4 WHAT IS ASMAirspace Management (ASM) : Is a process by which airspace options are selected and applied to meet the needs of the airspace usersThe ultimate goal of ASM : Is to achieve the most efficient use of the airspace based on actual needs and, when possible, avoiding permanent airspace segregationAirspace Management~~Capacity Management：Strategic phase, Policy ,Structure and Procedure; Policy: Who will be responsible for the airspace management, how to determine and assign different priorities to different users and tasks what’ s procedure for the airspace users to apply and use the airspace. Structure: National airspace structure, all kinds of airspace the location and distribution, route network, Special Used Airspace, etc. Procedure : How to apply and comply with the airspace requirements, the military/civil coordinating procedures etc.Pre-tactical phase, Airspace Use Plan, Updated Use Plan.Tactical phase, Active/De-active the airspace .
5 ASM GUIDING PRINCIPLES AND STRATEGIES All available airspace should be managed flexibly;Airspace management processes should accommodate dynamic flight trajectories and provide optimum operational solutions;When conditions require that different types of traffic be segregated by airspace organization, the size, shape, and time regulation of that airspace should be set as to minimize the impact on operations;Dynamic flight trajectories: Why there are dynamic flight trajectories ? The dynamic weather, the dynamic SUA status, the dynamic airport status etc.Why they are segregated by airspace organization: The different airworthiness and flight standards , different missions and targets, for example, the civil and military.
6 ASM GUIDELINES PRINCIPLES AND STRATEGIES Airspace use should be coordinated and monitored in order to accommodate the conflicting requirements of all users and to minimize any constraints on operations;Airspace reservations should be planned in advance with changes made dynamically whenever possible. The system also needs to accommodate short-notice unplanned requirements; andComplexity of operations may limit the degree of flexibility.d) Constraints: Military training and exercises, sometime they need close the route or reduce the available altitude，flight level.f) Complexity of the operations:
7 FLEXIBLE USE OF AIRSPACE (FUA) What is Flexible Use of Airspace(FUA)?An airspace management conceptA methodology of capacity managementAirspace should not be designated as either purely civil or purely military airspaceAirspace should be considered as one continuum In which all users‘ requirements have to be accommodated to the greatest possible extent possibleFUA is a methodology of capacity management( Doc ). To enhance the ATC capacity , short term, the ATS authority should:1. periodically review ATS capacities related to traffic demand; 2. Provide for FUA to improve the efficiency of operations and increase capacity. Long term, new ATS route structure and more airspace.Paramount principle of FUA: Airspace should not be designated as either purely civil or purely military airspace, Airspace should be considered as one continuum In which all users‘ requirements have to be accommodated to the greatest possible extent
8 How to understand the FUA Definition Key Points in the FUA conceptUser Requirements Driven—Allocated according to user requirements, not“ owed” by civil or militarySegregated Temporarily—Any necessary airspace segregation is temporary, based on actual use of airspace within a specific time period.Managed Dynamically—Managed and used flexibly on a day-to-day basis.Continuum —Contiguous volumes of airspace are not constrained by national boundaries.
9 FUA Concept Considerations CommunicationsCoordinationCooperationThe FUA concept includes consideration for effective communication, cooperation, and coordination necessary to ensure a safe, efficient, and predictable use of airspace.Today aircraft are more capable of accurate navigation than in the past, aircraft can fly between terminals and en-route phase of flight with negligible deviations. In the meantime the ATC capability is also improved a lot in surveillance, communication and automatic system. However, lack of the communication, cooperation and coordination between civil/military in airspace management has resulted in inefficient airspace use and limited use of aircraft capabilities.How to make the efficient and effective Communication, Cooperation and Coordination :Establish the joint civil/military coordination entities for airspace organization and management are essential to the realization of current and future CNS/ ATM initiatives.For some states, the civil aviation authority are already working with military authorities to manage civilian use of active military airspace.
10 Steps to implement FUA The first step Another step Allow temporary access for civilian users to military restricted and reserved airspace for an optimum use of the airspace and benefit the civil operationsAnother stepAllow temporary access to military users to civilian restricted and reserved airspace to facilitate the training and other missions.It is obvious that FUA will lead to a win-win results, so there are two steps.The first step is for an optimum use of the airspace and benefit the civil operation and the second step is to facilitate the military training and other missions.Civilian Restricted and Reserved airspace: For example some fixed route, when there is no flight any more it should be released and the military can use it for training and other missions.
