high success rates, increased content coverage, direct instruction, scaffolded instruction, instruction that addresses the critical forms of knowledge, instruction in the organizing, storing, & retrieving of information, strategic instruction, explicit instruction, and instruction that teaches across subjects. October 2008 Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education 5

6 Effective Instruction: High Student Engagement
Students’ exposure time should be significant, worthwhile, and the appropriate level of instruction. Active engagement with instructional tasks leads to higher student learning and should be incorporated into the classroom. October 2008 Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education 6 MDE 6

7 Effective Instruction: High Student Engagement
Increased academic engagement occurs through: effective lesson delivery and design, culturally and instructionally relevant selection of interesting materials, increasing opportunities for appropriate responses from the students, and student reinforcement for classroom participation. October 2008 Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education 7 MDE 7

8 Effective Instruction: Successful Academic Experiences
Providing successful experiences for students is assessed by how well students relate positively with their learning experiences in the classroom. For example, changing the materials to a more instructionally appropriate level for a struggling student may create outcomes that are more successful. October 2008 Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education 8 MDE 8

9 Skill Development Adaptation Extension Advanced Generalization
Expansion Permanent Maintenance Permanence Fluency Proficiency Basic Accuracy Acquisition Entry Level Entry Level 9 Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education 9

10 Effective Instruction: Successful Academic Experiences
Instructionally appropriate level is defined as: At least 70-80% of the material presented is at a fluency level or proficiency level This is extremely important when conducting independent seatwork. October 2008 Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education 10 MDE 10

11 Effective Instruction: High Teacher Expectations
Academic teacher orientation and emphasis should be on learning academics through spending the majority of classroom time on curriculum based learning activities. This leads to high teacher expectations of students where the teacher must expect and project those expectations, that all children can master each stage of the curriculum. October 2008 Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education 11 MDE 11

12 The teacher should actively seek to do the following:
Effective Instruction: Equal Access for All Students and Effective Questioning The teacher should actively seek to do the following: engage all learners consider all aspects of classroom interaction and instruction provide equal access for all students Effective questioning that gives a general measure of the students’ understanding of new and old concepts while encouraging the students to think critically and deeper should also be utilized. October 2008 Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education 12 MDE 12

13 Effective Instruction: Teacher Assistance and Curriculum Alignment
Teachers should provide assistance in making sense of the content by communicating clear explanations throughout the lesson. Teachers should state learning goals as well as review knowledge needed to master the skills or learn the new concept. Teachers should teach the skills explicitly. October 2008 Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education 13 MDE 13

14 Effective Instruction: Teacher Assistance and Curriculum Alignment
Methods to teach explicitly include: stating goals, structuring the entire lesson in a format that is obvious to the student, and presenting information clearly. October 2008 Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education 14 MDE 14

15 Essential Elements Matrix: Tier 1
6. Differentiated instruction Classroom observation demonstrates differentiated instruction Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education 15

16 Differentiated Instruction
Differentiated instruction is a teaching theory based on the premise that instructional approaches should vary and be adapted in relation to individual and diverse students in classrooms (Tomlinson, 2001). October 2008 Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education 16 MDE 16

17 Tier 1: Differentiated Instruction
Planning and providing alterations to - curriculum - instruction - assessment Recognizing the following - varying background knowledge - readiness - language - preferences in interests Differentiated instruction is a process to approach teaching and learning for students of differing abilities in the same class. The intent of differentiating is to maximize each student’s growth and individual success to assist in the learning process. October 2008 17

18 Differentiated Instruction
Differentiated Instruction IS: 1. Having a vision of success for all students. 2. Providing a variety of assignments within units of instruction, realizing that students do not all learn in the same way. 3. Allowing students to choose, with teacher direction, the route to their learning. October 2008 Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education 18 MDE 18

19 Differentiated Instruction
Differentiated Instruction IS: 4. Providing opportunities for students to demonstrate proficiency in an area they already know and allowing them to move forward. 5. Offering tiered lessons, of varying degrees of difficulty, dealing with similar content. October 2008 Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education 19 MDE 19

20 Differentiated Instruction
Differentiated Instruction is NOT: 1. Individualization (a different lesson for each student each day). 2. Giving all students the same work or even identical assessments all of the time. 3. Assuming that all students learn by listening. October 2008 Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education 20 MDE 20

