25 August 2014Page 4 WHAT IS ASM Airspace Management (ASM) : Is a process by which airspace options are selected and applied to meet the needs of the airspace users The ultimate goal of ASM : Is to achieve the most efficient use of the airspace based on actual needs and, when possible, avoiding permanent airspace segregation
25 August 2014Page 5 ASM GUIDING PRINCIPLES AND STRATEGIES All available airspace should be managed flexibly; Airspace management processes should accommodate dynamic flight trajectories and provide optimum operational solutions; When conditions require that different types of traffic be segregated by airspace organization, the size, shape, and time regulation of that airspace should be set as to minimize the impact on operations;
25 August 2014Page 6 ASM GUIDELINES PRINCIPLES AND STRATEGIES Airspace use should be coordinated and monitored in order to accommodate the conflicting requirements of all users and to minimize any constraints on operations; Airspace reservations should be planned in advance with changes made dynamically whenever possible. The system also needs to accommodate short-notice unplanned requirements; and Complexity of operations may limit the degree of flexibility.
25 August 2014Page 7 FLEXIBLE USE OF AIRSPACE (FUA) What is Flexible Use of Airspace(FUA)? – An airspace management concept – A methodology of capacity management – Airspace should not be designated as either purely civil or purely military airspace – Airspace should be considered as one continuum In which all users‘ requirements have to be accommodated to the greatest possible extent possible
25 August 2014Page 8 How to understand the FUA Definition Key Points in the FUA concept User Requirements Driven—Allocated according to user requirements, not“ owed” by civil or military Segregated Temporarily—Any necessary airspace segregation is temporary, based on actual use of airspace within a specific time period. Managed Dynamically—Managed and used flexibly on a day-to-day basis. Continuum —Contiguous volumes of airspace are not constrained by national boundaries.
25 August 2014Page 10 Steps to implement FUA The first step – Allow temporary access for civilian users to military restricted and reserved airspace for an optimum use of the airspace and benefit the civil operations Another step – Allow temporary access to military users to civilian restricted and reserved airspace to facilitate the training and other missions.
25 August 2014Page 11 Benefits of FUA Reduce distance, time and fuel – Increase flight economy Enhance ATS route network and associated sectorisation – Increase ATC capacity – Reduce Air Traffic delays Temporary airspace reservation are more closely in line with military operational requirements – Better respond to specific military requirements
25 August 2014Page 13 W HY HAVE CIVIL MILITARY COOPERATION ? Civil and military parties have common interests, including: access to airspace normally used by the other party using Flexible Use Airspace (FUA) principles; the efficiency of civil defence and Search and Rescue (SAR) operations, police, security, humanitarian aid and national emergencies; the operation of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS); the need to take into account ‘non-compliant’ military or other State aircraft using special handling status (STS); given the increasingly complex civil aircraft equipage requirements; efficient handling by civil Air Navigation Services (ANS) of special military manoeuvres, such as formations and air refueling; and assurance of civil/military Air Traffic Control (ATC) system inter-operability and connectivity in a modern network-centric environment.
25 August 2014Page 14 What is ICAO’s role? Does NOT regulate the military Serves as an international platform to promote cooperation Determines and disseminate best practices Uses its regional framework to bring civil and military authorities together Raises awareness Facilitates the use of existing arrangements wherever they exist
25 August 2014Page 15 Regulatory framework Key points come out of Article 3 and ICAO Assembly – State aircrafts are exempted from compliance with articles of the Convention – States are required to safeguard navigation of civil aircraft when setting rules for their State aircraft – ICAO Member states may include, when appropriate, representatives of military authorities in the their delegations to ICAO meetings – ICAO should serve as an international platform to facilitate improved civil/military cooperation, collaboration and the sharing of best practices
25 August 2014Page 16 Regional Civil Military Cooperation ICAO S TANDARDS AND R ECOMMENDED PRACTICES Annex 11 contains civil/military coordination provisions, including: – minimising interference with normal operations of civil aircraft; – minimising the size of the military airspace; and – civil – military early coordination and direct communication. Annex 2 —provisions on coordination with military authorities; Doc 4444 —procedures for strayed or unidentified aircraft; Doc 9443 — Manual Concerning Interception of Civil Aircraft; Doc 9554 —military and ATS coordination requirements; Doc 9750 —Global Air Navigation Plan; Circular 328 Unmanned Aircraft Systems; and Circular 330 Civil/Military Cooperation in ATM.
25 August 2014Page 17 Regulatory framework ICAO S TANDARDS AND R ECOMMENDED PRACTICES Annex 11 contains civil/military coordination provisions, including: – minimising interference with normal operations of civil aircraft; – minimising the size of the military airspace; and – civil – military early coordination and direct communication. Annex 2 —provisions on coordination with military authorities; Doc 4444 —procedures for strayed or unidentified aircraft; Doc 9443 — Manual Concerning Interception of Civil Aircraft; Doc 9554 —military and ATS coordination requirements; Doc 9750 —Global Air Navigation Plan; Circular 328 Unmanned Aircraft Systems; and Circular 330 Civil/Military Cooperation in ATM.
