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African Union’s Food Security Program

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1 African Union’s Food Security Program
H.E. Tumusiime Rhoda Peace Commissioner for Agriculture and Rural Economy African Union Commission Your Excellency Jakaya Mrisho Kikwete, President of the United Republic of Tanzania ad Chairman of the East African Community Authority Your Excellency Pierre Nkrunziza, President of the Republic of Burundi and incoming Chairman of the EAC Authority Your Excellency Mwai Kibaki, President of the Republic of Kenya Rt. Hon. Bernard Makuza, Prime Minister of Rwanda Hon. Sam Kutesa, Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Uganda Honourable Ministers and other distinguished Delegates, Ladies and Gentlemen, The EAC Model I would like to salute Your Excellencies for re-igniting the fire of the East African Community (EAC). It is glowing. We are inspired and proud of the EAC. We thank you for reviving the glory of the people of East Africa by championing regional cooperation and integration. As I interact regionally and internationally, EAC is given as a shinning example of a Regional Economic Community that is progressing steadily. East Africa Community Heads of State Retreat on Food Security and Climate Change  2nd December, 2010 Ngurdoto Mountain Lodge, Arusha, Tanzania

2 Introduction Focus of the Theme and its Global Significance.
Food Security and Climate Change impact at Continental Level. Your Excellencies I thank you for focusing on the this important topic which is a global challenge I was requested to make a presentation to you on Food Security and Climate Change impact at Continental Level

3 Outline The African Union Agriculture & Food Security Strategy
Progress on the Decision Challenges Climate Change impacts on agriculture Proposals on how to respond to these challenges Your Excellencies, my presentation will be structured as follows: I will first highlight the AU Agriculture and Food Security Strategy arising out of your Decisions in Maputo. I will specifically outline the progress made in implementing these decisions as well as the broad challenges encoutered. As part of the Theme of this Summit, I will spend some time on Climate Change and particularly its impacts on agriculture. I will conclude my presentation with the proposals of the African Union Commission on how to respond to these challenges for a food secure Africa.

4 The AU’s Agricultural Strategy
Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Program (CAADP) Adopted at the 2003 HOSG Summit in Maputo Endorsed as a strategy for transforming Africa’s Agriculture. The main elements of the strategy were and still are: The pursuit of minimum 6% annual agricultural growth Allocation of substantial amounts from government own resources to agriculture and related investment Your Excellencies will recall that at the Ordinary Session of 2003 HOSG, you endorsed the Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development as (CAADP) a strategy for transforming Africa’s Agriculture The main elements of the strategy were and still are: The pursuit of minimum 6% annual agricultural growth Allocation of substantial amounts from government own resources to agriculture and related investment to a minimum of 10 percent. I saw in the preceding presentations that is being done by Member States.

5 The Four Pillars of CAADP Include:
Pillar 1: Sustainable land and water management Pillar 2: improving rural infrastructure and trade-related capacities for market access; Pillar3: increasing food supply, increased nutrition, reducing hunger, and improving responses to food crises; and Pillar4: improving agricultural research, technology dissemination, and adoption. The two cross-cutting areas are: Academic and Professional Training in Agriculture; and Knowledge Systems, Peer Review, and Policy Dialogue Your Excellencies, CAADP focuses on four broad Pillars: Pillar 1: Sustainable land and water management Pillar 2: improving rural infrastructure and trade-related capacities for market access; Pillar3: increasing food supply, increased nutrition, reducing hunger, and improving responses to food crises; and Pillar4: improving agricultural research, technology dissemination, and adoption. The two cross-cutting areas are: Academic and Professional Training in Agriculture; and Knowledge Systems, Peer Review, and Policy Dialogue.

6 Notable other commitments in agriculture
Abuja food summit 2006 Promote and protect nine strategic commodities Invest in agriculture related infrastructure through public-private partnership Establish technical assistance program Establish a funding mechanism for up-scaling agriculture success Your Excellencies have clearly stated and demonstrated over years that Agriculture and Rural development has been of your high priority. You have made a number of Decisions related to promoting and protecting nine strategic commodities; investing in agriculture-related infrastructure through public-private partnership; establishing technical assistance program and establishing a funding mechanism for up-scaling agriculture success; increasing fertilizer use and establish a African Fertilizer Financing Mechanism, and also the common market for agricultural commodities. At the 2009 July Summit which took place in Sirte, Libya, I recall the words of wisdom His Excellency President Kibaki said, that in the 1960’s and 70’s, most African economies and agriculture were growing at more than 10% per year and almost all countries were more food secure. He proposed that beyond meeting the Maputo declaration of investing 10% of public budget for agriculture, each African country should increase its budget to 13% by 2012. Your Excellencies, the Decisions taken in all these Summits show commitment on your part and an encouragement to all stakeholders in Africa. And a lot is happening.

