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Operational applications enabled by ADS-B Francis Casaux CARE/ASAS manager.

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Presentation on theme: "Operational applications enabled by ADS-B Francis Casaux CARE/ASAS manager."— Presentation transcript:

1 Operational applications enabled by ADS-B Francis Casaux CARE/ASAS manager

2 Presentation overview Genesis of ‘Package I’ Ground Surveillance (GS) applications Airborne Surveillance (AS) applications Future packages Related European projects and programmes Concluding remarks

3 Background for ‘Package I’ Based on a proposal made at the ADS-B Symposium in Rome (12-14 March 2002) Development coordinated with: –EUROCONTROL programmes –European Commission (EC) –EC funded projects (e.g. NUP II) –IATA/AEA initiative (JURG/JAFTI) –EUROCAE/WG51

4 Objectives of ‘Package I’ Focus on operational applications suited for core European high-density traffic areas without excluding other areas Operational airborne and ground user needs for ADS-B are considered Develop the operational and technical standards required for the early implementation of ADS-B applications

5 Step-by-step approach Wide range of operational applications associated with different issues (i.e. PO-ASAS categories) Ground and airborne architectures need to evolve step-by-step Ground and airborne evolutions need to be coordinated with time objectives

6 Rationale for ‘Package I’ (1/2) Users’ need: Safety as well as flexibility & capacity benefits (e.g. IATA/AEA JURG/JAFTI) Feasibility: –Pre-existing work from EUROCONTROL programmes and EC projects –Trials already performed in Europe and USA Complexity: No change in current responsibility for separation provision

7 Rationale for ‘Package I’ (2/2) Market: Opportunities to equip and retrofit existing equipment to fulfil the requirements Time-scale: Implementation foreseen within 5-10 years Building Package II on experience: –Airborne surveillance performance and use –Increase involvement of the flight deck in ATM

8 Deliverable Title: ‘Description of a first package of GS/AS applications’ Version September 30, 2002 – 58 pages Developed within the framework of Activity 5 of CARE/ASAS Covering letter from the Joint Co-ordination Board signed by the European Commission and EUROCONTROL

9 GS application rationale Pragmatism: –They make sense in an area with good ATC –They can be implemented more quickly Simplicity: –GS applications require only ‘ADS-B out’ –Aircraft do not need to be equipped with ‘ADS-B in’ or ASAS

10 GS applications ADS-B Receiver ground-station ATC Centre or tower SSR ADS-B out

11 GS applications in ‘Package I’ ATC surveillance for en-route airspace (ADS-B-ACC) ADS programme, NUP II, Capstone (Alaska), MEDUP, MFF, SEAP ATC surveillance in terminal areas (ADS-B-TMA) ADS programme, NUP II, Capstone (Alaska) ATC surveillance in non-radar areas (ADS-B-NRA) ADS programme, NUP II (Kiruna area), Capstone (Alaska) Airport surface surveillance (ADS-B-APT) Airport operations programme, Mode S programme, ADS programme, NUP II Aircraft derived data for ATC tools (ADS-B-ADD) AGC Programme, ASA Programme, Mode S programme, ADS programme, NUP II

12 ATC surveillance for en-route airspace Definition: This application will enhance ATC surveillance currently provided with radars. An example of many is the case of surveillance in areas where single radar coverage is provided Other considerations: –ADS-B provides safety mitigation or back-up –No impact on flight crew –Large network of ground ADS-B receivers

13 ATC surveillance in terminal areas Definition: This application will enhance ATC surveillance currently provided with radars. An example of many is the case of surveillance at low altitude and close to the terrain and also in areas where single radar coverage is provided Other considerations: –ADS-B provides safety mitigation or back-up –No impact on flight crew –Network of receivers required in the TMA

14 ATC surveillance in non-radar areas Definition: This application will provide ATC surveillance in non-radar areas; e.g. remote areas, offshore operation areas, any continental areas and certain oceanic areas, which, due to the level of traffic or the cost of the equipment, could not justify the installation of radars. The purpose is to enhance traffic information and separation services Other considerations : –Offered as a substitute to procedural control –Separation minima when ADS-B is sole means require considerable research and are potentially smaller than for procedural separation –Full benefits require full ‘ADS-B out’ equipage

15 Airport surface surveillance Definition: This application will provide a new source of surveillance information for a safer and more efficient ground movement management at airports with or without SMGCS. Airport ground vehicles can also be fitted with the necessary equipment and displayed on an airport map, together with aircraft Other considerations: –No impact on flight crew –Could require full ‘ADS-B out’ equipage

