Presentation on theme: "Training workshop on Basic Veterinary Epidemiology applied to the surveillance and research on animal diseases, in particular HPAI JOINT / PRISE / OIE."— Presentation transcript:
1Training workshop on Basic Veterinary Epidemiology applied to the surveillance and research on animal diseases, in particular HPAIJOINT / PRISE / OIE Joint Training WorkshopHanoi, Vietnam27 November - 1 December 2006Shiro YoshimuraJapan/OIE HPAI Special Trust Fund Programme Coordination Office
2Subjects What’s OIE ? Epidemiology and Disease Programme What’s HPAI ? HPAI outbreaks in this regionAvian Influenza in International Animal Health Code ( you can see what are important in the prevention and control of HPAI. )Japan/OIE Special Trust Fund Programme for Highly Pathogenic Influenza Control at Source in Southeast AsiaVietnam & TADs
4The OIE World Organisation for Animal Health (Office International des Epizooties)An intergovernmental organisationoperating expenses are paid by member country contributionsFounded in 1924167 Member CountriesDelegates are Chief Veterinary officers (CVO)Headquarters in Paris
5The OIE’s objectivesEnsure transparency in global animal health situationCollect, analyse and disseminate veterinary informationContribute expertise and encourage coordinated approach to disease outbreaksImprove veterinary servicesWithin its WTO mandate, safeguard world trade through animal health standardsAnimal welfare and animal production food safety
7Epidemiology and Disease Programme What diseases infectWhenWhereHow many & what animals( zoonoses or not ? )HowWith what consequenceBasis for prevention & controlTimelyNo biasPopulationGood for analysis
9TADs and Philosophy TAD : Trans-boundary animal diseases They cross boundaries even though they do have no feet. Human factors tend to be responsible for most of outbreaks.Diseases are coming into and going out of your country Vietnamese major cities with high demand forLivestock and livestock products Destination of products and diseasesPhilosophyThere are proverbsthat Be kind and sincere to others, and the kindness and sincerity come back to you from others, andthat Know yourself and have a good knowledge of an enemy, you will never lose any battle.
11Analysis of the global AI situation Pandemic potentialThere is a correlation between high viral load circulating in animals and the environment and the potential for a dangerous viral re-assortment or mutation.All countries of the world should have efficient veterinary services in order to prevent entry of the disease, to allow early detection and a rapid response, in collaboration with partners.Mechanisms set up to control AI situation are equally applicable for the control of other emerging and re-emerging animal diseases.
12HPAI Disease ProfileRepeated outbreaks since late 2003 and Viruses holding a foothold and circulating, in the RegionThreatening risks to human and animal healthSocio-economic impacts and Spread to new countries and re-emerging (including roles of migratory birds)Impediment to tradeBio-security (animal production systems; backyard, wet-markets, multi-species raising, etc.)Gaps between legislation and its enforcement (Needs for Capacity Building and Improvement of relevant infrastructures and resources of National Veterinary Services)Communication with producers and other stakeholdersStrategic vaccination (as a supplementary tool in at-high risk countries)
13Avian Influenza & Smallpox Range of SusceptibleAnimalsWidePoultry( domesticated or wild )NarrowOnly humanProtectivity of VaccineNot necessarily highHighDisease management policyNot easy to eradicateFocus on early detection & controlEradicated
14Reducing the threat at source to its minimum A rapid reduction of the viral load and its circulation in domestic poultryEarly detection and transparent notificationAppropriate national chain of commandEnsure surveillance in domestic poultry and wild birdsRapid responserapid confirmation of suspect casescontainmentHumane slaughterResort to vaccination if necessaryGood governance, legislation, policies and resources, in line with OIE international standards on quality of VS
19Avian Influenza in International Animal Health Code ( you can see what are importantin the prevention and control of HPAI. )
20Avian Influenza In International Animal Health Code(1) Definition of the disease : an infection of poultry caused by any influenza A virus ofthe H5 or H7 subtypesany AI virus with an intravenous pathogenicity index (IVPI) greater than 1.2 or at least 75% mortality in 4-to 8-week-old chickens infected intravenously
21Avian Influenza In International Animal Health Code(2) Criteria for the NAI (notifiable Avian Influenza )status of a country, a zone or a compartmentthe outcome of a risk assessment identifying all potential factors for NAI occurrence and their historic perspective;NAI is notifiable in the whole country, an on-going NAI awareness programme is in place, and all notified suspect occurrences of NAI are subjected to field and, where applicable, laboratory investigations;appropriate surveillance is in place to demonstrate the presence of infection in the absence of clinical signs in poultry, and the risk posed by birds other than poultry; this may be achieved through an NAI surveillance programme in accordance with Appendix 3.8.9.
