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Published byBianca Exley Modified over 3 years ago

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**Chapter 6-2. Carrier injection under forward bias**

Last class, we established the excess minority carrier concentration profile under biased conditions. The excess minority carrier concentration at the edge of the depletion layer will increase under forward biased condition. The excess minority carrier concentration decreases exponentially with distance from the depletion layer edge.

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**Carrier injection under forward bias**

At equilibrium, # of holes diffusing to n-side equals # of holes drifting from n-side. When we apply external forward voltage, VA, holes diffusing (injection) to n-side from p-side increases exponentially. This increases the hole concentration at the edge of the depletion layer on n-side. Similarly,

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**Minority carrier concentration profile under bias**

+ VA np(0) pn(0) np= np0 + np(x'') pn = pn0 + pn(x') pn0 np0 x'' x'

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**Carrier injection under forward bias (continued)**

Change of axes to x' and x'' (see graph) x' axis x'' axis

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**General current and minority carrier diffusion equations**

Simplified equations

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**Current equations applied to a diode**

x'' x' Find Jn and Jp at the edge of the depletion layer and add them to get the total current. Assumption: No generation or recombination inside the depletion layer

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**Current equations applied to a diode**

Therefore,

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**Diode current equations**

Similarly, Current due to electrons will be along positive x' direction. And total current equals, Shockley equation

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**Forward and reverse bias characteristics**

Large forward bias (VA >> kT/q): Large reverse bias (VA << – kT/q): J

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Example 1 Figure 6.3 is a dimensioned plot of the steady state carrier concentration inside a pn junction diode maintained at room temperature. Is the diode forward or reverse biased? Explain Do low-level injection conditions prevail in the quasi-neutral region of the diode? Explain Determine the applied voltage, VA Determine the hole diffusion length, Lp

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