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The Child with a Skin Condition

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1 The Child with a Skin Condition
Chapter 30 The Child with a Skin Condition

2 Objectives Recall the difference between the skin of the infant and that of the adult. Identify common congenital skin lesions and infections. Describe two topical agents used to treat acne. Summarize the nursing care for a child who has infantile eczema. State the rationale for each nursing measure. Elsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

3 Objectives (cont.) Discuss the nursing care of various microbial infections of the skin. Discuss the prevention and care of pediculosis and scabies. Differentiate among first-, second-, and third-degree burns: the anatomical structures involved, the appearance, the level of sensation, and first aid required. List five objectives of the nurse caring for the burned child. Elsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

4 Objectives (cont.) Describe how the response of the child with burns differs from that of the adult. Identify the principles of topical therapy. Differentiate four types of topical medication. Examine the emergency treatment of three types of burns. Discuss the prevention and treatment of sunburn and frostbite. Elsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

5 Skin Development and Function
Main function is protection Acts as body’s first line of defense against disease Prevents passage of harmful physical and chemical agents Prevents loss of water and electrolytes Can regenerate and repair itself Along with the central nervous system, there are four basic skin sensations Pain Temperature Touch Pressure Secretes sebum Surface of skin is acidic Protects from pathological microorganisms Discuss how the skin protects the body from infection, disease, and harmful agents. What is the function of sebum? Elsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

6 Summary of Integumentary System Differences Between Child and Adult
Discuss Figure 30-1 on page 690. Elsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

7 Skin Disorders and Variations
Skin condition may be a manifestation of a systemic disease while others may be congenital Skin color is an important diagnostic criterion in certain diseases Skin tests can be used to diagnose allergies Hair is inspected for color, texture, quality, distribution, and elasticity Condition of hair can change based on nutrition or disease status Hair can change due to medications or medical treatments Give an example of a systemic disease that manifests on the skin. How do the hair and skin appear if nutrition is inadequate? Elsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

8 Skin Disorders and Variations (cont.)
The nurse should describe the lesions with regard to: Size Color Configuration Presence of pain or itching Distribution Generalized or localized Condition of skin around lesions Give an example of proper documentation of a skin lesion. Elsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

9 Skin Disorders and Variations (cont.)
Managing itching is a key component in preventing secondary infection caused by scratching Applying skin creams and ointments as prescribed is important, not only in the treatment of skin conditions, but also in the prevention of infections Discuss the pathophysiology of secondary infections as a result of scratching. Elsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

10 Terms Used to Describe Skin Conditions
Discuss what each term means and have students given examples of each. Refer to Box 30-1 on page 691. Elsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

11 Stye A stye, or hordeolum, is an inflammation of the sebaceous gland of the eyelid commonly seen in infants and children Discuss Figure 30-2 on page 691. Elsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

12 Strawberry Nevus Common hemangioma
Consists of dilated capillaries in the dermal space Usually disappears without treatment May not be apparent until a few weeks after birth Begins flat, but becomes raised, bright red, elevated, and sharply demarcated Discuss Figure 30-3 on page 692. Elsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

13 Port Wine Nevus Caused by dilated dermal capillaries Present at birth
Lesions are flat, sharply demarcated, and purple to pink Different from strawberry nevus in that the lesion darkens as child gets older, it does not disappear What can make port wine nevi disappear? Discuss Figure 30-3 on page 692. Elsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

14 Skin Manifestations of Illness
Café au lait macules Light brown, oval patches Multiple macules are associated with neurofibromatosis (a chromosomal abnormality) and tuberous sclerosis Hypopigmented macules Whitish oval- or leaf-shaped Multiple macules associated with tuberous sclerosis Elsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

15 Skin Manifestations of Illness (cont.)
Butterfly rash Over nose and cheeks Associated with photosensitivity May be associated with systemic lupus erythematous (SLE) Scaling skin eruption Around mouth in a horseshoe-shaped distribution Also seen on chin, cheeks, or as a perianal rash Has papules and scales Associated with zinc deficiency in infants, as well as diarrhea and failure to thrive Elsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

