Presentation on theme: "Know the Facts: _____ You can't get an STD from oral sex."— Presentation transcript:
1 Know the Facts: _____ You can't get an STD from oral sex. _____You can only get herpes when your partner is having an outbreak that you can see._____If you have an STD, believe me, you'll see it and know it._____Only slutty girls and cheating guys get STDs._____If you have sex in a pool or hot tub, the chlorine will kill anything and everything._____If you don't have a condom, use plastic wrap.
2 Know the Facts cont’d…7. _____I don't need to use a condom. My partner doesn't have an STD. I can tell.8. _____Skin to skin contact isn't enough. You can only get an STD from semen.9. _____The Pill prevents STDs.10. _____Chlamydia and gonorrhea are no big deal and will go away on their own.11. _____ 2 condoms are better than 1.
3 How’d ya do? Get in groups of 2-3 people Review your answers by reading through the answer packetMark the answers you got wrongBe prepared to share…
4 Sexually Transmitted Diseases Chapter FourteenPgsMs. Wheeler and Mr. Rath
5 The Major Sexually Transmitted Diseases pg. 402 Also known as sexually transmitted infectionsThe Major STDs (STIs)HIV/AIDSChlamydiaGonorrheaHuman papillomavirusGenital warts (HPV)Genital herpesHepatitis BSyphilis
6 Annual New Cases of STDs in the United States pg. 402 6
7 HIV Infection and AIDS pgs. 402-408 About 1.1 million Americans are believed to currently be living with HIV, and about 56,000 new infections were reported in 2006HIV infection is a chronic, progressive disease that damages the immune systemAIDS, Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, is a generally incurable sexually transmitted viral disease that ultimately kills most of its victims; severe stage of HIV infectionThe destruction of the immune system begins with the loss of CD4 T cells (see Figure 14.1)As the number of these T cells drop below 200/µl, this becomes the marker for AIDS
8 Routes of HIV Transmission among Americans pgs. 404-406 8
9 Transmitting the Virus pgs. 404 - 406 HIV lives only within the cells and body fluids, not outside the bodyThe 3 main routes of HIV transmission are:Specific kinds of sexual contactDirect exposure to infected bloodContact between HIV-infected mother andher child during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding
10 HIV Infection: Symptoms pg. 406 Flu-like symptoms of acute HIV infection may occur within a few days or weeks of infectionSince these symptoms are similar to common viral illnesses, the condition goes undiagnosed many timesOpportunistic infections occur later as the immune system weakensPneumocystis carinii pneumoniaKaposi’s sarcomaFrequent and difficult-to-treat vaginal yeast infectionsTuberculosis
11 HIV Infection and AIDS: Diagnosis pg. 406 HIV antibody test detects the presence of antibodies to HIV, indicating infectionELISA = first stage of testWestern blot = confirmatory testHIV Replication CapacityBlood, urine, or oral fluid; rapid tests are availableMay take up to 6 months following infection for antibodies to appearHIV RNA assay measures the amount of the HIV virus in the blood; used to detect HIV infection in the earliest stages and to track the status of the infection
12 HIV Infection and AIDS: Treatment pgs. 406 - 407 There is no known cure for HIV infection or AIDSMany drugs can significantly alter the course of the disease, such as:Antiviral drugsReverse transcriptase inhibitorsProtease inhibitorsIntegrase inhibitorsEntry inhibitors
13 HIV Infection and AIDS: Prevention pgs. 407 - 408 Abstinence is the only truly safe option, unless you are in a long-term monogamous relationship with an uninfected partnerDon’t drink or use drugs in sexual situationsLimit the number of partners, especially those who have engaged in risky behavior; remember that many people are not truthful about their sexual historyUse latex condoms correctly during every act of intercourse and oral sexAvoid sexual contact that could cause cuts or tearsDon’t share needles, syringes, or anything that could have blood on itGet screened, get tested, get vaccinated for hepatitis B
15 Chlamydia pg. 408Chlamydia trachomatis causes chlamydia, a prevalent bacterial STD in the United StatesCan cause PID, infertility, epididymitis, urethritisSymptoms are very few:Males: painful urination, a slight watery discharge, and sometimes pain around the testiclesWomen: increased vaginal discharge, burning with urination, pain or bleeding with intercourse, and lower abdominal painDiagnosed with urine or lab testsTreated with antibiotics
16 Gonorrhea pg. 410Caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae which affects mucous membranesCan cause PID, infertility, epididymitis, urethritis, rashes, arthritis; in infants, it can cause the serious eye infection gonococcal conjunctivitisOften asymptomatic in women; in men, it causes urinary discomfort and penile dischargeDiagnosed with urine or lab testsTreated with antibiotics; however, many strains are resistant
17 Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) pgs. 410 - 411 PID is an infection that progresses from the vagina and cervix to the uterus, oviducts, and pelvic cavityCommon following untreated cases of gonorrhea or chlamydiaIt is a leading cause of infertility in young women; also increases risk of ectopic pregnancy and chronic pelvic painSymptoms vary greatlyTreated with antibiotics; however, may require hospitalization
18 Human Papillomavirus Infection pg. 411 - 412 HPV, human papillomavirus, causes several human diseases including genital warts and genital cancersHPV is one of the most common STDs in the United States, especially with young peopleSymptoms of infected tissue may appear normal or may have obvious bumps or growthsTreatment does not eliminate the infection but focuses on reducing the number and size of wartsIn 2006, the FDA approved vaccine for HPV (Gardasil) and in 2009 (Carvarix)
19 Genital Herpes pg. 412Persistent viral infection affecting about one in five American adultsTwo herpes simplex viruses are of great concern:HSV-1 usually causes cold soresHSV-2 usually causes genital herpesSymptoms are recurrent outbreaks of painful genital lesions; often asymptomatic in the beginning stagesDiagnosed from symptoms or blood testTreatment with antiviral drugs can reduce the frequency and severity of outbreaks; the virus remains in the body and can be transmitted even if no lesions are present
20 Hepatitis B pgsHepatitis, inflammation of the liver, can cause permanent damage to the liver and deathHepatitis B virus (HBV) can be transmitted sexually and through close nonsexual contactSymptoms may include:Flu-like illnessNauseaVomitingDark-colored urineAbdominal painJaundiceDiagnosed with blood tests through analysis of liver functionThere is no cure, but a vaccine is available and safe to use
21 Syphilis pg. 413Syphilis, a bacterium caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum, can be potentially fatal if not treatedSymptoms are different stages of infection:Primary syphilis causes an ulcer called a chancreSecondary syphilis develops flu-like symptoms and a skin rashLate, or tertiary, syphilis becomes asymptomatic or symptoms of severe organ damage, possibly leading to eventual deathDiagnosed by examination of infected tissue and with blood testsTreated with antibiotics
22 Other STDs pgs. 413 - 414 Trichomoniasis, aka ‘Trich’ Single-celled organismBacterial vaginosis (BV)Most common cause of abnormal vaginal dischargePubic lice (crabs) and scabiesHighly contagious parasitic infections
23 What You Can Do About STDs pgs. 414-415 EducationDiagnosis and treatmentPreventionAbstainMutually monogamous relationship with one uninfected partnerPlan ahead for and practice safer sex
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