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Acids, Bases and pH scale. ACIDS Compound that releases Hydrogen ions (H+)

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Presentation on theme: "Acids, Bases and pH scale. ACIDS Compound that releases Hydrogen ions (H+)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Acids, Bases and pH scale

2 ACIDS Compound that releases Hydrogen ions (H+)

3 Examples of Common Acids Hydrochloric acid – HCl Hydrosulfuric acid – H 2 SO 4 Nitric acid – H 2 NO 3 What do these formulas have in common?

4 Acetic Acid - Vinegar HC 2 H 3 O 2

5 Lactic Acid Found in foods like yogurt and cottage cheese and sourdough bread Causes muscle soreness

6 Citric Acid Found abundantly in citrus fruits (lemons, oranges, grapefruit) Used to add a sour taste to foods Flavoring in soft drinks

7 Formic Acid In the venom of ants and bees HCO 2 H

8 Amino Acids “Building blocks” of protein molecules

9 Bases Bases are compounds that release Hydroxide ions (OH -) in water. Also called alkalines.

10 Examples of Common Bases Sodium hydroxide – NaOH Calcium hydroxide – CaOH Magnesium hydroxide – Mg(OH) 2 Most soaps and detergents are basic

11 All compounds are either Acids, Bases, or Neither HF H 2 SO 4 CaOH Mg(OH) 2 C 6 H 12 O 6 HCl NaCl Al(OH) 2 Chemical Formula Acid Base Neither

12 pH The measurement of the amount of H+ (hydrogen ions) in solution

13 pH Scale - Range is __

14

15 pH Acid Base Neutral Determining a compound ’ s property from its pH value

16 Most living things must live in an environment of pH 6.5 – 7.5 HOWEVER, there are some exceptions: Acidophiles – bacteria that live in highly acidic environments. They have evolved a variety of specialized mechanisms to maintain their intracellular pH at a constant level (usually 7.2). Example: L. acidophilus breaks down food in the intestine

17 Specialized cells in stomach lining make HCl “stomach acid” of pH 1 Parietal Cells

18 Azalea plants thrive in acidic soil of pH 4.5

19 Soil pH Alkaline soil makes hydrangeas pink

20 Acidic soil makes hydrangeas blue

21 Buffers Help prevent any large changes in pH Buffers are molecules that can bind to an H+ ion when the H+ concentration increases - “locks” it up so the solution doesn’t get more acidic Releases an H+ ion when the H+ concentration decreases

22 Blood pH and Buffers Normal pH of blood between Less than 6.8 or greater than 7.8 is deadly Buffers in blood help prevent any large change in blood pH

23 Lysergic acid diethylamide


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