16 Skin Manifestations of Illness (cont.)
Vascular birth mark Resembles a bruise that changes in appearance over the years Hemangiomas around the chin may be associated with airway problems Those appearing around the lumbar region may be associated with spinal problems Audience Response Question #1 Congenital birth marks could be caused by foods the mother ingests during pregnancy. 1. True 2. False Elsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

17 Infections Elsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

18 Miliaria “Prickly heat” or a rash caused by excess body heat and moisture Sweat is retained in the sweat glands, which become blocked or inflamed Rupture or leakage causes the skin to appear inflamed Appears suddenly as tiny, pinhead-sized, reddened papules May be itchy Often appears in diaper area or skin folds Remove extra clothing, bathing, skin care, frequent diaper changes Discuss Figure 30-5 on page 692. Elsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

19 Intertrigo “Chafing” Dermatitis in skin folds
Patches are red and moist Aggravated by urine, feces, heat and moisture Prevention consists of keeping affected area clean and dry Discuss Figure 30-6 on page 693. Elsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

20 Seborrheic Dermatitis
“Cradle cap” Inflammation of the skin that involves the sebaceous glands Characterized by thick, yellow, oily, adherent, crustlike scales on the scalp and forehead Resembles eczema, but does not itch Seen in newborns, infants, and at puberty Treatment is shampooing hair on consistent basis Discuss Figure 30-7 on page 693. Elsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

21 Diaper Dermatitis Skin irritated by prolonged contact with urine, feces, retained laundry soaps, and friction May be seen in response to addition of solid foods, feeding, chemicals, contact with household substances Beefy red rash may be indicative of a Candida infection Prevented by frequent diaper changes with meticulous skin care Discuss frequent diaper changes, cleansing of the skin, and allowing air to assist in the healing process. Discuss Figure 30-8 on page 693. Elsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

22 Acne Vulgaris Inflammation of the sebaceous glands and hair follicles
Sebaceous follicles enlarge at puberty Secrete increased amounts of sebum (a fatty substance) Comedo is a plug of keratin, sebum, or bacteria Open—blackhead Closed—whitehead and are responsible for the inflammatory process of acne Discuss Figure 30-9 on page 694. Elsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

23 Acne Vulgaris (cont.) Routine skin cleansing
Greasy hair products and cosmetics should be avoided Excessive cleansing can irritate skin Multiple topical and oral treatments available Important to stress to teenager to follow medication treatments as prescribed Discuss the pathophysiology regarding skin care and the treatment of acne vulgaris. Elsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

24 Herpes Simplex Type I Known as a cold sore or fever blister
May feel a tingling, itching, or burning on the lip Vesicles and crusts form, takes up to 10 days to heal Most communicable in the early phase of the outbreak Recurrence is common as virus lays dormant until activated by stress, sun, menstruation, fever, or other causes Treatment is with antiviral medications, both oral and topical Discuss the pathophysiology regarding the role of stress, sun, menstruation, and other causes of the manifestation of fever blisters/cold sores. Elsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

25 Infantile Eczema Atopic dermatitis is an inflammation of genetically hypersensitive skin Local vasodilation in affected areas Spongiosis or breakdown of dermal cells and formation of intradermal vesicles Rarely seen in breastfed infants until they begin to eat additional food It is a symptom rather than a disorder Infant is oversensitive to certain substances Worse in winter What is the reason for the occurrence of increased incidence during the winter months? Elsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

26 Infantile Eczema (cont.)
Lesions easily infected by bacterial or viral agents Infants/children with eczema should not be exposed to adults with cold sores because they may develop a systemic reaction with high fever and multiple vesicles on the eczematous skin May flare up after immunizations Lab studies show increased IgE and eosinophil levels Discuss the pathophysiology regarding a flare-up of eczema following administration of immunizations. Elsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

27 Treatment for Infantile Eczema
Aimed at relieving pruritus, hydrating the skin, relieving inflammation, and preventing infection Emollient bath, such as a mixture of cornstarch and baking soda or oatmeal is sometimes ordered Bath oil helps keep skin moist and should be added to bath after the child has soaked for a while and skin is hydrated; the oil will help hold the moisture in the skin Medications Corticosteroids Antibiotics Anti-itching medications Elsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

