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The contribution of Operational Research to Improving TB-HIV Control Activities in Malawi Rhehab Chimzizi TB Technical Advisor/TBCAP Country Lead-Ghana.

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Presentation on theme: "The contribution of Operational Research to Improving TB-HIV Control Activities in Malawi Rhehab Chimzizi TB Technical Advisor/TBCAP Country Lead-Ghana."— Presentation transcript:

1 The contribution of Operational Research to Improving TB-HIV Control Activities in Malawi Rhehab Chimzizi TB Technical Advisor/TBCAP Country Lead-Ghana Management Sciences for Health STOP TB SYMPOSIUM, CANCUN December 3, 2009

2 Presentation outlines Key relevant social economical and TB and HIV indicators What prompted Malawi to implement TB/HIV operation research agenda? Decisive international TB/HIV study for TB patients that pulled the trigger UNAIDS Recommendations on the use of CPT in PLHIV How Malawi responded to the UNAIDS recommendations? Results of district TB/HIV operational research activities The Malawi policy on VCT and CPT for TB patients Positive results from the districts TB/HIV studies to TB control in Malawi and the world at large On-going challenges Acknowledgements

3 List of Relevant TB and HIV indicators in Malawi INDICATORVALUEYEARSOURCE Population13,066,3202008NSO, Malawi Percentage of female population 51%2008NSO, Malawi % below poverty line53%2009World bank TB notification rate (WHO estimates) 346/100,0002007WHO TB notification rate (actual) 255/100,0002007NTP, Malawi HIV prevalence in the general population 12%2008UNAIDS HIV prevalence among TB patients 69%2007WHO/NTP

4 The Rationale for implementing TB/HIV operational research activities A four-fold increase of TB cases (5,334 in 1985 to 20,676 in 1997) TB death rates increased (6% in 1987 to 21% in 1996) In 2001, 77% of TB patients were HIV positive (surveillance) Health systems not offering HIV testing or any basic care and support for PLHIV (ART too expensive before 2003) Little collaboration between TB and HIV programs – TB and HIV program pursed different agenda Most research just clinically based at the two main referral hospitals

5 A seminal study: CPT in new HIV+ve TB patients in Cote d’Ivoire 760 HIV-positive smear+ve TB patients on short course chemotherapy one month later - CPT or placebo CPT associated with 48% lower mortality 44% lower hospitalisation rate (Wiktor et al Lancet 1999;353: 1469)

6 UNAIDS 2000 PROVISIONAL RECOMMENDATIONS CPT be used in adults and children living with AIDS in Africa as part of minimum package of care

7 Ethical implications Unethical to conduct further randomised controlled clinical trials on CPT efficacy in HIV-positive TB patients UNAIDS- funded Malawi College of Medicine RCT trial on CPT was stopped after recruiting 37 patients

8 Malawi MOH Meeting in 2000 Cotrimoxaxole may not have the same efficacy in Malawi as Cote d’Ivoire because different resistance patterns and different spectrum of HIV-related illness Malawi not prepared to adopt WHO/UNAIDS – guidelines on CPT as policy because no evidence of effect and may be dangerous to the first line of anti-malaria treatment (then SP) Strong endorsement for district operational research Operational research studies started / continued in Thyolo, Karonga and Lilongwe districts on CPT in HIV+ve TB patients

9 AIM OF DISTRICT STUDIES in Thyolo and Karonga To determine the feasibility and effectiveness of “VCT and CPT” in reducing case fatality in a cohort of TB patients registered under routine programme conditions [Zachariah et al, AIDS 2003 – Thyolo study] [Mwaungulu et al, Bulletin WHO 2004 – Karonga study]

10 ANALYSIS: Historical comparison VCT+CPT group: the cohort offered VCT and CPT and registered during a full one year period Control group: the cohort not on CPT and registered the previous year during a full one year period Comparison of mortality at the end of treatment between the two groups

11 REGISTERED TB CASES Thyolo VCT-CPT1061 Control925 Karonga VCT-CPT362 Control355

12 Interventions in TB patients Thyolo (1061 patients) Karonga (362 patients) HIV tested91%73% HIV-positive69%51% Started CPT94%96%

13 REACTIONS TO CPT Thyolo: #. on CPT 693 #. reactions 14 ( 2%) Karonga: #. on CPT 153 #. reactions 8 (5%)

14 Case fatality: all TB types Thyolo: VCT-CPT 28% Control 36% p < 0.001 Karonga: VCT-CPT 29% Control 37% p < 0.001

15 Number of TB patients that needed treatment with “VCT and CPT” to prevent one death = 12 in both Thyolo and Karonga “estimated cost to prevent one death = USD$100”

16 CONCLUSION In the two district based studies, the “package of VCT and CPT” given to patients at or shortly after registration was associated with a significant reduction in case fatality Thyolo most effect in smear-ve PTB Karonga most effect in smear+ve PTB

17 POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS for TB PATIENTS Provision of VCT and CPT in TB patients continues in Thyolo, Karonga Continue joint implementation of VCT+ CPT in TB patients in routine programme conditions through the WHO coordinated ProTEST Project in Lilongwe Phased scale up of VCT +CPT country-wide

18 Progress A three-year HIV-TB scale up plan developed and incorporated within the NTP 5-year (2002-2006) development plan National VCT-CPT guidelines developed Training package on VCT and CPT developed and implemented CPT procured for HIV-infected TB patients M&E system set up Regular progress reports through routine quarterly monitoring and annual country wide situation analysis of HIV and TB services

19 HIV Testing and CPT in TB patients in Malawi: progress MALAWI20032004200520062007 TB patients26,83626,13626,01926,65925,767 HIV tested15%26%47%66%83% HIV positive69%72%69%66%69% Started CPT87%97%92%98%97%

20 The rapid HIV test introduced from 2002 CPT introduced from 2002 ART introduced from 2004

21 National TB treatment outcomes in new smear-positive PTB YearTreatment SuccessDeathOther 200271%19%10% 200370%19%11% 200471%16%13% 200574%15%11% 200679%13%8%

22 The secret behind the success TB and HIV programs worked together TA to spear head the research agenda and mentor local staff Costed HIV-TB plan with operational research as a priority Annual national research dissemination workshops Publications in local and international peer review journals A responsive Ministry of Health and political commitment Support from various development partners: USAID, DFID, NORAD, KNCV, WHO and the Global Fund

23 On-going challenges Stock outs of HIV Kits TB clinics not offering on-site HIV testing /counseling to TB patients Stock outs of cotrimoxazole tablets despite the GF support Difficulties in monitoring CPT adherence in the routine program When to start ART in TB patients still a thorny issue – Are we waiting to see more TB patients die before we decisively act? PLHIV have known for years that IPT is effective in reducing TB incidence, but national programs are still busy with workshops to discus the same issue (Lip service at its best) In most national programs operational research is still centralized Human Resource scarcity – Time to strongly consider task shifting to reach the largest impact

24 Acknowledgements The Government of United States of America through USAID for supporting me to attend this conference The Malawi Government for being responsive to the results of operational research District Management Teams in Malawi Development partners: USAID, DFID, NORAD, KNCV, WHO, and The Global Fund etc Prof Anthony Harries now with the Union Prof Felix Salaniponi now with KNCV in Kenya Dr Frank Bonsu, NTP Manager in Ghana

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