11 Benefits of FUA Reduce distance, time and fuel Increase flight economyEnhance ATS route network and associated sectorisationIncrease ATC capacityReduce Air Traffic delaysTemporary airspace reservation are more closely in line with military operational requirementsBetter respond to specific military requirementsReduce distance, time and fuel: With the support of FUA, airspace manager can establish more direct route through the restricted and reserved airspaceEnhance ATS route network and associated sectorisation: Usually we have fixed plan able air route network, through FUA we can additionally obtain the dynamic route network, that means upon the fixed layer of the route we get more available routes in specific period which help us to deal with more traffic and mitigate the delays.What’s more, when we use FUA the air traffic will not be concentrated in a narrow zone or corridor, FUA help to equalize the air traffic distribution in a little constrained airspace , so it is easy for ATC unit to sectorise the airspace and distribute the workload.
13 Why have civil military cooperation? Civil and military parties have common interests, including:access to airspace normally used by the other party using Flexible Use Airspace (FUA) principles;the efficiency of civil defence and Search and Rescue (SAR) operations, police, security, humanitarian aid and national emergencies;the operation of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS);the need to take into account ‘non-compliant’ military or other State aircraft using special handling status (STS); given the increasingly complex civil aircraft equipage requirements;efficient handling by civil Air Navigation Services (ANS) of special military manoeuvres, such as formations and air refueling; andassurance of civil/military Air Traffic Control (ATC) system inter-operability and connectivity in a modern network-centric environment.
14 What is ICAO’s role? Does NOT regulate the military Serves as an international platform to promote cooperationDetermines and disseminate best practicesUses its regional framework to bring civil and military authorities togetherRaises awarenessFacilitates the use of existing arrangements wherever they exist
15 Regulatory frameworkKey points come out of Article 3 and ICAO AssemblyState aircrafts are exempted from compliance with articles of the ConventionStates are required to safeguard navigation of civil aircraft when setting rules for their State aircraftICAO Member states may include, when appropriate, representatives of military authorities in the their delegations to ICAO meetingsICAO should serve as an international platform to facilitate improved civil/military cooperation, collaboration and the sharing of best practicesArticle 3 of the convention
16 Regional Civil Military Cooperation ICAO Standards and Recommended practicesAnnex 11 contains civil/military coordination provisions, including:minimising interference with normal operations of civil aircraft;minimising the size of the military airspace; andcivil – military early coordination and direct communication.Annex 2 —provisions on coordination with military authorities;Doc 4444 —procedures for strayed or unidentified aircraft;Doc 9443 — Manual Concerning Interception of Civil Aircraft;Doc —military and ATS coordination requirements;Doc 9750 —Global Air Navigation Plan;Circular 328 Unmanned Aircraft Systems; andCircular 330 Civil/Military Cooperation in ATM.
17 Regulatory frameworkICAO Standards and Recommended practicesAnnex 11 contains civil/military coordination provisions, including:minimising interference with normal operations of civil aircraft;minimising the size of the military airspace; andcivil – military early coordination and direct communication.Annex 2 —provisions on coordination with military authorities;Doc 4444 —procedures for strayed or unidentified aircraft;Doc 9443 — Manual Concerning Interception of Civil Aircraft;Doc —military and ATS coordination requirements;Doc 9750 —Global Air Navigation Plan;Circular 328 Unmanned Aircraft Systems; andCircular 330 Civil/Military Cooperation in ATM.
19 Prerequisites of FUANational, high-level civil/military coordination bodyConsistent collaborative national airspace planning processCommunication, negotiation, and priority rules and procedures for CMACPublication of procedures for activities which require airspace reservation or restriction.Framework agreements between civil and military authoritiesSystem of periodically review airspace needs, organization and managementPredictive and timely access to restricted or reserved airspaceEven when states have agreement on flexible use of airspace , there continues to be numerous occasions when restricted or reserved airspace with no planned military missions, has gone used. In order to recapture these unused capacity and release it for effective use of civil, we need to identify some prerequisites to facilitate the FUA implementation.establishment of a national, high-level civil/military coordination body; State ATC committeeb) development of a consistent, collaborative national airspace planning process taking into consideration the needs of all airspace users and national security, defense and law enforcement requirements;c) establishment of communication, negotiation and priority rules and procedures for civil/military coordination;d) establishment and publication of procedures for activities which require airspace reservation or restriction. Airspace reservations or restrictions should be applied only for limited periods of time and based on actual use;e) development of framework agreements between civil and military authorities to facilitate coordination;f) establishment of a system to periodically review airspace needs, organization and management; andg) predictive and timely access to restricted or reserved airspace whenever possible in order to maximize benefits and flexibility for all users.