28 Parent Teaching Ointments should be completely washed off between applications Cortisone creams should be avoided because they do not resolve the underlying cause How to apply topical medications Best absorbed after a warm bath Applied by stroking in direction of hair growth Use proper amount of ointment Elbow restraints can prevent an infant from scratching while allowing freedom of movement Topical steroids should not be used when a viral infection is present Elsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

29 Nursing Tip Parents should be taught that kissing a wound to “make it better” can introduce organisms that can cause infection What is a more sanitary option to kissing a wound to “make it better”? Elsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

30 Staphylococcal Infection
Primary infection may develop in the newborn in the umbilicus or circumcision wound May occur while in hospital or after discharge Infection spreads readily from one infant to another Small pustules on the newborn must be reported immediately Antibiotic ointments are used in some situations while in others, intravenous antibiotics are required If an infant has MRSA, the child is placed in contact isolation if hospitalized Give examples of how staphylococcus is spread from one infant to another. Elsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

31 Scalded Skin Syndrome Caused by S. aureus
Lesions begin with a mild erythema with a sandpaper texture Vesicles appear and rupture and peeling occurs, exposing a bright-red surface Skin appears scalded and child abuse is often suspected Discuss why the use of disposable individual equipment is important in the prevention of infection on the nursing unit or clinic setting. Elsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

32 Impetigo Caused by staphylococci or group a beta-hemolytic streptococci Bullous form seen in infants usually staphylococcal Nonbullous form is seen in children and young adults Newborns susceptible because resistance to skin bacteria is low Very contagious Treatment is either oral or parenteral antibiotics Discuss the treatment options for impetigo. Refer to Figure on page 699. Elsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

33 Fungal Infections Invade stratum corneum, hair and nails
Fungi are larger than bacteria Tinea capitis—alopecia Tinea corporis—oval scaly inflamed ring with clear center Tinea pedis—lesions are between toes, on instep and soles; pruritic Tinea cruris—“jock itch” Discuss Figure on page 699. What precautions should the nurse take when caring for a patient with a fungal infection? Audience Response Question #2 A fungal infection of the skin that can occur on the scalp, body, and feet is: 1. Ringworm 2. Pediculosis 3. Herpes Simplex II 4. Urticaria Elsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

34 Pediculosis Three types
Pediculosis capitis—head lice Pediculosis corporis—body lice Pediculosis pubis—pubic lice, known as crabs Survival of lice depends on blood extracted from infected person How is pediculosis treated? Refer to Figure on page 700. Elsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

35 Scabies Parasitic Caused by female mite
Burrows under skin and lays eggs, especially between fingers Burrows contain eggs and feces Itching is intense, especially at night Thrives in moist body folds Spread by close personal contact Treatment is the application of permethrin All family members, including the home and car, require treatment Elsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

36 Injuries Elsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

37 Burns Leading cause of accidental death between 1 and 4 years of age
Sometimes result of child abuse or neglect Most likely to occur in early morning in house before parents awaken and after school Discuss the reason for the increased incidence of burns in children ages 1 to 4 years. Elsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

38 Burns (cont.) Types of burns include
Thermal—due to fire or scalding vapor or liquid Chemical—due to corrosive powder or liquid Electrical—due to electrical current passing through the body Radiation—due to X-rays or radioactive substances Give an example of situations that result in a thermal, chemical, electrical, or radiation burn. Elsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

39 Burns (cont.) Can involve skin or mucous membranes
If burned near face, flames may have been inhaled Assessing for patent airway is a priority Audience Response Question #3 Complete the analogy. First degree burn : epidermal as third degree burn : __________________. 1. epidermal and dermal 2. dermal 3. subdermal 4. partial thickness Elsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

40 Body Surface Area of a Child
Discuss Figure 30-15, page 701. Elsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

41 Child Burn Size Estimation Table
Discuss Figure 30-15, page 701. Give an example of a situation in which this tool would be used. Elsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

42 Children’s Response to Burns
Skin is thinner, leads to more serious depth of burn with lower temperatures and shorter exposures Immature response systems in young children can cause shock and heart failure Large body surface area of child results in greater fluid, electrolyte, and heat loss Increased BMR results in increased protein and calorie needs Elsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

