Presentation on theme: "Norwegian presentation at the in- session workshop at AWG 2 Harald Dovland Ministry of the Environment."— Presentation transcript:
Norwegian presentation at the in- session workshop at AWG 2 Harald Dovland Ministry of the Environment
2 Norwegian Ministry of the Environment AWG 2 Content Long-term goal Effect on emissions of existing policy instruments Results a Norwegian Commission on Low Emissions
3 Norwegian Ministry of the Environment AWG 2 Important input for defining long- term goal IPCC’s third assessment report (TAR) Report from the Exeter Conference “Avoiding Dangerous Climate Change” (1-3 February 2005)
4 Norwegian Ministry of the Environment AWG 2 How to formulate a long term objective? Concentration of GHG in the atmosphere? Global Emissions of GHG? Temperature increase? Sea level rise? ……. The Norwegian Government has chosen to use global temperature increase. A main reason is that this objective is relatively easy to communicate.
5 Norwegian Ministry of the Environment AWG 2 Long term goal – “aspirational goal” The global mean temperature should not increase more than 2 degrees C above pre-industrial level. BUT: –This goal is not completely “safe” – it does not prevent negative effects –It is a goal that will require significant reductions in GHG emissions in coming decades, thus being difficult to fulfil
6 Norwegian Ministry of the Environment AWG 2 Long term goal (continued) Jim Hansen et al quoted in New Scientist 30 September 2006: “Further global warming of 1ºC defines a critical threshold. Beyond that we will likely see changes that make Earth a different planet than the one we know.” Ref: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol 103, p14288
7 Norwegian Ministry of the Environment AWG 2 Effect of policy instruments on Norwegian GHG emissions in 2005 (55 Mt) compared to 1990 (50 Mt) Policy instrumentEffect (Mt CO 2 ) 2005 CO 2 tax3.8 Requirement to collect landfill gas0.5 Other measures in the waste sector0.25 Tax and recycling schemes on HFC0.3 Agreement with aluminium sector1.4 - 4.0 VOC regulations0.22 Voluntary reductions SF 6 and N 2 O0.96 Emission trading scheme 2005-070-0.5 Total7.43 – 10.03 (15-20%)
Greenhouse gas emissions in the past and in the Commission’s reference path, 1990–2050 Electricity production Oil and gas activities Process industry Transportation Heating Agriculture, waste MtCO 2 -eq. per year
Greenhouse gas emissions in the past, in the reference path, and in the proposed low- emission path 1990–2050 MtCO 2 -eq. per year -CO 2 capture and storage from gas- or coal fired power plants, new renewable energy -Electrification of offshore activities -CO 2 capture and storage from industry, process improvements -Biofuels, low- and zero-emission vehicles and ships -Improved energy efficiency and biomass -Methane capture Reference path Low-emission path
10 Norwegian Ministry of the Environment AWG 2 Norwegian Commission on Low Emissions Transportation –Phasing in of low- and zero-emission vehicles, such as hybrid cars, light diesel cars, electric cars, and fuel-cell cars. –Phasing in of CO2-neutral fuels, such as bioethanol, biodiesel, biogas and hydrogen. –Reduction of transportation demands through improved logistics and urban planning. –Development and phasing in of low-emission ships.
11 Norwegian Ministry of the Environment AWG 2 Norwegian Commission on Low Emissions Electricity production –Expansion of “new renewable” energy through construction of wind and small hydro-electric power stations. –Implementation of carbon capture and storage from gas-fired and coal-fired power plants. –Upgrading and improved efficiency of the electricity grid to reduce loss in the grid and give smaller power plants better access.
12 Norwegian Ministry of the Environment AWG 2 Norwegian Commission on Low Emissions Process industry –Implementation of carbon capture and storage from industries with large pulse emissions. –Implementation of process improvements in energy-intensive industries. Oil and gas activities –Electrification of the continental shelf and more facilities located on land.
13 Norwegian Ministry of the Environment AWG 2 Norwegian Commission on Low Emissions How much will the general solution cost? –The Commission’s calculations show that the national costs need not be exorbitant, given that the measures are implemented when the need for renovation arises and as long as climate- friendly solutions are chosen systematically in new investments.
14 Norwegian Ministry of the Environment AWG 2 Norwegian Commission on Low Emissions Basic measures –Implementation of long-term national investment in climate information – a long- lasting climate awareness campaign. Dissemination of accurate and relevant facts about the climate problem and what can be done. –Investment in the development of climate- friendly technologies through long-term and stable support for the Commission’s technology package. This technology package emphasizes technologies for carbon capture and storage, wind power (especially at sea), pellet and clean- burning woodstoves and fireplaces, biofuels, solar cells, hydrogen technologies, heat pumps, and low-emission ships