7 Progress in implementing the Strategy - CAADP
ECOWAS (14) Togo COMESA (7) Kenya Sierra Leone Rwanda Niger Burundi Mali Ethiopia Benin Malawi Liberia Uganda Nigeria Gambia Ghana SADC (2) Swaziland Cape Verde Tanzania Senegal Guinea Bissau Burkina Faso Ivory Coast Despite the challenges, there has been progress in translating the commitments to real action. I am glad to report Your excellencies that, through this, 22 countries on the continent have advanced in this agenda by working and putting in place stronger country strategies which commit all parties including government, development partners, private sector, civil society and farmers to harmonize efforts along a common agricultural strategy which we call a compact, ready to rid themselves out of food insecurity. I am glad that since I was elected AU Commissioner for Agriculture and Rural Economy, our engagement with pan African institutions including RECs as well as partners, has enabled us to register 21 compacts within less than two years. Your Excellencies, I am happy to note that in the East African Community; Rwanda was the first to put this commitment into practice in 2007 and there is good progress in Rwanda. All the remaining countries in the Community have signed to this commitment. In fact I am pleased to report that the Africa Union’s Department of Rural Economy and Agriculture which I head has worked with all the countries in the region in formulating strong plans to implement the broad strategies. I am not saying that signing a CAADP compact is an end in itself but it has proved to be a means to increase resources to right choices in agriculture as a result of evidence-based planning coupled with noticeable partnership built around the CAADP compacts, increased commitment of resources and the clarity on the drivers of agriculture. All these efforts are expected to translate into real poverty and hunger reduction.

8 Despite the progress… there are still challenges

9 Challenges.... Notable progress in intensifying the collective effort to promote agriculture and food security on the continent. However, the situation on the ground is not encouraging. Annual budgetary allocation less than 6% against the agreed targets. Average Agricultural Growth in many countries is 3% less than the anticipated 6% Your Excellencies, it is gratifying to note that Member States, under Your Excellencies’ able leadership have made progress in intensifying the collective effort to promote agriculture and food security on the continent. While these steps are encouraging and offer clear vision, the situation on the ground calls for more effort. Agriculture in most of our countries receives less than 6% of the total budgetary allocation well below the agreed targets in Maputo. Even the agreed targets of the budget are less if rural water, road, energy, and storage infrastructure are included especially the fact that over 70% of our people are in rural areas and depend on agriculture. Average growth in most Member States is less than 3% compared to the annual target of 6%. If this is compared with a faster growth in population, unless we invest more in agriculture, this phenomenon can undermine the impressive economic growth that Africa is experiencing. Africa’s population is expected to be 2.1 billion by from current 1 billion. This means that per capita food production will be lower than the rate of population growth. Overseas Development Assistance (ODA) to agriculture declined from 8 billion dollars in 1980s to 3.4 billion in 2004 (UNCTAD,2008). The overall remittance flow expected to decline by 6% due to global financial down turn.

10 Challenges.....Slow pace of implementation of the Agriculture Strategy by Member States
Since 2003, it has taken sometime to translate the framework and principles into real actions for the Member States. This is indeed challenging. As a result, calls have been made to act beyond decisions, resolutions and declarations, but with more energies and commitment at country level. Since 2003, it has taken time to translate the framework and principles into real actions for the Member States. Your excellencies, calls have been made for us to act beyond decisions, resolutions and declarations, and put in place corresponding energies at country level. This has been a challenging call for your attention as Head of States at the helm.