25 August 2014Page 19 Prerequisites of FUA National, high-level civil/military coordination body Consistent collaborative national airspace planning process Communication, negotiation, and priority rules and procedures for CMAC Publication of procedures for activities which require airspace reservation or restriction. Framework agreements between civil and military authorities System of periodically review airspace needs, organization and management Predictive and timely access to restricted or reserved airspace
25 August 2014Page 20 THREE LEVELS OF FUA FUA Concept has been developed at the three Levels of Airspace Management that correspond to Civil/Military co-ordination tasks. Each Airspace Management (ASM) level has an impact on the others
25 August 2014Page 21 THREE LEVELS OF FUA Strategic Level 1Strategic Level 1 – Establishment of pre- determined airspace structures; CMAC and ASM procedures; Cross-border coordination and Separation Standards Pre-tactical Level 2Pre-tactical Level 2 – Day-to-day allocation of airspace according to the conditions and procedures agreed upon at level 1 Tactical Level 3Tactical Level 3 — Real-time use of airspace National CMAC Body （ Committee ） ASM Entity （ Joint Cell ） ATS Units and Controlling Military Units
25 August 2014Page 23 AIRSPACE STRUCTURES In the context of Airspace Structures, it includes Controlled Airspace, ATS Route, CDRs, ATC Sectors, Danger Area (D), Restricted Area (R),Prohibited Area (P),Temporary Segregated Area (TSA), Temporary, Reserved Area (TRA), Cross-Border Area (CBA)
25 August 2014Page 24 FLEXIBLE AIRSPACE STRUCTURE Flexible airspace structures are suited to temporary allocation and utilization These airspaces require dedicated coordination procedures for activation/de- activation.
25 August 2014Page 25 FLEXIBLE AIRSPACE STRUCTURE Conditional Route (CDR) Temporary Reserved Area (TRA) Temporary Segregated Area(TSA) Cross-border areas(CBA)
25 August 2014Page 26 TSA and TRA Temporary Reserved Area (TRA).Temporary Segregated Airspace (TSA). Temporarily reserved and allocated for the specific use of a particular user Temporarily segregated and allocated for the exclusive use of a particular user During a determined period of time Other traffic may be allowed to transit through under ATC clearance Other traffic will not be allowed to transit through
25 August 2014Page 27 CBA TRA or TSA established for specific operation requirements over international boundaries. Established to allow military training or operational flights. Not being constrained by national boundaries. Assist in the improvement of ATS route network. Political, legal, technical and operational agreements between state are needed prior their establishment. Formal agreements prior establishment are needed to address issues of sovereignty, defense, legality, operations, environment and SAR.
25 August 2014Page 28 CDR CDR—A non-permanent ATS route or portion thereof which can be planned and used under specified conditions. – Through TRA or TSA or CBA – Opening/closure result from associated military activities or purely civil needs – Usually be established and utilized as pre-planned routing scenarios – Permit the definition of more direct and alternative routes by complementing and linking to the existing ATS route network
25 August 2014Page 31 A New Global Challenge Historically, State agreements between military aviation units and ANSP focused on the needs of State defence, security and emergency procedures as well as military readiness and response requirements. There is now a clearly defined need to establish procedures that support the efficient integration of military and civil aviation in day-to-day operations.
25 August 2014Page 32 ICAO’s Response to the challenge The 37th Session of the Assembly(2010) – Resolution A37-13, Appendix O ―Coordination and cooperation of civil and military air traffic – Airspace is a resource common to both civil and Military – Military authorities should be included in planning and implementation regional groups (PIRGs) and other ICAO meetings. – ICAO would serve as an international platform to facilitate improved civil/military cooperation, collaboration and the sharing of best practices – Regional Seminars/Workshops Civil/Military Cooperation Campaign 2011-2013
25 August 2014Page 33 ICAO’s Response to the challenge ICAO Guidance Material- Circular 330(2011) – Chapter1- Institutional and regulatory framework – Chapter2-Civil/Military Interoperability – Chapter3-Airspace Organization and Management – Chapter4-ATM Security and ATM in crisis situation – Chapter5-State aircraft operations – Chapter6-Civil-military Collaboration – Appendix-Application
25 August 2014Page 34 ICAO’s Response to the challenge ASBU(2012) – B0-FRTO“Improved Operations through Enhanced En-route Trajectories” – Element1: Airspace Planning – Element2: Flexible Use of Airspace – Element3: Flexible Routing
25 August 2014Page 35 ICAO’s Response to the challenge Asia/Pacific Seamless ATM Plan （ 2012 ） – Ten Civil/Military Elements are described in the Seamless ATM Plan – 1.Strategic Liaison, 2.Tactical Liaison, 3. Military SUA,4.SUA Review, 5.International SUA, 6.Integrated Civil/Military ATM System, 7.Joint Civil/Military Aerodromes and Navigation Aids, 8.Shared Civil/Military Data, 9.Common Civil/Military Training, 10.Common Civil/Military Procedures.
25 August 2014Page 36 Thank You Asia and Pacific Regional Sub-Office Beijing (APAC RSO) ICAO Headquarter Montreal