Presentation on theme: "13 Changes on the Western Frontier Cultures Clash on the Prairie"— Presentation transcript:
1 13 Changes on the Western Frontier Cultures Clash on the Prairie QUIT13C H A P T E RChanges on the Western FrontierCHAPTER OBJECTIVEINTERACT WITH HISTORYTIME LINESECTION1Cultures Clash on the PrairieSECTION2Settling on the Great PlainsGRAPHMAPSECTION3Farmers and the Populist MovementVISUAL SUMMARY
2 13 Changes on the Western Frontier HOME13C H A P T E RChanges on the Western FrontierCHAPTER OBJECTIVETo analyze the settlement of the Great Plains during the late 1800s and to examine Native American policies, private property rights, and the Populist movement
3 13 Changes on the Western Frontier I N T E R A C T HOME13C H A P T E RChanges on the Western FrontierI N T E R A C TW I T H H I S T O R YIt is the late 1890s. The American West is the last frontier. Ranchers, cowboys, and miners have changed forever the lives of the Native Americans who hunted on the Western plains. Now westward fever intensifies as “boomers” rush to grab “free” farm land with the government’s blessing.What do you expect to find on settling in the West?Examine the Issues• What might be some ways to make a living on the Western frontier?• If native peoples already live in your intended home, how will you co-exist?• How might settlers and Native Americans differ regarding use of the land?
4 13 Changes on the Western Frontier The United States The World HOME13C H A P T E RChanges on the Western FrontierTIME LINEThe United StatesThe World1869 Suez Canal is opened.1870 Red Cloud, chief of the Oglala Sioux, states his people's case in Washington, D.C.1872 Secret ballot is adopted in Britain.1880 James Garfield is elected president.1881 Garfield is assassinated. Chester Arthur becomes president.1881 French occupy Tunisia.1884 Grover Cleveland is elected president.1889 Oklahoma opened for settlement; the land rush begins.1890 Sioux are massacred at Wounded Knee.continued . . .
5 13 Changes on the Western Frontier The United States The World HOME C H A P T E RChanges on the Western FrontierTIME LINEThe United StatesThe World1893 Diminished U.S. gold reserve triggers the panic of 1893.1893 France takes over Indochina.1896 William McKinley is elected president. William Jennings Bryan runs for president.1899 Berlin Conference divides Africa among European nations.1900 Boxer Rebellion takes place in China.
6 Cultures Clash on the Prairie S E C T I O N1Cultures Clash on the PrairieHOMEKEY IDEAPursuit of economic opportunity leads settlers to push westward. Settlers confront established Native American cultures. With the help of cowboys, the cattle industry thrives as the Native American culture of the Great Plains declines. About 1890 the frontier is closed.OVERVIEWASSESSMENT
7 Cultures Clash on the Prairie S E C T I O N1Cultures Clash on the PrairieHOMEOVERVIEWMAIN IDEAWHY IT MATTERS NOWThe cattle industry boomed in the late 1800s, as the culture of the Plains Indians declined.Today, ranchers and Plains Indians work to preserve their cultural traditions.TERMS & NAMES• Chisholm Trail• Great Plains• Sitting Bull• Dawes Act• Battle of Wounded Knee• Treaty of Fort Laramie• George A. Custer• assimilation• longhorn• long driveASSESSMENT
8 Cultures Clash on the Prairie S E C T I O N1Cultures Clash on the PrairieHOMEASSESSMENT1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. Provide supporting details about the culture of the Plains Indians in each of the three categories.Culture of the Plains IndiansBuffalo and HorseFamily LifeBeliefsSource of food, clothes, shelter, and transportationCommunal property and government; individualism valuedFocus on the present; world inhabited by spiritscontinued . . .
9 Cultures Clash on the Prairie S E C T I O N1Cultures Clash on the PrairieHOMEASSESSMENT2. Why do you think the assimilation policy of the Dawes Act failed? Think About:• the experience of Native Americans such as Zitkala-Sa• the attitudes of many white leaders toward Native Americans• the merits of owning property• the importance of cultural heritageANSWERLack of support by the government, abuses of the act by white opportunists, and Native Americans’ lack of interest in private propertycontinued . . .
10 Cultures Clash on the Prairie S E C T I O N1Cultures Clash on the PrairieHOMEASSESSMENT3. What economic opportunities drew large numbers of people to the Great Plains beginning in the mid-1800s?ANSWERGrowth of the railroads, the burgeoning cattle industry, and government support of “free land”continued . . .