11 Financial crises is overshadowing the agricultural agenda.
Limited fertilizer use 8kgs/ha compared to 150kgs/ha which is the global average of fertilizer use. Food and nutrition security on the continent has continued to experience challenges relating to a number of factors including: Limited supply of food on the global market; Surge in food prices for more then 50% between Dec and July 2008; Limited investment in agriculture. Financial crises is overshadowing the agricultural agenda. Your Excellencies, our factor productivity and mainly land is low. Fertilizer use on the continent is low at 8kgs/ha compared to 150kgs/ha which is the global average of fertilizer use. As you will see in the next slide, Africa has the lowest use of fertilizer in the whole world. Therefore, we believe that the use of fertilisers would contribute to increased agricultural productivity. Your Excellencies, may wish to note that although the surge in food prices subsided and even started retreating in mind-2008, prices have remained relatively high, presenting a number of challenges for Africa. High food prices can be an opportunity but the capacity of Africa to respond and take advantage of these high prices is yet to cope with expectations This challenge will be made far more difficult to deal with if global warming continues, as predicted by the Inter-Governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) : global mean surface temperature projected to rise in a range from 1.80C to 4.00C by Such climate changes will affect all components of food security: food production and availability, stability of food supply, access to food and food utilization. Prolonged droughts and overwhelming floods and erratic weather patters continue to devastate Africa's agriculture

12 Fertilizer application rates are the lowest in the World
Source: IFDC

13 Food import Bill Africa’s annual import bill for agricultural commodities of US$ 33billion could be converted into intra-African agricultural trade and investment This money is being donated to the rest of the world, this could be converted into more investment in agriculture to produce for the available market Your Excellencies while these challenges exist, there are greater opportunities: The potential for national, regional and international markets is big. There is clear demonstration that the national and regional markets exist: This is manifested in Africa’s annual food import bill of 33 billion over the last five years in addition to food aid amounting to 4 million tons (64% of the total global food aid) both of which benefit mostly foreign producers. The hard earned US $ 33 billion that our continent spends on food importation could be converted into own investments in Agriculture that require almost US $ 17 billion annually. The bulk of this import bill consists of cereals and these cereals can be grown in this region. Your Excellencies, virtually all wheat imported by Africa are supplied by non-African regions, while intra-African trade in maize and rice is at 16% and 14% of imports of these commodities, respectively with EU, USA and Asian countries supplying the deficit. And yet Africa has the potential to fill this gap. Accelerating regional integration, which Your Excellencies have been championing will, therefore, be critical to unlock Africa’s internal Market potential.

14 Let me turn briefly to the central theme of this Summit on what Climate Change will cause to Agriculture and food security. Your Excellencies, one cannot talk of these challenges without touching Climate Change which is undermining agriculture and food security – and thankfully this js the central theme of this Summit.

15 Climate Change and Africa’s biggest Co2 emitters
Africa is climate change victim number one Africa is home to 15% of the world’s population, but emits less than 4% of global pollutant emissions. Africa will have to cope with year- round droughts As temperatures rise above 20C scientists predict that an estimated two billion people will be affected by water shortage. Developing countries will suffer from sea level rise According to the World Bank, the one meter rise in the sea level predicated for the 22nd century will force 16 million Egyptians to leave their homes. Africa is climate change victim number one Africa is home to 15% of the world’s population, but emits less than 4% of global pollutant emissions. Africa will have to cope with year-round droughts As temperatures rise above 20C, scientists predict that an estimated two billion people will be affected by water shortage; majority in Africa. Developing countries will suffer from sea level rise According to the World Bank, the one meter rise in the sea level predicted for the 22nd century will, for example, force 16 million Egyptians to leave their homes. The Map in the top right corner and the bottom bar charts show comparative carbon emissions in Africa

16 Climate change impacts...
If not accorded due attention the cost of climate change will be more than that of the two world wars and the Great Depression (5 to 20% of GDP). Only 1% of global GDP per annum must be invested to avoid the worst effects of climate change In Africa alone, between 75m and 250m people will be exposed to increased water stress due to climate change by 2020. A temperature rise of 20 would dramatically shrink the land available for growing Robusta coffee in Uganda and restrict it to upland areas. Your Excellencies, It is estimated that if climate change is not accorded due attention, the cost of climate change will be more than that of the two World Wars and the Great Depression (5 to 20% of GDP). Only 1% of global GDP per annum must be invested to avoid the worst effects of climate change In Africa alone, between 75 million and 250 million people will be exposed to increased water stress due to climate change by 2020. A temperature rise of 20 would, as example, dramatically shrink the land available for growing Robusta coffee in Uganda and restrict it to upland areas.

17 Climate change impacts...
Demand for irrigation will grow by 5 percent to 20 percent worldwide. Sub-Saharan Africa’s share in the global number of hungry people could rise from 24 percent to between 40 and 50 % and the dependence of developing countries on food imports could increase For Africa, the sad prospect is that on the aggregate, the impacts will be agricultural productivity loss of between 15 and 30 percent Demand for irrigation will grow by 5 percent to 20 percent worldwide. Sub-Saharan Africa’s share in the global number of hungry people could rise from 24 percent to between 40 and 50 percent and the dependence of developing countries on food imports could increase. Majority of which is in this region which is most prone to Climate Change as recent examples have shown. For Africa, the sad prospect is that on the aggregate, the impacts will be agricultural productivity loss of between 15 and 30 percent which is devastating indeed. The impacts of climate change will as a result exacerbate the food and nutrition situation as depicted in the next slide.