22Avian Influenza In International Animal Health Code(3) NAI free country, zone or compartmentA country, zone or compartment may be considered free from NAI when it has been shown that neither HPNAI nor LPNAI infection has been present in the country, zone or compartment for the past 12 months, based on surveillance in accordance with Appendix 3.8.9.Regaining of NAI free status by a previously free country, zone or compartmentIn the case of HPNAI infections, 3 months after a stamping-out policy (including disinfection of all affected establishments) is applied, providing that surveillance in accordance with Appendix has been carried out during that three-month period.
23Avian Influenza In International Animal Health Code(4) When importing live poultry (other than day-old poultry ) from an NAI free country / zone / compartment, Veterinary Administrations should require the presentation of an international veterinary certificate attesting that:the poultry showed no clinical sign of NAI on the day of shipment;the poultry were kept in an NAI free country, zone or compartment since they were hatched or for at least the past 21 days;the required surveillance has been carried out on the establishment within at least the past 21 days;if vaccinated, the poultry have been vaccinated in accordance with Appendix 3.8.9., and the relevant information is attached.
24Avian Influenza In International Animal Health Code(5) When importing fresh meat of poultry from an NAI free country, zone or compartment, Veterinary Administrations should require the presentation of an international veterinary certificate attesting that the entire consignment of fresh meat comes from birds:which have been kept in an NAI free country, zone or compartment since they were hatched or for at least the past 21 days;which have been slaughtered in an approved abattoir and have been subjected to ante-mortem and post-mortem inspections for NAI with favourable results.
25DiagnosisWhat are important ?AccurateLess time consuming
26Diagnosis of Avian Influenza (1) Assessment of pathogenicity A HPAI virus is defined as one of the two following methods in terms of pathogenicity in chickens.Any influenza virus that is lethal for six (75%), seven or eight of eight 4-to 8 week old susceptible chickens within 10 days following intravenous inoculation with 0.2ml of a 1/10dilution of a bacteria-free, infective allantoic fluid.Any virus that has an intravenous pathogenicity index (IVPI) greater than 1.2 as a result ofi) intravenous injection of fresh infective allantoic fluid to ten 6-week-old SPF or SNA chickens,ii) clinical assessment at 24-hour intervals and scoring clinical signs of each chicken ( 1: sick, 2: severely sick, 3: dead, IVPI is the mean score per bird per observation over the 10-day period.)
27Diagnosis of Avian Influenza (2) Serological tests Agar gel immunodiffusion testHaemagglutination and haemagglutination inhibition testsELISA testWith the entry of newly developed tests including antigen detection(Directigen), and direct RNA detection (RT-PCR)
28Importance for the prevention and control of HPAI indicated by OIE Code < requirement to demonstrate past 12 month freedom, or 3 month freedom after a stamping-out >Diagnostic capacity buildingSurveillanceImprovement of strategies, laws / regulationsProvision of necessary materialsTraining & review for immediate responseCoordination & cooperation＊ With Other ministries, local governments ＊ With farmers & consumers ( public awareness )
29Japan/OIE Special Trust Fund Programme for Highly Pathogenic Influenza Controlat Source in Southeast Asia
30Activities of the Programme (OIE component) To encourage the improvement of regional and national HPAI control strategies including the development of contingency plansTo collect, analyse and disseminate Technical information to further strengthen regional early warning systemsTo strengthen diagnostic capacity of regional collaborating laboratories and national reference/diagnostic laboratories for HPAI including the holding of training courses on advanced HPAI diagnosis and installment of high performance diagnostic equipment and materialsTo hold training courses for field veterinarians and para-professionals on HPAI strategic surveillanceBudget: About 8 million US$
31Japan/OIE Special Trust Fund Programme for AI Control Government of JapanOIE Paris (HQ)Regional Meetings with CVOs and other national officers for initiation and evaluation of activitiesOIE TokyoOIE Project Coordinator in BangkokRegional LevelDevelopment of Regional Strategies including contingency plans, information sharing for early warningCapacity building:Software; Support to Control Strategy Development, Capacity building of diagnosis and surveillance, etc., Training for veterinarians and para-professionals on strategic surveillance (meetings, hands-on workshops, etc.)Hardware; Provision of laboratory diagnostic equipment and materials for capacity buildingDevelopment of Epidemiology Information Systems (computer software)National LevelDevelopment of National Strategies and Training
32Many unfortunate outbreaks Vietnam & TADsMany unfortunate outbreaksSuccess & failureIn prevention & controlGood knowledge ofwhat & how to do and epidemiologyExperienced expertsWork together with colleaguesof neighboring countriesfor Vietnam & this regionSuccessin vaccinationGood strategy & Well-organized societyStrong will ( commitment )You have been successfully controlling HPAI. You deserve confidence. !!!
33Thank you for your attention World Organisation for Animal Health12 rue de Prony75017 Paris, FranceTel: 33 (0)Fax: 33 (0)Courriel :Contact for more information