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RD Lasco, ICRAF1 PRIVA - A Tool for Adaptation Planning especially in NAPA Development Paul V. Desanker Penn State University/Miombo Network (UNFCCC LDC.

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Presentation on theme: "RD Lasco, ICRAF1 PRIVA - A Tool for Adaptation Planning especially in NAPA Development Paul V. Desanker Penn State University/Miombo Network (UNFCCC LDC."— Presentation transcript:

1 RD Lasco, ICRAF1 PRIVA - A Tool for Adaptation Planning especially in NAPA Development Paul V. Desanker Penn State University/Miombo Network (UNFCCC LDC Expert Group; AIACC Project AF38);

2 RD Lasco, ICRAF2 Inspired by the need for a paradigm shift from impact assessments & top down approaches Consider a (real) maize study …GCMs …maize models …lots of simulations and output data …2 years later …

3 RD Lasco, ICRAF3 Maize study … Conclude that maize production and so food security is sensitive to climate variability especially erratic rains – some of the GCMs scenarios projected wetting, others drier conditions...

4 RD Lasco, ICRAF4 Bear in mind … GCM scenarios are not predictions! They are projections of what might happen if the drivers of that scenario were in effect ….

5 RD Lasco, ICRAF5 Impacts to adaptation … That study then recommended adaptation options as follows: Need to adopt drought resistant cultivars Manage water better to withstand erratic rains Switch to crops other than maize

6 RD Lasco, ICRAF6 Now the question is … Are these conclusions and adaptation options informed by the 2-year modeling study of potential impacts of different GCM projections?

7 RD Lasco, ICRAF7 Need for a paradigm shift … Clearly we need to look at adaptation differently …. We still need the impact assessment studies, no doubt, but not to directly inform adaptation (esp those based on multiple scenarios)

8 RD Lasco, ICRAF8 Need for a paradigm shift … One of the missing pieces is of course how to put the results of the scenario assessments in the context of what might actually happen The various uncertainties in the climate system and the assessments themselves notwithstanding

9 RD Lasco, ICRAF9 NAPA under the UNFCCC National Adaptation Programme of Action for Least Developed Countries (LDCs) Designed to implement Article 4.9 of the FCCC that relates to LDCs LDC Fund created under the convention with voluntary contributions from Annex II countries LDCs negotiated this programme and designed the methods for doing NAPAs, etc, with active participation of many experts and agencies Implemented under the GEF, and has gone from idea in 2000 to full programme by COP-7 in Nov 2002

10 RD Lasco, ICRAF10 Enter the NAPA Idea and PRIVA In summary, we believe you can identify (some) major needs for adaptation by an informed interaction with stakeholders in relation to their experience and livelihoods For a given region, we can identify major climate hazards and threats (qualitatively if data insufficient) Then for major sectors or systems important for livelihoods (or other metric), we can characterize impact potential

11 RD Lasco, ICRAF11 Enter the NAPA Idea and PRIVA In order to fully describe vulnerability, need to understand the community or system that is exposed – in terms of adaptive capacity Given the risk of climate hazards, impact potential and adaptive capacity, we can define Vulnerability. And then, Adaptation is the process of decreasing vulnerability

12 RD Lasco, ICRAF12 PRIVA... Participatory … Rapid Integrated Assessment … of Vulnerability … and Adaptation (PRIVA) Mix of process, tools (such as GIS for data processing and display, and models)

13 RD Lasco, ICRAF13 Conceptual description of PRIVA Semi-formal description of vulnerability and adaptation Integrates hazard and risk assessment, functional relationship of systems to climate, thresholds, adaptive capacity etc Analytical solution likely, but can solve/resolve semi- quantitatively (using participatory approach)

14 RD Lasco, ICRAF14 PRIVA for NAPA (from NAPA Primer, Desanker 2004: The NAPA Primer)

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16 RD Lasco, ICRAF16 Framing Adaptation in PRIVA in terms of Eqn 2 Define adaptation to minimize (to zero even) through any of the following: By reducing the risk associated with hazards by manipulating components of risk (Removing/reducing hazard through mitigation is outside domain of analysis for the LDCs) Reduce impact potential through manipulation of the system dependence on climate (cropping manipulations for instance) By increasing coping ability (e.g addressing key determinants such as poverty, access to financial resources, etc) Carry out above in a multi-dimensional analysis or less effectively by addressing only one or some of the components

17 RD Lasco, ICRAF17 Applying PRIVA to NAPA Current knowledge and experiences with climate (variability, extremes etc) sufficient to go through steps using participatory approaches for all LDCs No expectation that NAPA activities will identify or address all adaptation needs especially long-term needs NAPA to address the transition period between recent past/present climate and future changed climate

18 RD Lasco, ICRAF18 Current Coping Range Current Climate Changed Climate? Transition period – NAPA domain

19 RD Lasco, ICRAF19 Cascading or nested spatial scales Apply PRIVA in successive spatial scales until issue is manageable – in relation to stakeholders, or in terms of funding limitations For example, apply at national level to identify/select most vulnerable regions and systems or sectors or communities (“hotspots”) Can then re-apply PRIVA for the selected regions Iterate until can identify clear actions (adaptation activities) that are easily implementable and address specific communities/locations (action-orientedness, etc)

20 RD Lasco, ICRAF20 Cascading or nested spatial scales In fact, PRIVA approach can be applied at any scale, from regional, national, sub-regional to community level depending on the stakeholders

21 RD Lasco, ICRAF21 Summary of PRIVA National level tool for vulnerability assessment Data include: maps, and spreadsheets with data by various subdivisions including admin districts, basins, etc Thematic data such as population, land use, land cover, transportation, etc Models impact models as needed

22 RD Lasco, ICRAF22 Summary of component tools in PRIVA Data analysis (climate data, etc., Fortran programs, statistical software – IDL/ENVI) GIS for spatial data analysis and display (Arcview, AWhere) Impact models – various, biome/crop distribution models, crop models, etc) Ranking: Multiple Criteria Analysis (e.g. Definite) Consensus Building approaches

23 RD Lasco, ICRAF23 Comments Most impact models such as in compendium, are stand alone application suites – not trivial to combine or modify Most cannot modify/customize

24 RD Lasco, ICRAF24 Next Steps Development of “PRIVETTES” for specific climatic hazards and sectors Coastal areas and erosion, flooding Drought Agricultural and Food Security Ecosystem Goods and Services in shared river basins

25 RD Lasco, ICRAF25 Further information Desanker, P. (2004). The NAPA Primer. LDC Expert Group, UNFCCC, Bonn, Germany, 203p. Information on NAPA:, and links

26 RD Lasco, ICRAF26 The NAPA Primer will be launched at 1 pm, Thursday December 9 th, 2004 Room: XXXX, XXX Refreshments will be served Desanker, P. 2004. The NAPA Primer. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Least Developed Countries Expert Group (LEG), Bonn, Germany, 198p.

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