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Acids, Bases and pH scale

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Presentation on theme: "Acids, Bases and pH scale"— Presentation transcript:

1 Acids, Bases and pH scale

2 ACIDS Compound that releases Hydrogen ions (H+)

3 Examples of Common Acids
Hydrochloric acid – HCl Hydrosulfuric acid – H2SO4 Nitric acid – H2NO3 What do these formulas have in common?

4 Acetic Acid - Vinegar HC2H3O2

5 Lactic Acid Found in foods like yogurt and cottage cheese and sourdough bread Causes muscle soreness

6 Citric Acid Found abundantly in citrus fruits
(lemons, oranges, grapefruit) Used to add a sour taste to foods Flavoring in soft drinks

7 Formic Acid In the venom of ants and bees HCO2H

8 Amino Acids “Building blocks” of protein molecules

9 Bases Bases are compounds that release Hydroxide ions (OH -) in water.
Also called alkalines.

10 Examples of Common Bases
Sodium hydroxide – NaOH Calcium hydroxide – CaOH Magnesium hydroxide – Mg(OH)2 Most soaps and detergents are basic

11 All compounds are either Acids, Bases, or Neither
Chemical Formula Acid Base Neither HF H2SO4 CaOH Mg(OH)2 C6H12O6 HCl NaCl Al(OH)2

12 pH The measurement of the amount of H+ (hydrogen ions) in solution

13 pH Scale - Range is __


15 Determining a compound’s property from its pH value
pH Acid Base Neutral Determining a compound’s property from its pH value 1.3 11.47 7.001 0.1 6.999 3.89 13.0 0.0

16 Most living things must live in an environment of
pH 6.5 – 7.5 HOWEVER, there are some exceptions: Acidophiles – bacteria that live in highly acidic environments. They have evolved a variety of specialized mechanisms to maintain their intracellular pH at a constant level (usually 7.2). Example: L. acidophilus breaks down food in the intestine

17 Specialized cells in stomach lining make HCl “stomach acid” of pH 1
Parietal Cells

18 Azalea plants thrive in acidic soil of pH 4.5

19 Soil pH Alkaline soil makes hydrangeas pink

20 Acidic soil makes hydrangeas blue

21 Buffers Help prevent any large changes in pH
Buffers are molecules that can bind to an H+ ion when the H+ concentration increases - “locks” it up so the solution doesn’t get more acidic Releases an H+ ion when the H+ concentration decreases

22 Blood pH and Buffers Normal pH of blood between 7.35 - 7.45
Less than 6.8 or greater than 7.8 is deadly Buffers in blood help prevent any large change in blood pH

23 Lysergic acid diethylamide

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