20 THREE LEVELS OF FUAFUA Concept has been developed at the three Levels of Airspace Management that correspond to Civil/Military co-ordination tasks. Each Airspace Management (ASM) level has an impact on the others
21 ATS Units and Controlling Military Units THREE LEVELS OF FUAStrategic Level 1 – Establishment of pre-determined airspace structures; CMAC and ASM procedures; Cross-border coordination and Separation StandardsPre-tactical Level 2 – Day-to-day allocation of airspace according to the conditions and procedures agreed upon at level 1Tactical Level 3 — Real-time use of airspaceNational CMAC Body（Committee ）ASM Entity（Joint Cell）National CMAC Body：This body is tasked with the re-assessment of national airspace, the progressive establishment of new flexible airspace structures and the introduction of procedures for the allocation of these airspace structures on a day-by-day basis.ASM Entity：The ASM entity should take the form of a joint civil-military cell, if both civil and military authorities are responsible for airspace management in a given State. It can also be a joint cell of two or more States. States should provide to the ASM entities adequate supporting systems to ensure a timely and efficient ASM process. State should provide adequate supporting systems to ensure a timely and efficient ASM process.The practical application of the FUA Concept relies on national Airspace Management Cells (AMCs) for the daily allocation and promulgation of flexible airspace structures in the Airspace Use Plan (AUP) and Updated Use Plan (UUP), and on the Centralised Airspace Data Function (CADF) for the dissemination of information to aircraft operatorsATS Units and Controlling Military Units: Consist of the activation, de-activation or real-time reallocation of the airspace allocated at level2. In this level, 1.Dedicated coordination procedures and communication facilities are needed to ensure the mutual provision of airspace data in a timely manner. 2.Common situation awareness is important to service provider and airspace user, and everybody involved should be notified. 3.Direct communication between civil and military ATS units should be available with a high degree of reliability, exchange of flight data, including the position and flight intention of the aircraft, should be available between civil/military.ATS Units and Controlling Military Units
22 THREE LEVELS OF FUA ATFM ATS ASM Provide Capacity Provide Separation and Managethe WorkloadASMProvide CapacityATFMBalance the Capacity and DemondConsistency between ASM, air traffic flow management (ATFM) and ATS should be established and maintained at the three levels of ASM. Compatibility between ATC, ASM,ATFM procedures and timetables.ASM : Provide existing airspace and route structures a sufficient level of availability to address the various traffic demandATFM : Ensure an optimum flow of traffic during times when demand exceeds the available capacity of the ATC systemATS :Organize the sectorisation in accordance with available airspace and route structures.
23 AIRSPACE STRUCTURESIn the context of Airspace Structures, it includes Controlled Airspace, ATS Route, CDRs, ATC Sectors, Danger Area (D), Restricted Area (R),Prohibited Area (P),Temporary Segregated Area (TSA), Temporary, Reserved Area (TRA), Cross-Border Area (CBA)
24 FLEXIBLE AIRSPACE STRUCTURE Flexible airspace structures are suited to temporary allocation and utilizationThese airspaces require dedicated coordination procedures for activation/de-activation.
25 FLEXIBLE AIRSPACE STRUCTURE Conditional Route (CDR)Temporary Reserved Area (TRA)Temporary Segregated Area(TSA)Cross-border areas(CBA)There are several typical FUA airspace structures, CDR, TRA, TSA, CBA are listed and defined in ICAO’s Document.RCA,PCA are defined by Euro-controlReduced Co-ordination Airspace (RCA)Prior Co-ordination Airspace (PCA)A specified portion of airspace implemented when Operational Air Traffic (OAT) is light or has ceased and within which General Air Traffic (GAT) is permitted to operate outside the ATS route structure without requiring General Air Traffic (GAT) controllers to initiate co-ordination with Operational Air Traffic (OAT) controllers.A given block of controlled airspace within which military activities can take place on an ad-hoc basis with individual General Air Traffic (GAT) transit allowed under rules specified in Letter of Agreements between civil and military Air Traffic Services (ATS) units concerned.
26 TSA and TRA Temporary Reserved Area (TRA). Temporary Segregated Airspace (TSA).Temporarily reserved and allocated for the specific use of a particular userTemporarily segregated and allocated for the exclusive use of a particular userDuring a determined period of timeOther traffic may be allowed to transit through under ATC clearanceOther traffic will not be allowed to transit through
27 CBATRA or TSA established for specific operation requirements over international boundaries. Established to allow military training or operational flights.Not being constrained by national boundaries. Assist in the improvement of ATS route network.Political, legal, technical and operational agreements between state are needed prior their establishment .Formal agreements prior establishment are needed to address issues of sovereignty, defense, legality, operations, environment and SAR.
