3 Mercury Planetary Orbiter Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter MPO orbit optimized for studyof planet itselfMMO orbit optimized for studyof magnetosphere
4 Mercury Orbits MMO: 400 x 11,800 km 9.3 hours Direction of Sun at perihelionMPO:
5 Scientific Objectives Origin of MercuryEvolution of MercuryMPO Instruments(Selected by SPC; Nov. 2004)&Scientific ObjectivesNature of surface modifications on MercuryStructure and variability of the magnetosphere of Mercury
6 BELA BepiColombo Laser Altimeter CoPI’s: N. Thomas / T. SpohnScience GoalsFigure of the PlanetInterior Structure and Composition of MercuryFormation and Evolution of the Planet
7 MERCURY (RADIOMETER and) THERMAL INFRARED SPECTROMETER MERTISMERCURY (RADIOMETER and) THERMAL INFRARED SPECTROMETERPI: E.K. JessbergerScience goals:to study the surface composition of Mercuryto identify the key rock-forming mineralsto map the surface mineralogyto measure surface temperature and thermal inertia
8 Mercury Imaging X-ray Spectrometer (MIXS) PI: S. DunkinTo produce global elemental maps of key rock-forming elementsTo perform high spatial resolution mapping of these elemental abundances where solar conditions permitTo confirm that the auroral zone is an intense source of continuum and line X-rays
9 SIXS (Solar Intensity X-ray and particle Spectrometer) PI: J. HouvelinScientific Objectivesaccurate physical estimates of solar X-ray and particle irradiation at the surface of Mercury.Data provided by SIXS are mandatory for a valid fluorescence analysis of MIXS spectra.
10 (ITALIAN SPRING ACCELEROMETER) ISA(ITALIAN SPRING ACCELEROMETER)PI: V. IafollaAN ACCELEROMETER TO MEASURE THE INERTIAL ACCELERATIONS ACTING ON THE MPOthe global gravity field of Mercury and its temporal variationsthe local gravity anomaliesthe rotation state of Mercurythe orbit of the Mercury center–of–mass around the Sun
11 MERMAG Magnetic Field Investigation PI: A. Balogh The primary objectiveto provide magnetic field measurements that will lead to the detailed description of Mercury’s planetary magnetic field, and thereby constrain models of the evolution and current state of the planetary interior.The secondary objectiveto contribute to the study of the interaction of the solar wind with the Hermean magnetic field and the planet itself, the formation and dynamics of the magnetosphere as well as to the processes that control the interaction of the magnetosphere with the planet.
12 PHEBUS: A FUV-EUV Spectrometer PI: E. Chassefiere1) Vertical/ geographic/ seasonal mapping of already detected elements (H, He, O, Na, K, Ca).2) Search for still non-detected compounds (Si, Mg, Al, Fe, S, C, N, OH, H2), and vertical/ geographic/ seasonal mapping.3) Search for noble gases other than He (Ne, Ar, Xe, Kr) and mapping/ monitoring if possible.4) Search for ion species (He+, Na+, O+, Mg+, Al+, Ca+, C+, N+, S+, …) and mapping/ monitoring if possible.5) Measurement of surface reflectance at nm in polar craters in order to search for surface ice layers.
13 PI: E. Flamini SIMBIO-SYS Spectrometer and Imagers for MPO BepiColombo Integrated Observatory SYStemSIMBIO-SYSSIMBIO-SYS package:It incorporates capabilities to perform:medium space resolution global mapping in stereo and colour imaging using two pan-chromatic and 3 broad-band filters Stereo Channel STC;high spatial resolution imaging in a pan-chromatic and 3 broad-band filters High Resolution Imaging Channel HRIC;imaging spectroscopy in the spectral range 400 2000 nm Visible Infrared Hyperspectral Imager VIHIPI: E. FlaminiClassification of Mercury surface featuresMercury surface composition
14 SIMBIO-SYS Science Surface geology: stratigraphy, geomorphology Volcanism: lava plain emplacement, volcanoes identificationGlobal tectonics: structural geology, mechanical properties of lithosphereSurface age: crater population and morphometry, degradation processesSurface composition: maturity and crustal differentiation, weathering, rock forming minerals abundance determinationGeophysics: libration measurements, internal planet dynamics
15 PI: L. Iess MORE Mercury Orbiter Radio-science Experiment Scientific ObjectivesDetermine the gravity field of MercuryDetermine the size and physical state of its coreProvide crucial experimental constraints to models of Mercury’s internal structureTest theories of gravityMeasure the gravitational oblateness of the SunTest and characterize the most advanced interplanetary tracking system ever builtAssess the performances of the novel tracking system in precise orbit determination and space navigation.
16 SERENA Search for Exospheric Refilling and Emitted Natural Abundances PI: S. Orsini Units:ELENA: Emitted Low-Energy Neutral AtomsSTROFIO: Start from a ROtating FIeld spectrOmeterMIPA: Miniature Ion Precipitation AnalyserPICAM: Planetary Ion CAMera
17 Mercury Gamma-ray and Neutron Spectrometer MGNSPI: I.G.MitrofanovScientific goals:to determine the elemental compositions by the measurements of nuclear lines of major soil-composing elementsto determine the elemental compositions by the measurements of the leakage flux of neutrons and of the lines of natural radioactive elementsto determine the regional distribution of volatile depositions on the polar areas of Mercury which are permanently shadowed from the Sun, and to provide a map of column density of this depositions
18 MGNS Backup: MANGA Mercury composition Analysis by Neutron and Gamma-ray spectoscopy PI: C. d'Uston
19 MPO Payload Selection by SPC (Nov. 2004) BELA Laser Altimeter N. Thomas / T. SpohnISA Radio Science V. Iafolla AccelerometerMERMAG Magnetometer A. BaloghMERTIS IR Spectrometer E.K. Jessberger MGNS or Gamma Ray and I. MitrofanovMANGA Neutron Spectrometer C. d'UstonMIXS / X-ray Spectrometer S. Dunkin SIXS Solar Monitor J. HouvelinMORE Radio Science L. Iess Ka-band TransponderPHEBUS UV Spectrometer E. Chassefiere SERENA Neutral Particle Analyser/ S. Orsini (Elena, MIPA, Ion Spectrometers PICAM, Strofio)SIMBIO-SYS High Res.+ Stereo Cameras E. Flamini (HIRC, STC, VIHI) visual and NIR Spectrometer
20 MPO Science Topics Instruments plus MMO Payload Surface Interior MorphologyHigh Resolution Colour CameraStereo CameraVis-Near-IR Mapping Spectrom.TIR Map. Spectrom/RadiometerX-ray Spectrom/Solar Monitorγ-Ray Neutron SpectrometerUltraviolet SpectrometerNeutral & Ion Particle AnalyserLaser AltimeterRadio Science ExperimentMagnetometerSurfaceTopographyCompositionTemperatureState of CoreCore/MantleInteriorCompositionMagnetic FieldCompositionDynamicsExosphereSurface ReleaseLeft panel is the sensitivity and antenna length of Geotail, Phobos-2, and Nozomi plasma wave instruments.Through the long wire antennas, we can survey the plasma space around the Mars in the finest level. Right panel is the spectra observed by Nozomi around the Earth, if wire antennas were extended.PWA can catch all the important waves we expect.Source/Sink BalanceStructure, dynamicsplus MMO PayloadMagnetosphereCompositionInteractions