21 Differentiated Instruction
Differentiated Instruction is NOT: 4. Merely having centers in the classroom. 5. Assigning more work to students who have demonstrated mastery in an area. 6. Only for students who demonstrate a need for acceleration. October 2008 Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education 21 MDE 21

22 Obstacles I long to return to the Good Old Days
I thought I was differentiating I teach the way I was taught I don’t know how I have too much content to cover I’m good at lecturing I can’t see how I would grade all those different assignments Kathie F. Nunley, Differentiating in the High School, Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, 2006. Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education 22

23 Obstacles I thought differentiation was for elementary school
I subscribe to ability grouping I have real logistic issues I want my classroom under control I don’t know how to measure my student’s learning styles I have neither the time nor the funding to differentiate Kathie F. Nunley, Differentiating in the High School, Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, 2006. 23

24 Obstacles I’ve been teaching this way for years and it works
There’s no support at my school My district requires me to follow a prescribed text Parents expect lecture format in high school for college prep Kathie F. Nunley, Differentiating in the High School, Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, 2006. Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education 24

25 Differentiated Instruction
The model of differentiated instruction requires teachers to be flexible in their approach to: teaching adjusting the curriculum presenting information to learners Rather than expecting students to make modifications. October 2008 Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education 25 MDE 25

26 Differentiated Instruction
October 2008 Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education 26 MDE 26

27 Differentiated Instruction
Tomlinson (2001) identifies three elements of the curriculum that can be differentiated: Content, Process, and Products. Octoer 2008 Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education 27 MDE 27

28 Differentiated Instruction: Content
Several elements and materials are used to support instructional content: acts, concepts, generalizations or principles, attitudes, and skills. The variation is most frequently seen by how students gain access to important learning. October 2008 Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education 28 MDE 28

29 Differentiated Instruction: Content
Alignment of tasks with instructional goals and objectives as essential. Goals are most frequently assessed by many state-level, high-stakes tests and frequently administered standardized measures. Objectives are frequently written in incremental steps resulting in a continuum of skills-building tasks. An objectives-driven menu makes it easier to find the next instructional step for learners entering at varying levels. October 2008 Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education 29 MDE 29

30 Differentiated Instruction: Content
Instruction is concept-focused and principle-driven. The instructional concepts should be broad-based, not focused on minute details or unlimited facts. Teachers must focus on the concepts, principles and skills that students should learn. The content of instruction should address the same concepts with all students, but the degree of complexity should be adjusted to suit diverse learners. October 2008 Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education 30 MDE 30

31 Differentiated Instruction: Process
Flexible grouping is consistently used. Strategies for flexible grouping are essential. Learners are expected to interact and work together as they develop knowledge of new content. Teachers may conduct whole-class introductory discussions of big ideas followed by small group or paired work. Student groups may be coached from within or by the teacher to complete assigned tasks. Grouping of students is not fixed. Grouping and regrouping must be a dynamic process, changing with the content, project, and on-going evaluations. October 2008 Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education 31 MDE 31

32 Differentiated Instruction: Process
Classroom management benefits students and teachers. To effectively operate a classroom using differentiated instruction, teachers must carefully select organizational and instructional delivery strategies. Carol Tomlinson (2001), identifies 17 key strategies for teachers to successfully meet the challenge of designing and managing differentiated instruction. October 2008 Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education 32 MDE 32

33 Differentiated Instruction: Product
Initial and on-going assessment of student readiness and growth are essential. Meaningful pre-assessment naturally leads to functional and successful differentiation. Incorporating pre-assessments and on-going assessments informs teachers to provide a menu of approaches, choices, and scaffolds for the varying needs, interests and abilities that exist in classrooms of diverse students. Assessments may be formal or informal, including interviews, surveys, performance assessments, and more formal evaluation procedures. October 2008 Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education 33 MDE 33

34 Differentiated Instruction: Product
Students are active and responsible explorers. Teachers respect that each task put before the learner will be interesting, engaging, and accessible to essential understanding and skills. Each child should feel challenged most of the time. October 2008 Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education 34 MDE 34