16 Aircraft derived data for ground tools Definition: This application will provide additional aircraft derived data through ADS-B to be used by the ATC ground system for developing or enhancing ATC tools like displays, MTCD, AMAN, DMAN and ground based safety nets. CDM applications will also share the benefits Other considerations: –This application does not encompass the ground tools themselves; it only provides additional input data for these tools –Required parameters need to be harmonised with other data-link (e.g. ADS-C, Mode S)

17 AS application rationale Pragmatism: –No significant change from current Rules of the Air (i.e. No delegation of separation responsibility) –AS applications, which can implemented more quickly, were selected Simplicity: –Airborne Traffic Situational Awareness (ATSA) applications –Airborne Spacing (ASPA) applications

18 AS applications ASAS Display ADS-B Aircraft CDTI

19 ATSA applications in ‘Package I’ Enhanced traffic situational awareness on the airport surface (ATSA-SURF) AGC programme, Airport operation programme, NUP II, MA-AFAS Enhanced traffic situational awareness during flight operations (ATSA-AIRB) AGC Programme, MA-AFAS and MFF Enhanced visual acquisition for see & avoid (ATSA-S&A) AGC programme and NUP I (TT Nice) Enhanced successive visual approaches (ATSA-SVA) AGC programme, MA-AFAS and NUP II (TT Frankfurt)

20 ASPA applications in ‘Package I’ Enhanced sequencing and merging operations (ASPA-S&M) EEC, MFF, MA-AFAS, NUP II, Glasgow T-MAT In-trail procedure in oceanic airspace (ASPA-ITP) NUP II (Reykjavik) Enhanced crossing and passing operations (ASPA-C&P) EEC, MA-AFAS, Glasgow T-MAT

21 Enhanced traffic situational awareness on the airport surface Definition: This application provides the flight crews with an “enhanced traffic situational awareness” on the airport surface for both taxi and runway operations, in all weather conditions. The objectives are to improve safety (e.g. at taxiway crossings, before entering a runway, on pushback) and to reduce taxi time in particular during low visibility conditions or at night

22 Enhanced traffic situational awareness on the airport surface Other considerations: –Traffic will be displayed on a surface map –Consistency with the controller’s picture required –Where other means of surveillance exist (multi- lateration, surface movement radar), TIS-B can complete the picture

23 Enhanced traffic situational awareness in flight operations Definition: This application provides the flight crews with an “enhanced traffic situational awareness” irrespective of visual conditions. Additional data is provided to flight crews to supplement traffic information provided either by controllers or other flight crews. The objectives are to improve safety of flight and the efficiency of air traffic control. In all airspace, the flight crews will be better able to detect an unsafe situation

24 Enhanced traffic situational awareness in flight operations Other considerations: –All aircraft need to be tracked –Display needs to be uncluttered –Traffic identification procedure must be revised –Consistency with the controller’s picture required

25 Enhanced visual acquisition for see and avoid Definition: This application is an aid for the flight crews to perform their collision avoidance task when separation service in not provided by ATC (e.g. IFR/VFR in class D and E airspace, class G airspace). The objective is safer flight operations Note: This application is more dedicated to General Aviation or helicopter operations. For larger aircraft, the ‘Enhanced Traffic Situational Awareness in flight operations’ application will provide the same benefits

26 Enhanced visual acquisition for see and avoid Other considerations: –Benefits are proportional to ADS-B equipage –See and avoid is a very poor means of separation - risk of collision is acceptable because traffic density is low –Separation is provided only when the intruder is seen –ASAS provides knowledge that the other aircraft are there and it also helps you see them –Using only ASAS for traffic avoidance is a different application which belongs to the PO-ASAS category IV, and not to ‘Package I’

27 Enhanced successive visual approaches Definition: This application is an aid for the flight crews to perform successive visual approaches when they are responsible for maintaining visual separation from the aircraft they are following. The objectives are to perform successive visual approach procedures on a more regular basis to enhance the runway throughput, and to conduct safer operations especially in high-density areas

28 Enhanced successive visual approaches Other considerations: –Benefits are provided if the lead aircraft is ADS-B out equipped –Attractive for an aircraft operator at its hub airport

29 Enhanced successive visual approaches Maximum efficiency benefits result from full equipage Within the sequence: The ‘lead’ aircraft in any pair must be ‘ADS-B out’ capable The ‘trail’ aircraft must be ‘ADS-B in’ capable ADS-B

