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© 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Know the Facts: 1. _____ You can't get an STD from oral sex. 2. _____You can only get herpes when your partner is having an outbreak that you can see. 3. _____If you have an STD, believe me, you'll see it and know it. 4. _____Only slutty girls and cheating guys get STDs. 5. _____If you have sex in a pool or hot tub, the chlorine will kill anything and everything. 6. _____If you don't have a condom, use plastic wrap.
© 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Know the Facts cont’d… 7. _____I don't need to use a condom. My partner doesn't have an STD. I can tell. 8. _____Skin to skin contact isn't enough. You can only get an STD from semen. 9. _____The Pill prevents STDs. 10. _____Chlamydia and gonorrhea are no big deal and will go away on their own. 11. _____ 2 condoms are better than 1.
© 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 1.Get in groups of 2-3 people 2.Review your answers by reading through the answer packet 3.Mark the answers you got wrong 4.Be prepared to share…
© 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Chapter Fourteen Pgs Ms. Wheeler and Mr. Rath
© 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 5 The Major Sexually Transmitted Diseases pg. 402 Also known as sexually transmitted infections The Major STDs (STIs) HIV/AIDS Chlamydia Gonorrhea Human papillomavirus Genital warts (HPV) Genital herpes Hepatitis B Syphilis
© 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Annual New Cases of STDs in the United States pg
© 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 7 HIV Infection and AIDS pgs About 1.1 million Americans are believed to currently be living with HIV, and about 56,000 new infections were reported in 2006 HIV infection is a chronic, progressive disease that damages the immune system AIDS, Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, is a generally incurable sexually transmitted viral disease that ultimately kills most of its victims; severe stage of HIV infection The destruction of the immune system begins with the loss of CD4 T cells (see Figure 14.1) As the number of these T cells drop below 200/µl, this becomes the marker for AIDS
© 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Routes of HIV Transmission among Americans pgs
© 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 9 Transmitting the Virus pgs HIV lives only within the cells and body fluids, not outside the body The 3 main routes of HIV transmission are: Specific kinds of sexual contact Direct exposure to infected blood Contact between HIV-infected mother and her child during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding
© 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 10 HIV Infection: Symptoms pg. 406 Flu-like symptoms of acute HIV infection may occur within a few days or weeks of infection Since these symptoms are similar to common viral illnesses, the condition goes undiagnosed many times Opportunistic infections occur later as the immune system weakens Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia Kaposi’s sarcoma Frequent and difficult-to-treat vaginal yeast infections Tuberculosis
© 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 11 HIV Infection and AIDS: Diagnosis pg. 406 HIV antibody test detects the presence of antibodies to HIV, indicating infection ELISA = first stage of test Western blot = confirmatory test HIV Replication Capacity Blood, urine, or oral fluid; rapid tests are available May take up to 6 months following infection for antibodies to appear HIV RNA assay measures the amount of the HIV virus in the blood; used to detect HIV infection in the earliest stages and to track the status of the infection
© 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 12 HIV Infection and AIDS: Treatment pgs There is no known cure for HIV infection or AIDS Many drugs can significantly alter the course of the disease, such as: Antiviral drugs Reverse transcriptase inhibitors Protease inhibitors Integrase inhibitors Entry inhibitors
© 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 13 HIV Infection and AIDS: Prevention pgs Abstinence is the only truly safe option, unless you are in a long- term monogamous relationship with an uninfected partner Don’t drink or use drugs in sexual situations Limit the number of partners, especially those who have engaged in risky behavior; remember that many people are not truthful about their sexual history Use latex condoms correctly during every act of intercourse and oral sex Avoid sexual contact that could cause cuts or tears Don’t share needles, syringes, or anything that could have blood on it Get screened, get tested, get vaccinated for hepatitis B
© 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. What’s Risky and What’s not… pg
© 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 15 Chlamydia Chlamydia pg. 408 Chlamydia Chlamydia trachomatis causes chlamydia, a prevalent bacterial STD in the United States Can cause PID, infertility, epididymitis, urethritis Symptoms are very few: Males: painful urination, a slight watery discharge, and sometimes pain around the testicles Women: increased vaginal discharge, burning with urination, pain or bleeding with intercourse, and lower abdominal pain Diagnosed with urine or lab tests Treated with antibiotics
© 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 16 Gonorrhea pg. 410 Caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae which affects mucous membranes Can cause PID, infertility, epididymitis, urethritis, rashes, arthritis; in infants, it can cause the serious eye infection gonococcal conjunctivitis Often asymptomatic in women; in men, it causes urinary discomfort and penile discharge Diagnosed with urine or lab tests Treated with antibiotics; however, many strains are resistant
© 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 17 Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) pgs PID is an infection that progresses from the vagina and cervix to the uterus, oviducts, and pelvic cavity Common following untreated cases of gonorrhea or chlamydia It is a leading cause of infertility in young women; also increases risk of ectopic pregnancy and chronic pelvic pain Symptoms vary greatly Treated with antibiotics; however, may require hospitalization
© 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 18 Human Papillomavirus Infection pg HPV, human papillomavirus, causes several human diseases including genital warts and genital cancers HPV is one of the most common STDs in the United States, especially with young people Symptoms of infected tissue may appear normal or may have obvious bumps or growths Treatment does not eliminate the infection but focuses on reducing the number and size of warts In 2006, the FDA approved vaccine for HPV (Gardasil) and in 2009 (Carvarix)
© 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 19 Genital Herpes pg. 412 Persistent viral infection affecting about one in five American adults Two herpes simplex viruses are of great concern: HSV-1 usually causes cold sores HSV-2 usually causes genital herpes Symptoms are recurrent outbreaks of painful genital lesions; often asymptomatic in the beginning stages Diagnosed from symptoms or blood test Treatment with antiviral drugs can reduce the frequency and severity of outbreaks; the virus remains in the body and can be transmitted even if no lesions are present
© 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 20 Hepatitis B pgs Hepatitis, inflammation of the liver, can cause permanent damage to the liver and death Hepatitis B virus (HBV) can be transmitted sexually and through close nonsexual contact Symptoms may include: Flu-like illness Nausea Vomiting Dark-colored urine Abdominal pain Jaundice Diagnosed with blood tests through analysis of liver function There is no cure, but a vaccine is available and safe to use
© 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 21 Syphilis pg. 413 Syphilis, a bacterium caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum, can be potentially fatal if not treated Symptoms are different stages of infection: Primary syphilis causes an ulcer called a chancre Secondary syphilis develops flu-like symptoms and a skin rash Late, or tertiary, syphilis becomes asymptomatic or symptoms of severe organ damage, possibly leading to eventual death Diagnosed by examination of infected tissue and with blood tests Treated with antibiotics
© 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 22 Other STDs pgs Trichomoniasis, aka ‘Trich’ Single-celled organism Bacterial vaginosis (BV) Most common cause of abnormal vaginal discharge Pubic lice (crabs) and scabies Highly contagious parasitic infections
© 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 23 What You Can Do About STDs pgs Education Diagnosis and treatment Prevention Abstain Mutually monogamous relationship with one uninfected partner Plan ahead for and practice safer sex
© 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Chapter Fourteen
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