35 Differentiated Instruction: Product
Teachers should vary expectations and requirements for student responses. Items to which students respond may be differentiated so that different students can demonstrate or express their knowledge and understanding in different ways. A well-designed student product allows varied means of expression and alternative procedures and offers varying degrees of difficulty, types of evaluation, and scoring. October 2008 Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education 35 MDE 35

36 Strategy for Differentiation Primarily Used to Differentiate
Example Tiered Assignments Readiness Give assignments for various ability levels Tiered Products Readiness, Interest Assessing projects for various ability levels Drill-focused Cooperative Tasks Low-End Readiness Use flash cards to instruct and obtain mastery Thought/Production Focused Cooperative Tasks Interest Allow higher level students to decipher through a difficult dilemma Alternative Assessments Allow student to write a poem rather than take a test on the poem’s components Graduated Rubrics Develop a plan with a student to reach a particular academic goal by a specified time Choice Boards Give the student a choice between 3 activities Learning Centers Have students do math drills at one center, graph at another, and work on an assignment at another Anchoring Allow students to read, write in journals, manage a portfolio and practice while others are still working on their assignment 36

37 Differentiation by Readiness
Video On Scaffolding Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education 37

38 Scaffolding: Key Characteristics
ZPD - 80% Mastery Level: The gap between what a learner has already mastered (actual level of development) and what a child can achieve (potential development) with the guidance of an experienced and capable teacher or more capable peer. Scaffolding: The key characteristics for effective teaching (supports needed for a student to succeed in work slightly beyond his/her comfort zone) include: Provide clear directions. Clarify purpose for instruction by asking essential questions. Keep students on task. Provide clear expectations for quality. Point students to worthy sources for help and information. Reduce uncertainty, surprise and disappointment to maximize learning efficiency. Deliver efficiency by requiring hard work, not wasted work. Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education 38

39 Tiering Assignments Designed to provide different levels of complexity, abstractness, and open-endedness. The curricular content and objective(s) are the same, but the process and/or product are varied according to the student’s level of readiness. Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education 39

40 Tiering Instruction Change the nature of the task, not the workload
Change the sophistication of the prompt and/or the student’s response to it Keep all students “above water” by adjusting challenge levels so all students can make sense of their learning Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education 40

41 Tiering Formats Learning Contracts Learning Menus Cubing
Summarization Pyramid Changing the Verb Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education 41

42 Learning Contracts An agreement between the student and the teacher (may or may not be written, but written often works better) Teacher specifies the necessary skills Student identifies the methods for completing the task (there may or may not be debate on establishing and there may or may not be amendments) Allow students to: Work at an appropriate pace Target their learning style Work independently Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education 42

43 Learning Contracts This is an excellent way for students to understand what is EXPECTED of them. Students enter into independent study with an agreed-upon set of tasks supporting adjusted goals. Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education 43

44 Choice Boards Organizers that contain a variety of activities
Students choose activities to complete as they learn a skill or develop a product These may contain small groups, pairs, or individual assignments Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education 44

45 Flexible Grouping Students work as part of many different groups depending on the task and/or content. Groups assigned: Readiness Assigned by teacher Randomly Chosen by students Allows students to work with a wide variety of peers and keeps them from being labeled. Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education 45

46 Learning Menus Students are given choices of tasks in a unit or for an assessment. They must do one “entrée task”, may select from two “side dish” tasks, and may choose to do one of the “dessert” tasks for extra enrichment. Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education 46

47 Cubing Students receive foam or poster board cubes with a different task written on each face; each task has a different complexity level than the others. Given a topic, students: Describe it, Compare it, Associate it, Analyze it, Apply it, Argue for or against it. Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education 47

48 Summarization Pyramid
SOME GREAT PROMPTS Synonym Analogy Question Three attributes Alternative title Causes Effects Reasons Arguments Ingredients Opinion Formula/sequence Insight Larger category Tools Sample People Future of the topic Create a pyramid of horizontal lines, then ask students at different readiness levels to respond to tiered prompts as they interact with the topic. Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education 48

49 Changing the Verb CONSIDER USING: Analyze Revise Decide between Why did Defend Devise Identify Classify Define Compose Interpret Expand Imagine Suppose Construct Recommend Predict Argue for (or against) Contrast Critique Raise or lower the challenge level by changing the verb in the prompt: Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education 49