43 Children’s Response to Burns (cont.)
Smaller muscle and fat content in the body results in protein and caloric deficiencies when oral intake is limited Skin more elastic, causing pulling on the scarring areas and resulting in formation of a larger scar Elsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

44 Children’s Response to Burns (cont.)
Immature immune system predisposes child to developing infections that complicate burn treatment Prolonged immobilization and treatment required for burns adversely affects growth and development Elsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

45 Burns Moderate Partial-thickness burns involving 15% to 30% of body surface Full-thickness burns involving less than 10% of body surface Major Partial-thickness involving 30% or more of body surface Full-thickness burns involving 10% or more of body surface Both types are considered open wounds that have the added danger of infection Give an example of a moderate versus a major burn. Elsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

46 The 6 Cs of Burn Care Clothing Cooling Cleaning Chemoprophylaxis
Covering Comforting (pain relief) Elsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

47 Electrical Burn Child should be assessed for entry and exit lesions
Indicates path of electricity through the body Muscle damage can occur Elsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

48 Mechanism of Electrical Injury
Discuss Figure on page 703. Elsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

49 Emergency Care of Burns
Stop the burning process Evaluate the injury Cover the burn Transport to hospital How do you stop the burning process? Discuss the assessment process of a burn injury. Give examples of various materials which might be appropriate to apply to a burn. Elsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

50 Scalded Burns Discuss Figure 30-18 on page 707.
Elsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

51 Emergency Care Establish an airway Establish an intravenous line
Cyanosis, singed nasal hair, charred lips, and stridor are indications that flames may have been inhaled An endotracheal tube may be inserted to protect the airway Establish an intravenous line Obtain blood and other body fluids for laboratory testing A nasogastric tube may be inserted to empty stomach and prevent complications Discuss the importance of maintaining an open airway in all emergencies. Describe endotracheal intubation. Elsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

52 Wound Care Discuss Figure 30-17 on page 705.
Elsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

53 Wound Care (cont.) Discuss Figure 30-17 on page 705.
Elsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

54 Wound Care (cont.) Discuss Figure 30-17 on page 705.
Elsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

55 Wound Care (cont.) Can be painful; pain medications should be given in advance of the treatments to ensure adequate pain control is achieved Cleansing and debridement Loss of skin increases threat of infection and fluid loss caused by evaporation can be significant What is the rationale for cleansing and debriding wounds? Elsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

56 Nursing Care Protective isolation is instituted
All instruments are sterile Ointments are applied with a sterile gloved hand or sterile tongue depressor Care must be taken to avoid injury to granulating tissue Discuss the rationale for isolation and sterile procedures. What is the importance of granulated tissue in the healing process? Elsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

57 Nursing Care (cont.) Immediately report signs of infections
Observe for fluid overload Burn victims have an increased demand on metabolism, require high-protein diet; additional vitamins and minerals may also be required Prevention of contractures is important Providing emotional support to the child and family is essential Give examples of signs and symptoms to report immediately. Discuss the pathophysiology regarding the increased metabolic rate of burn victims. What nursing interventions can prevent contractures? Elsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

58 Sunburn Common skin injury due to overexposure to sun
Can be minor epidermal burn to serious partial-thickness burn with blisters Goal of treatment Stop exposure Treat inflammation Rehydrate skin Elsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

59 Sunscreen and Sunblock
Topical partially absorbs UV light Have an SPF rating to evaluate effectiveness in blocking sun rays Sunblock Reflects sunlight Zinc oxide and titanium dioxide are effective Elsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

60 Frostbite Results from freezing of a body part
Chilblain: a cold injury with erythema and formation of vesicles and ulcerative lesions that occur as a result of vasoconstriction In exposure to extreme cold, warmth is lost in the periphery of the body before the core temperature drops In extreme cases, the head and torso should be warmed before the extremities to ensure survival A deep purple flush appears with the return of sensation, which is accompanied by extreme pain Can result in necrosis and may require amputation of the affected extremity Elsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

61 Question for Review What safety measures must the nurse take when providing wound care management to a child with severe burns?

62 Review Objectives Key Terms Key Points Online Resources
Review Questions Elsevier items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2006 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.


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