11 Cultures Clash on the Prairie S E C T I O N1Cultures Clash on the PrairieHOMEASSESSMENT4. Identify the reasons for the rise and the decline of the cattle industry.ANSWERRise: the seizure of Native American lands; the adaptation of the longhorn to the Plains; the growing demand for beefDecline: overgrazing; bad weather; barbed wire and end of the open plainsEnd of Section 1
12 Settling on the Great Plains S E C T I O N2Settling on the Great PlainsGRAPHMAPHOMEKEY IDEAThe promise of cheap, fertile land draws thousands of settlers westward to seek their fortunes as farmers. Settlers face extreme hardships in taming the land.OVERVIEWASSESSMENT
13 Settling on the Great Plains S E C T I O N2Settling on the Great PlainsGRAPHMAPHOMEOVERVIEWMAIN IDEAWHY IT MATTERS NOWSettlers on the Great Plains transformed the land despite great hardships.The Great Plains region remains the bread basket of the United States.TERMS & NAMES• bonanza farm• Morrill Act• Homestead Act• exoduster• soddyASSESSMENT
14 Settling on the Great Plains S E C T I O N2Settling on the Great PlainsGRAPHMAPHOMEASSESSMENT1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. List four events that shaped the settling of the Great Plains.Event OneEvent TwoEvent ThreeEvent Four1862: Homestead Act1874: Development of barbed wire1869: Completion of the first transcontinental railroad1889: Oklahoma land rushcontinued . . .
15 Settling on the Great Plains S E C T I O N2Settling on the Great PlainsGRAPHMAPHOMEASSESSMENT2. How successful were government efforts to promote settlement of the Great Plains? Think About:• the growth in population on the Great Plains• the role of railroads in the economy• the Homestead ActANSWERSuccess: Increased miles of railroad track and population helped settle the plains.Failure: Despite the private property rights of homesteaders, only about 10 percent of the land was actually settled by the families for whom it was intended; the railroads subsidized by the government became overly powerful.continued . . .
16 Settling on the Great Plains S E C T I O N2Settling on the Great PlainsGRAPHMAPHOMEASSESSMENT3. Review the changes in technology that influenced the life of settlers on the Great Plains in the late 1800s. Explain how you think settlement of the plains would have been different without these inventions.ANSWERWithout technology there would have been more crop dehydration; wandering animals and trampled crops; and crops ruined by inclement weather.continued . . .
17 Settling on the Great Plains S E C T I O N2Settling on the Great PlainsGRAPHMAPHOMEASSESSMENT4. How did the railroads take advantage of farmers?ANSWERRailroads charged plains farmers a higher fee than they did farmers in the East; they charged more for short hauls and forced the farmers deeper into debt.End of Section 2
18 Farmers and the Populist Movement S E C T I O N3Farmers and the Populist MovementHOMEKEY IDEAFarmers band together to address their economic problems, giving rise to the Populist movement. Economic troubles lead to clashes over silver or gold as the basis of the monetary system.OVERVIEWASSESSMENT
19 Farmers and the Populist Movement S E C T I O N3Farmers and the Populist MovementHOMEOVERVIEWMAIN IDEAWHY IT MATTERS NOWFarmers united to address their economic problems, giving rise to the Populist movement.Many of the Populist reform issues, such as income tax and legally protected rights of workers, are now taken for granted.TERMS & NAMES• Farmers’ Alliances• William McKinley• gold standard• William Jennings Bryan• Oliver Hudson Kelley• Grange• Populism• bimetallismASSESSMENT
20 Farmers and the Populist Movement S E C T I O N3Farmers and the Populist MovementHOMEASSESSMENT1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. Identify the causes of the rise of the Populist Party and the effects the party had.CausesEffectsPopulist PartyNew ideas that later became lawFalling prices for cropsPolitical forum for addressing special interestsInability to repay loansMessage of hope to downtroddenExcessive railroad pricescontinued . . .
21 Farmers and the Populist Movement S E C T I O N3Farmers and the Populist MovementHOMEASSESSMENT2. What do you think were the most significant factors in bringing an end to the Populist Party? Think About:• monetary policy• third-party status• source of popular support• popular participation policyANSWERBryan’s free-silver stand seems to have been most instrumental in bringing about the fall of the populist Party. His stand led gold bug Democrats to nominate their own candidate. It also weakened his support in cities where consumers feared inflation.continued . . .
22 Farmers and the Populist Movement S E C T I O N3Farmers and the Populist MovementHOMEASSESSMENT3. How did the Grange and the Farmers’ Alliances pave the way for the Populist Party?ANSWERThe Grange informed members on issues that affected them. It raised questions on issues that would become the basis of the Populist Party.End of Section 3