50 Some Tips All students need coherent lessons that are relevant, powerful, and meaningful. Good curriculum pushes students a bit beyond what is easy or comfortable. Encourage students to “work up” and complete tasks that stretch them. Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education 50

51 Using Anchor(ing) Activities
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education 51

52 RAPID ROBIN The “Dreaded Early Finisher”
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education 52

53 “I’m Not Finished” Freddie
“It takes him an hour-and-a-half to watch 60 Minutes.” Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education 53

54 One premise in a differentiated classroom:
“ In this class we are never finished--- Learning is a process that never ends.” Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education 54

55 Anchor Activities Anchor activities are ongoing assignments that students can work on independently throughout a unit of study or longer. Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education 55

56 Some Anchor Activities
“Brain Busters” Learning Packets Activity Box Learning/Interest Centers Vocabulary Work Investigations Magazine Articles with Generic Questions or Activities Listening Stations Research Questions or Projects Commercial Kits and Materials Journals or Learning Logs Silent Reading (Content Related?) Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education 56

57 The Purpose of an Anchor Activity is to:
Provide meaningful work for students when they finish an assignment or project, when they first enter the class or when they are “stumped”. Provide ongoing tasks that tie to the content and instruction. Free up the classroom teacher to work with other groups of students or individuals. 57

58 Using Anchor Activities to Create Groups
1 Teach the whole class to work independently and quietly on the anchor activity. 2 Flip-Flop Half the class works on anchor activity. Other half works on a different activity. 3 1/3 works with teacher---direct instruction. 1/3 works on anchor activity. 1/3 works on a different activity. Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education 58

59 ANCHOR ACTIVITIES Can be: used in any subject whole class assignments
small group or individual assignments tiered to meet the needs of different readiness levels interdisciplinary for use across content areas or teams Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education 59

60 ANCHOR ACTIVITIES Work best:
when expectations are clear and the tasks are taught and practiced prior to use. when students are held accountable for on-task behavior and/or task completion. Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education 60

61 Planning for Anchor Activities
Subject/Content Area: Name and description of anchor activity: How will activity be introduced to students? How will the activity be managed and monitored? - Points - Percentage of Final Grade - Rubric - Portfolio Check - Checklist - Teacher/Student Conference - Random Checks - Peer Review - On-Task Behaviors - Other _______________ Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education 61

62 Differentiated Instructional Strategies
Anchor Activities: are on-going assignments tied to the curriculum and for which students are accountable that can be worked on independently throughout a grading period or longer. Allowing for multiple right answers: are open-ended assignments that focus on the process of solving the problem and/or critical thinking. Adjusting questions: In class discussions, tests, and homework, teachers adjust the sorts of questions posed to learners based on their readiness, interests, and learning profiles. Agendas: These are personalized lists of tasks that a student must complete in a specified time, usually two to three weeks. Student agendas throughout a class will have similar and dissimilar elements. The agendas can be personalized (e.g., include IEP tasks, more challenging work) for individual students, if needed. Students work individually (or in small groups) to complete the agenda tasks. Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education 62

63 Differentiation by Interest
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education 63

64 Interest Centers Interest centers are set up so that learning experiences are directed toward a specific learner interest. Allowing students to choose a topic can be motivating to them. The teacher may identify a variety of topics or areas for students or groups to select. Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education 64

65 Interest Groups Sidebar Studies Interest Centers Specialty Teams
Real-Life Applications of Ideas and Skills New Forms of Expression Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education 65

66 Strategies That Support Interest-Based Studies
Studying concepts and principles through the lens of interest Student choice of tasks Independent Study I-Searches Orbitals Mentorships Group Investigations Interest Groups Jigsaw Literature Circles WebQuests Student-selected audiences Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education 66

67 Differentiated Instruction: Additional Guidelines
Clarify key concepts and generalizations. Ensure that all learners gain powerful understandings that can serve as the foundation for future learning. Teachers are encouraged to identify essential concepts and instructional foci to ensure that all learners comprehend. Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education 67

