Presentation on theme: "Assessing Needs of Technologies: Lessons from China Ji Zou Renmin University of China Liyan Li China National Development and Reform Commission Arnoma."— Presentation transcript:
Assessing Needs of Technologies: Lessons from China Ji Zou Renmin University of China Liyan Li China National Development and Reform Commission Arnoma Hotel, Bangkok, Thailand June 26-29, 2007
Contents Matching circumstances in China Strategies for TNA
Matching Circumstances in China Significant imbalance of economic development over different parts of the territory, population groups, and industrial sectors (most advanced and most underdeveloped) Diversity of potential technology needs: based on diversified economic sectors, income level/capital power, market demands, human resources, etc.
Strategies for Need Assessment In an integrative manner (globally and locally environmental, economic, energy, and social consideration); Consultation with technology experts; With a larger sample for survey or broad involvement of stakeholders; and Repeated and dynamic process: several rounds.
Main Elements for the Exercise Establish working team: NDRC supported by universities and research institutes Develop criteria for assessment Identify list of candidate technologies Identify list of experts as questionnaire sample Communication with the sample experts Consultation with stakeholders from industries and the public Consultation with different departments of national and local government to interact with the country’s strategies and policies Methodology for data and information processing: e.g., Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), synthesis of opinions; brain storming, etc.
Assessment Process Establish interagency working team Set up criteria for assessment Gather and compile relevant information and data from different sources Design questionnaire and consultation meetings and identify experts for survey Hold scoping meeting Determine priorities of technology needs by series of techniques for assessment: –e.g., Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) with equal weights for different items of criteria
Assessment Criteria (1) Root Objectives: Global climate protection Local sustainable development: improvement of local environmental quality; economic development; and social equity.
Assessment Criteria (2) Elements of the criteria Environmental and resources concern: global and local Technological concern Economic concern Social concern
Assessment Criteria (3) Environmental and resource Concerns Resource availability/advantages Mitigation: emission reduction against baseline/BAU emission level and carbon sink increase –GHGs mitigation; –Improvement of local environmental quality Adaptation –Risk assessment and management and planning –Specific technologies in various areas
Assessment Criteria (4) Technological Concerns: Mature degree of technologies Function reliability of technologies; Cost of technology application; Matching local environment: e.g., resource inputs, weather and geographic conditions, human capital, other enabling environment; Market penetration of technology application; and Easiness of wider use of technology in terms of technical know-how, transaction cost, and cultural acceptance.
Assessment Criteria (5) Economic Concerns Internal Return Rate (IRR) Payback period Mitigation and adaptation costs Impacts on competitiveness power (dependency, lock-in, comparative advantage in international trade)
Assessment Criteria (6) Social Concerns Broader links with other economic sectors and population groups Employment and poverty alleviation (substitution over manpower)
Priority Areas for mitigation Industrial boilers District central heating and power cogeneration (CHP) Industrial waste heat and gas recovery in coal-mining, steel and cement sectors Oil saving and switching to bio-fuel; Electric motors Efficient buildings
Priority Area for mitigation (Cont’d) Green lighting Energy saving in the public facilities (air conditioning, heating, and lighting in shopping mall, office buildings, museum, entertainment/sport facilities…) System optimization: streamlined design, retrofit and sound management Setting up energy saving monitoring and energy saving service system (ESCO, etc)
Priority Areas for Adaptation Systematic observation of climate and weather changes; Impact, risk and vulnerability assessment; Early warning/forecasting system for extreme weather events; Water collection and water-saving irrigation; Crop and tree seed development and transformation to fit changing climate
Candidate Technologies (1) 28 technologies are selected as candidates for assessment. The covering categories are as follows: Clean coal and power generation (Ultra supercritical, IGCC, etc); Motor technologies –fuel economy: engine, vehicle mass reduction, gearing; –hybrid power; –electric vehicle technologies Metallurgy technologies; Coal-bed methane recovery; Continued
Candidate Technologies (2) Cement technologies; Biomass technologies; Key technologies for wind-powered generation (material, control tech…); Solar heating; Solar Photovoltaic cell; continued
Candidate Technologies (3) Fuel cell; Control technologies related to energy efficiency, such as frequency conversion; Amorphous transformer manufacturing; Harmless waste-burned generation Risk assessment and management technologies on extreme weather events; Modeling and forecasting technologies on extreme weather events; and Technologies on systematic optimization of water resource management
Problems in the Exercise (1) Identifying the right experts to be in the survey sample; Determination the appropriate scale of survey sample; Knowledge limitation of experts on technologies employed in different sectors and fields (in case of overall integrative assessment); Continued
Problems in the Exercise (2) Debate on incomparable indicators in developing assessment criteria (different weight over different. Failure in consistency test for significant amount of experts in pilot survey Low returning rate of questionnaires: awareness, weak incentives, etc. Update list of candidate technologies to be assessed: multi-round assessment
Challenge How to link and coordinate the needs at levels of projects, companies, sectors, regions, and the whole country? How to address the dynamics of technology changes and market changes?
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