30 Enhanced sequencing and merging operations Definition: The objective is to redistribute tasks related to sequencing (e.g. in-trail following) and merging of traffic between the controllers and the flight crews. The controllers will be provided with a new set of instructions directing, for example, the flight crews to establish and to maintain a given time or distance from a designated aircraft. The flight crews will perform these new tasks using a suitable human-machine interface. The main expected benefit is increased controller availability, but increased capacity through better adherence to ATC separation minima is also expected especially in high- density areas

31 Enhanced sequencing and merging operations Other considerations: –The application is aimed at cruise and descent in core Europe –New instructions: to merge behind a preceding aircraft to maintain a given spacing behind a preceding aircraft –The application requires only the aircraft involved to be equipped

32 Overall: Four measured sectors Dense and “generic” airspace (Paris South- East arrivals) All traffic equipped Use of delegation at controller’s discretion Independent variables: Level of traffic (high, very high) Sector configuration (converging point) Use of delegation (with, without)

33 Very High Without Very High With Spatial mapping of instructions (Heading, direct and speed only)

34 In-trail procedure in oceanic airspace Definition: The In-Trail Procedure in non-radar oceanic airspace is a procedure allowing in-trail ADS-B equipped aircraft, which may not be longitudinally separated from each other, to climb or descend through each other’s flight levels. The objective is to improve the utilisation of the NAT oceanic airspace by facilitating a higher rate of flight level changes than is currently provided, yielding better flight efficiency (e.g. fuel savings, avoiding turbulent flight levels)

35 In-trail procedure in oceanic airspace Other considerations: –The controller keeps separation responsibility –Surveillance relies on ADS-C –Communication is through CPDLC –This application is similar to the TCAS in-trail climb procedure

36 In-trail procedure in oceanic airspace Track Alpha - FL 320 Procedural Separation NOT Satisfied Procedural Separation NOT Satisfied Aircraft C Aircraft B. Track Alpha - FL 310 Aircraft A ITP C LIMB OF A IRCRAFT Track Alpha - FL 330 Aircraft EAircraft D Procedural Separation Satisfied

37 Enhanced crossing and passing operations Definition: The objective is to provide the controller with a new set of instructions to solve conflicts directing, for example, the flight crews to cross or pass a designated traffic while maintaining a given spacing value. The flight crews will perform these new tasks using a suitable human-machine interface. The main expected benefit is increased controller availability through the reorganisation and the streamlining of tasks

38 Enhanced crossing and passing operations Other considerations: –The application is aimed for En-route and TMA –New instructions: to report when clear of traffic to resume previous clearance to pass behind, or to overtake above, below or behind –The application requires only the aircraft involved to be equipped

39 ‘Package II’ Enhanced GS/AS applications from ‘Package I’ –E.g. ‘Package I’ applications that prove too complex Airborne Separation applications (i.e. PO-ASAS category III applications) Airborne Self-separation applications (i.e. PO- ASAS category IV applications) in low-density airspace Applications already studied in the EC projects Applications providing greater benefits to be gained - and proved!

40 ‘Package III’ Enhanced GS/AS applications from ‘Package II’ Airborne Self-separation applications (i.e. PO-ASAS category IV applications) in medium/high-density airspace

41 Other Considerations Development and implementation of ‘Package I’ is the first step. ‘Package I’ will lay the ground work for further development and applications Further progress requires difficult issues to be resolved: –transfer of separation responsibility –new separation standards and spacing standards –more demanding system performance requirements

42 EC on-going projects NUP II: North European ADS-B Network Update Programme MFF: Mediterranean Free Flight MA-AFAS: More Autonomous Aircraft in Future ATM System EVP: European Validation Platform Gate-to-Gate

43 Other European Activities EUROCONTROL – AGC & ADS programmes –Concept of operation –Service descriptions EUROCONTROL Experimental Centre –Co Space project CARE/ASAS NLR CENA Glasgow University, Delft University, ….

44 GS application mapping

45 AS application mapping

46 EC future projects C-ATM: Co-operative Air Traffic Management – Phase 1 SEAP: Large Scale South European ADS pre-implementation Programme AAA: Advanced Airborne System Applications

47 Concluding remarks (1/2) Change of Paradigm: The idea of transferring separation responsibility to the aircraft is controversial GS applications require no change in paradigm AS applications are more novel but ‘Package I’ deliberately avoids this issue ADS-B & ASAS should be seen as evolutionary opportunities, not radical change, and controllers are still essential

48 Concluding remarks (2/2) ‘Package I’ is a pragmatic approach leading to early implementation The approach is flexible for States, ATS providers and airspace users Most of the energies should be directed for Package I R&D work for future packages is also essential


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