68 Differentiated Instruction: Additional Guidelines
Use assessment as a teaching tool to extend rather than merely measure instruction. Assessment should occur before, during, and following the instructional episode, and it should be used to help pose questions regarding student needs and optimal learning. Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education 68

69 Differentiated Instruction: Additional Guidelines
Emphasize critical and creative thinking as a goal in lesson design. The tasks, activities, and procedures should require students to understand and apply meaning. Instruction may require supports, additional motivation, varied tasks, materials, or equipment for different students in the classroom. Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education 69

70 Differentiated Instruction: Additional Guidelines
Engaging all learners is essential. Teachers are encouraged to strive for the development of lessons that are engaging and motivating for a diverse class of students. Teachers should vary tasks within instruction as well as across students. In other words, an entire session for students should not consist of all drill and practice, or any single structure or activity. 70

71 Differentiated Instruction: Additional Guidelines
Provide a balance between teacher-assigned and student-selected tasks. A balanced working structure is optimal in a differentiated classroom. Based on pre-assessment information, the balance will vary from class-to-class as well as lesson-to-lesson. Teachers should ensure that students have choices in their learning. Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education 71

72 Differentiation in Action
Video August 2008 Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education 72 MDE 72

73 Examples of Differentiation
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education 73

74 For First Grade Reading
Create a flexible reading program. Post a weekly reading schedule and allow students to find their names on it. Allow students to move to appointed areas of the room at times designated on the chart. Sometimes the whole class will listen to a story and talk about it or read it. Sometimes a small group meets with the teacher to work on decoding, comprehension strategies, or to share ideas. Sometimes students will meet with peers to read on a topic of mutual interest, regardless of their reading readiness (different level books on same topic). Students read alone (from books in discovery boxes based on various topics or from boxes designated by colors to match levels of reading readiness). Students may meet with a reading partner to take turns reading or, at the direction of the teacher, to “choral read” so stronger readers can provide leadership for a peer who doesn’t read as well. From Tomlinson Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education 74

75 Third Grade Reading Design a variety of centers based on student learning profiles Assign students to centers based on formal or informal assessments At centers related to people the students are studying, students can choose to work alone, in pairs, or within a small group Some possible centers include: Students select a person they’ve studied and make an annotated time line of the person’s early life, noting events that shaped the person. The student chooses whether to write a paper, draw a storyboard, or act out the events. Students select a biography and a fictional work each has read. Then they write about real-life events they and some of their friends have had. Students then look in all three works for common themes about growing up and decide to present their work as a matrix or through conversations between or among the subject of the biography, the fictional work, and a 3rd grader. From Tomlinson 75

76 Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
Seventh Grade Science As part of an exploration of life science, students chose a living creature and develop questions of interest to them individually. Students figure out how to find answers to their questions. Each student determines ways to share their findings with their peers. (Questions can vary in complexity.) Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education 76

77 Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
High School Algebra II Students can pre-test and “compact out” of a unit at any time during the first three days of instruction Students who opt out do an independent investigation of math in the real world, given guidelines by the teacher, who works with them to tighten or focus plans, as needed Students who did not “compact out” receive whole group instruction, and then—based on understanding—divide into cooperative groups for practice, or meet in a small group with the teacher for further instruction When the class has finished the chapter, everyone participates in two days of mandatory review and the entire class takes the test. From Tomlinson Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education 77

78 Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
High School U.S. History Students read biographies of their choice from a suggested reading list. Each student chooses to do one of the following: Write a two-page summary of the person’s life. Note transforming dates in the subject’s life and make a timeline. Choose three events that most impacted the subject’s life and make a poster explaining each. Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education 78

79 Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
High School U.S. History Students read names from a posted list and go to pre-assigned groups, which include: Students meet in small groups and “tell the story” in first person of the subject of each biography Students make a chart listing similarities and differences in their characters’ personalities, lives, and accomplishments Students brainstorm qualities of “greatness” and create a matrix they will use to rank all of their subjects Students choose one or a few topics making news in their lifetimes and conduct a time-travel/round-table discussion in character as their subjects. Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education

80 Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
High School U.S. History Students complete an assignment from the following product list: A PowerPoint presentation A scripted presentation to the class An argumentative or comparative essay. Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education