18 Your Excellencies, the information available shows that almost the one billion people who go hungry everyday most are women and children. As you can see from the Global Map, Africa’s very rich corridor in terms of better soils, water, minerals, forests etc which most of our countries lie, are the ones where hunger is hitting most. The red shaded countries indicate where hunger is most prevalent. Needless to say, malnutrition prevents children from reaching full developmental and cognitive potential. One child dies every six seconds from hunger related causes. More people die of hunger every year than from AIDs, Malaria and tuberculosis combined.

19 What can be done to generate quick-wins in Africa and specifically in East Africa
There are a number of things that can be done to fast-track and advance agriculture and food security despite the challenges highlighted.

20 Proposed quick-wins 1. Stronger Political Commitments
The election of HE President Bingu Wa Mutharika as Chair of AU has been a boost to the African agricultural agenda. As you are aware, he stood against all odds and turned Malawi from a food deficit to a food surplus country within seasons and not years. Proposals for creating quick wins within agriculture and food security have been identified. For the African Union to have been chaired the whole of this year by H.E President Bingu Wa Mutharika, President of the Republic of Malawi, has been considered as a boost to the African agricultural agenda. As you are aware, he stood against all odds and turned Malawi from a food deficit to a food surplus country within seasons and not years. Within these CAADP Compacts, and to create quick wins, the Commission is working with the AU Chair to demonstrate more impact. We see this succeeding because of Your Excellencies own further commitments and those you will be making in this extraordinary Summit. We have proposed a set of fast-track actions which accordingly within agricultural season, or two can achieve food production surpluses and reduce poverty significantly. Your excellencies, these proposals call for clear policy change and effective strategic interventions that will enable AU Member States to achieve demonstrable impact within seasons rather than years. Your Excellencies, the World’s Strong Economies, except for a few, started with a sound base in Agriculture.

21 Proposed quick-wins 2. Fast-Track actions
Agreement on policies for increased access to yield enhancing input and subsidies. Market stabilization measures to stabilize income of smallholder farmers to continue producing for domestic markets Incentives for farmers along market corridors Intensification of both small scale and large scale irrigation Your Excellencies, we have proposed that these fast-track actions could include: Agreement on policies, strategies investments (including public input subsidies) for increased access to yield-enhancing inputs: with special attention to fertilizers, seeds and pesticides that reduce the currently significant post-harvest losses and damage to grain. Focus could initially be on cereals-perhaps even for the entire 5 years. We need to adopt market stabilization Measures to stabilize producer prices, as incentives to farmers to continue producing the surpluses needed to satisfy the growing regional food markets. Because farmers are risk averse, any price fall at harvest will deter the small-scale farmers from planting for the next season. Providing incentives to farmers and food-market operators through policy inducements but ensuring that such incentives are made particularly attractive for producers located within or near transport corridors so that surplus can be cost effectively moved to where they are most needed. Intensification of both small scale and large scale irrigation to contain the vagaries of weather

22 Proposed quick-wins Collectively adapting policies for protecting African or regional markets from subsidized imports and un-predictable food aid Immediately implement food grain or cereal reserves especially for maize, rice, beans and other grains/cereals Launching substantive programs to improve nutrition of the most vulnerable Given the failure to date to have the OECD countries remove or reduce Subsidies for their farmers which render Africa’s domestic producers uncompetitive in their own markets, arrange for collective or national protection of African markets from subsidized imports and unpredictable food aid, especially for cereals, the supplies of which easily dislocate markets for local producers Policy commitment to having food aid supplies dominated as rapidly as possible by home-grown grains rather than charitable international supplies, accompanied by establishment of grain reserves progressively stocked with grain produced in Africa Launching substantive programs to improve nutrition of the most vulnerable in particular children under 2, increasingly to be based on home-grown foods. These actions are expected to make agriculture attractive as the markets for small producers will be assured. In taking forward these quick-wins and move into medium and long term actions, we are trying also to address climate change challenges