28 CDRCDR—A non-permanent ATS route or portion thereof which can be planned and used under specified conditions.Through TRA or TSA or CBAOpening/closure result from associated military activities or purely civil needsUsually be established and utilized as pre-planned routing scenariosPermit the definition of more direct and alternative routes by complementing and linking to the existing ATS route networkThe Conditional Route (CDR) concept encompasses, by definition, all non-permanent Air Traffic Services (ATS) routes. The Conditional Routes are non-permanent parts of the published ATS route network that are usually established:Address specific Air Traffic Control (ATC) conditions (e.g. traffic restrictions or ATC sectorisation compatibility) with CDR opening/closure resulting from purely civil needs.Conditional Routes will be established by the Level 1, allocated at Level 2 by the Airspace Management Cell (AMC) and utilized at Level 3 by Area Control Centers or APP. CDRs will usually be established and utilized as pre-planned routing scenarios. CDRs will permit the definition of more direct and alternative routes by complementing and linking to the existing ATS route network
31 A New Global ChallengeHistorically, State agreements between military aviation units and ANSP focused on the needs of State defence, security and emergency procedures as well as military readiness and response requirements.There is now a clearly defined need to establish procedures that support the efficient integration of military and civil aviation in day-to-day operations.Aviation operations of all types contribute significantly to the economy of a state, and , as such, their growth need to be protected and encouraged. What’s more aviation is a global business with an economic impact that cross State borders, it plays an important role in the worldwide economy.Military/Civil collaboration on the design and management of State airspace, technical requirements, and data and information collection and dissemination will allow civil aviation to flourish and military aviation to perform their required missions.Today we can see the benefit of civil/military collaboration on day-to-day airspace management . As the rapid increase of the air traffic, the increased diversity of airspace use, the growing implementation of new technical and operational application, the civil/military coordination and collaboration will become more and more important and bring much greater certainty to meet the future requirement.
32 ICAO’s Response to the challenge The 37th Session of the Assembly(2010)Resolution A37-13, Appendix O ―Coordination and cooperation of civil and military air trafficAirspace is a resource common to both civil and MilitaryMilitary authorities should be included in planning and implementation regional groups (PIRGs) and other ICAO meetings.ICAO would serve as an international platform to facilitate improved civil/military cooperation, collaboration and the sharing of best practicesRegional Seminars/Workshops Civil/Military Cooperation CampaignThe topic of civil/military coordination has been discussed through the years in the ICAO Assembly, where many resolutions referring to civil/military coordination have been formulated. In the 37th Session of the Assembly, 28 September to 8 October 2010, Resolution A37-13, Appendix O ―Coordination and cooperation of civil and military air traffic is to be further articulated.In this proposed amendment, it is recognized that airspace is a resource common to both civil and military aviation and that many air navigation facilities and services are provided for and used by both civil and military aviation. Further, the common use by civil and military aviation of airspace and of certain facilities and services should be arranged so as to ensure the safety, regularity and efficiency of international civil aviation as well as the requirements of military air traffic. As a consequence, ICAO Member States should include, when appropriate, representatives of military authorities in their delegations to planning and implementation regional groups (PIRGs) and other ICAO meetings.Five regional seminars/workshops of the Civil/Military Cooperation Global campaign were conducted in all the ICAO regions between 2011 to A seminar/workshop for ASIA/PACIFIC regions was conducted in Bangkok in Feb/March See ASIA/PAC Regional Office website for more information.
33 ICAO’s Response to the challenge ICAO Guidance Material- Circular 330(2011)Chapter1- Institutional and regulatory frameworkChapter2-Civil/Military InteroperabilityChapter3-Airspace Organization and ManagementChapter4-ATM Security and ATM in crisis situationChapter5-State aircraft operationsChapter6-Civil-military CollaborationAppendix-Application
34 ICAO’s Response to the challenge ASBU(2012)B0-FRTO“Improved Operations through Enhanced En-route Trajectories”Element1: Airspace PlanningElement2: Flexible Use of AirspaceElement3: Flexible Routing
35 ICAO’s Response to the challenge Asia/Pacific Seamless ATM Plan（2012）Ten Civil/Military Elements are described in the Seamless ATM Plan1.Strategic Liaison, 2.Tactical Liaison, 3. Military SUA,4.SUA Review, 5.International SUA, 6.Integrated Civil/Military ATM System, 7.Joint Civil/Military Aerodromes and Navigation Aids, 8.Shared Civil/Military Data, 9.Common Civil/Military Training, 10.Common Civil/Military Procedures.Asia/Pacific Seamless ATM plan use ASBU as the initial roadmap, and target “ seamless service “ , it is the “ASBU Plus” in Asia-Pacific Region.