81 Activities Differentiated Instruction Activities Scenario October 2008
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education 81 MDE 81

82 How to Differentiate Instruction in Mixed Ability Classrooms
A Good Resource How to Differentiate Instruction in Mixed Ability Classrooms By: Carol Ann Tomlinson University of Virginia Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education 82

83 Websites Notetaking:http://www.englishcompanion.com/Tools/notemaking.html 83

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91 http://www. k8accesscenter
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92 Essential Elements Matrix: Tier 1
All of the following show evidence that the school is implementing curricula and instructional materials aligned to the state’s standards: district’s instructional management plan; teacher lesson plans; and teacher interviews. Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education 92

93 Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education
Improving the alignment of classroom instruction to state standards can dramatically improve the quality and equity of education. - Robert Marzano (2000) October 2008 93 Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education MDE 93

94 Alignment is the core of standards-based education.
- Standards and Tests: Keeping Them Aligned. (Spring 2003). Research Points. American Educational Research Association October 2008 Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education 94 MDE 94

95 Alignment? Curriculum Frameworks? YES
Performance Level Descriptors? YES Focus on Outcomes! October 2008 Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education 95 MDE 95

96 Why focus on outcomes? Teachers must know the target.
If teachers are unclear about the outcome they are targeting, then . . . instruction will not be clear. determining where students are will be difficult. students will not be clear as to what they are working towards (and consequently students will be working towards a different outcome). October 2008 Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education 96 MDE 96

97 Why focus on outcomes? If teachers know the desired result, then they have freedom. Teachers are free to use a variety of means to help students reach the desired result. Students will be free to take different paths to the desired learning. Teachers are free to differentiate the learning process. October 2008 Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education 97 MDE 97

98 Take Note Teachers are not differentiating the desired outcome.
This does not mean every student will reach the desired outcome, but that is the goal. October 2008 Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education 98 MDE 98

99 How will teachers know if the desired outcome has been reached?
Assessment aligned to the desired outcome Formative assessment Summative assessment Assessment that is explicitly designed to promote learning is the single most powerful tool for raising standards and empowering life long learning. – Assessment Reform Group (1999) October 2008 Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education 99 MDE 99

100 A Strong Assessment (Monitoring) System
State Assessments District Assessments (2-3 times a year) Aligned with the Curriculum School Assessments (end of units, every few weeks) Local Decisions Classroom/Daily Monitoring (teacher observation, a single question) An assessment should never be about the results alone, but an opportunity to evaluate, learn, and improve. October 2007 Copyright © 2007 Mississippi Department of Education MDE 100

101 Assessment Again, teachers have to know the desired outcome.
Teachers have to think about what performance will indicate that a student has achieved the desired outcome or one of the steps to the desired outcome. The curriculum frameworks and performance level descriptors help teachers clearly understand the desired outcome. October 2008 Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education 101 MDE 101

102 Take Note Planning for the assessment helps.
The process is not strictly sequential. That is, teachers may start with the desired outcome, but as they work on the assessment, their understanding of the outcome may become clearer. This may lead to restating the desired outcome which may in turn change the assessment. October 2008 Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education 102 MDE 102

103 Instruction It is only at this point—after defining the outcome and the assessment—that teachers should plan instruction. This sequence is the essence of backward design or Understanding by Design (UbD). October 2008 Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education 103 MDE 103

104 UbD Stage 1 – Desired Results / Outcomes State standards
Understandings Essential Questions Knowledge and Skills Stage 2 – Evidence / Assessment Tasks Other Evidence Stage 3 – Learning Plan / Instruction Lessons and Events Calendar Should not be differentiated May be differentiated Should be differentiated Note: This depiction is based on Integrating Differentiated Instruction and Understanding by Design by Tomlinson and McTighe (2006), p. 36. October 2008 Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education 104 MDE 104

105 Aligning Instruction The curriculum now clearly puts more emphasis on conceptual understanding (beyond the basic facts and simple procedures), and so must instruction. October 2008 Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education 105 MDE 105

106 UbD Examine in groups the lesson plan using UbD. October 2008 106
Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education 106 MDE 106

107 Questions October 2008 Copyright © 2008 Mississippi Department of Education 107 MDE 107


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