23 Proposed quick-wins 3. Addressing Climate Change
At global level, Africa’s common position advocates for placing of agriculture high on the agenda for climate change negotiations Adopting policy responses that not only enhance agriculture’s mitigating role but also reduce the vulnerability of poor people to food insecurity Adopting a water harvesting program which will cushion or enhance the limited water resources Regardless of the approach, we must ensure that technological and institutional changes take place now, before the impact of climate change becomes too severe and irreversible. At global level, Africa’s common position advocates for placing of agriculture high on the climate change negotiation. This has not yet fully succeeded-as the sector is absent from the incomplete agreements reached at the Copenhagen and soon to be in Cancun Mexico. We are continuing to push under the Committee of African Heads of State on Climate Change (CAHOSCC) which also includes two heads of States from the East African Community i.e. Kenya and Uganda. This is also the time to plan for the Cop 17 in South Africa. At the same time, it is important to adopt policy responses that not only enhance agriculture’s mitigating role but also reduce the vulnerability of poor people to food insecurity. Adapting a water harvesting program, for example, will cushion or enhance the limited water resources. Regardless of the approach, we must ensure that technological and institutional changes take place now, before the impact of climate change becomes too severe and irreversible.

24 Greater investment in Disaster Risk Reduction(DRR).
Proposed quick-wins Greater investment in Disaster Risk Reduction(DRR). Ensuring faster and more appropriate responses to disasters (investing more in early warning systems) Investing in improved hazard and vulnerability analysis and mapping systems to better assess climate change risk. Your Excellencies, we have also noted with encouragement the increasing investments in Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) and we look forward to sustainable mechanisms in this regard. We also need to ensure faster and more appropriate responses to disasters by investing more in early warning systems. We are also looking at investing in improved hazard and vulnerability analysis and mapping systems to better assess climate change risk.

25 Involvement of African agriculture and forestry in carbon markets.
Keep active in international dialogue: Look out in Mexico for highlighting so that agriculture so that it can also access climate change resources Securing support to our mitigation and adaptation efforts through financing and technology development transfer. Involvement of African agriculture and forestry in carbon markets. Your Excellencies, distinguished delegates, Ladies and Gentleman, we note with pleasure that the EAC as a region has remained active in international dialogue: We hope that efforts will be sustained in order to prepare for the next Conference of Parties Session in (Mexico 2010 and in South Africa in 2011) to ensure that we emphasize agriculture in the global climate change negotiations , supported by appropriate texts for securing developing world the support needed for our mitigation and adaptation efforts through financing and technology development transfer; Greatly increasing the involvement of African Agriculture and forestry in carbon markets would also increase earnings from carbon sequestration credits for Africa which hosts one of the lungs of the world.

26 4. Increasing Investments in Agricultural Intensification
Accelerating agricultural productivity enhancement by increasing investment and by crafting policies that make adoption of agricultural technologies affordable and sustainable. Prioritizing the elimination of poverty in Africa - the poor can cope with neither food insecurity nor climate change. Only prosperity can empower them to better survive the challenges ahead. Achieving CAADP targets requires complementary investments in other critical sectors, mainly: Health, Education, Energy, Water and Infrastructure Your Excellencies, we look for your committed leadership towards accelerating agricultural productivity enhancement by increasing investment and by crafting policies that make adoption of agricultural technologies affordable and sustainable. Your Excellencies have stated and demonstrated on various occasions that prioritizing the elimination of poverty in Africa - the poor can cope with neither food insecurity nor climate change. Only prosperity can empower them to better survive the challenges ahead. Your Excellencies, most critical is that achieving CAADP targets requires complementary investments in other critical sectors, mainly: Health, Education, Energy, Water and Infrastructure.

27 On the last note Recent experiences of food riots in some of our countries showed us that food crises can pose a high political risk. Therefore investing in agriculture development and emphasizing food security can ensure political stability. Your Excellencies, the people of Africa continue to count on you. We have seen many examples where political leadership and commitment at the highest level has created the desired impact; Your Excellencies, Recent experiences of food riots in some of African countries showed us that food crises can pose a high political risk. Therefore, investing in agriculture development and emphasizing food security can ensure political stability. Food security and poverty reduction therefore remain key tenets to good governance, peace and security. Your Excellencies, the people of Africa continue to benefit from your wise leadership and guidance as their expectations continue to rise. We have seen many examples where political leadership and commitment at the highest level has created the desired impact and we are encouraged by the need to have best practices and success stories replicated across the continent.

28 I Thank You for your highest attention
Your Excellencies, I Thank You for your highest attention Your Excellencies, I Thank You for your highest attention


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