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Support the spread of “good practice” in generating, managing, analysing and communicating spatial information Selecting a Mapping Method to Suit a Given.

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Presentation on theme: "Support the spread of “good practice” in generating, managing, analysing and communicating spatial information Selecting a Mapping Method to Suit a Given."— Presentation transcript:

1 Support the spread of “good practice” in generating, managing, analysing and communicating spatial information Selecting a Mapping Method to Suit a Given Purpose By: Jon Corbett, Kasondra White and Giacomo Rambaldi Unit: M06U02

2 Introduction The choice of mapping methods is influenced by a number of factors. Mapping methods can be assessed against each factor using a series of criteria. Certain methods are more appropriate than others in some settings. The following presentation includes a description of participatory mapping methods.

3 Ground mapping Maps drawn on ground from memory Materials include anything available (such as plants, rocks, sticks, etc.) Easy to facilitate and low cost End product is impermanent

4 Image by Mount Kenya Environment Protection Project

5 Ground mapping: purpose Acquainting community members with maps Internal consumption Planning tool Raising awareness within community

6 Ground mapping: resources Low cost Specialised skills not needed No training required Does not require much time Supplies include sticks, stones, etc.

7 Ground mapping: setting Good where base maps are unavailable Appropriate where widespread distribution is not desired

8 Sketch mapping Freehand drawings Drawn from memory Includes key community-identified features Does not rely on exact measurements Not highly accurate

9 Sketch mapping in Malinau, Indonesia. Image by Jon Corbett.

10 Sketch mapping: purpose Good for informing internal discussions Provides a broad picture of issues and events Internal consumption Starting point for other maps Builds community cohesion

11 Sketch mapping: resources Low cost Technical skills are not required Does not require much time Supplies needed include: –large sheet of paper –pencils and possibly coloured pencils

12 Sketch mapping: setting Good where base maps are unavailable Allows for community control over map if apprehensive about widespread distribution

13 Transect mapping Spatial cross section of a community Includes: –geographic features –land-use types –vegetation zones Useful for analysing patterns of land use Only provides a limited perspective


15 Transect mapping: purpose Good for informing internal discussions Helpful for analysing land-use patterns Could be combined with 2D maps Primarily for internal consumption Useful as a starting point for other maps

16 Transect mapping: resources Low cost Easily facilitated No special skills are required Training requirements are limited

17 Transect mapping: setting Good where base maps are unavailable Suitable when apprehensive about widespread distribution Provides good perspective for low to high elevation transects

18 Scale mapping Presents accurate, geo-referenced data Distance measured on the map represents an equivalent distance on the ground Also referred to as base maps Community members may wish to: –draw information on existing scale maps –make scale maps using survey techniques

19 Drawing information on existing scale maps Local knowledge gathered through conversations can be recorded on maps Position of features determined by looking at natural landmarks Information can be incorporated into other tools Access to scale maps may be difficult in some countries

20 Images courtesy of Peter Poole ©/LEO

21 Making scale maps using survey techniques Scale maps can be made using equipment such as compasses and GPS devices Finished maps can be used to communicate local knowledge Should be viewed as a last resort – very expensive and time consuming

22 Drawing on scale maps: purpose Communicating information to decision makers Transposing GPS data Appropriate for determining quantitative information Good as a tool to advocate for change Enhancing community cohesion

23 Making scale maps: purpose May be a requirement of funders if scale maps do not already exist Appropriate when accurate and precise geographic data are required Useful when wishing to incorporate data into other mapping tools

24 Making scale maps: resources Expensive Time consuming Substantial requirements for equipment and time Technical expertise required (or a significant amount of time for training)

25 Making scale maps: setting Necessary when scale maps do not already exist Most appropriate where land information is not controversial Best when recording this information would not be dangerous

26 Participatory 3D modelling (P3DM) Scale relief models created based on topographic map Models made with cardboard and finished with wire, plaster and paint Geographic features depicted with pushpins Can be time consuming and transport can be difficult

27 Image courtesy of Giacomo Rambaldi©/CTA

28 Participatory 3D modelling: purpose Informs internal discussions Can be presented in a museum Useful model that includes topographic information Enhancing community cohesion Land-use planning

29 Participatory 3D modelling: resources Relatively inexpensive Template of a topographic map is required Little to no technical skills required Some time will be required for creating the map and training

30 Participatory 3D modelling: setting Useful for internal community consumption Could be more culturally appropriate Well-suited to topographically diverse settings

31 GPS mapping A satellite-based positioning system Captures locations using coordinate systems (such as latitude and longitude) Although more affordable, may still be too expensive for some communities Computer will be required for storing and viewing points

32 Image courtesy of A. Murphy, Global Diversity Foundation.

33 GPS mapping: purpose Used to store points and locate these on a map Surveying large areas accurately Adds accurate locational information Widely accepted format Appropriate for external agencies

34 GPS mapping: resources High cost (especially when computers are considered) Relatively time consuming Training is required Supplies needed include: –GPS device –computer –GIS software package, most likely

35 Aerial and remote-sensing images Gathering images from the Earth’s surface using cameras on airplanes and satellites Features such as scale, orientation, coordinate systems and contour lines are shown Mylar transparencies can be overlaid for recording information Becoming easier to access

36 Image courtesy of Peter Poole©/LEO

37 Aerial images and remote sensing: purpose Good format for external audiences Excellent base map Useful in a wide array of situations Land-use planning Tool to advocate for change

38 Aerial images and remote sensing: resources Low cost if they already exist and are freely available Computer may be required if working with digital versions Little training required

39 Aerial images and remote sensing: setting Must already exist for an area Could be inappropriate if they reveal areas that community members wish to keep private Viewing large areas and patterns of resource use

40 Multimedia mapping: purpose Closer to traditional oral systems of knowledge transfer For external and internal consumption Enhancing community cohesion Teaching new and useful skills

41 Multimedia mapping: resources Can be expensive Could require a larger amount of training Supplies that may be desired include: –a computer –digital or film cameras –video cameras –audio recording devices

42 Multimedia mapping: setting Accessible regardless of language or literacy Identities may not be protected May not be available to all sectors of society

43 Geographic information systems (GIS) Computer-based systems that capture, manage, analyse and present spatial information GIS technicians work with communities Steep learning curve and relatively expensive

44 Image courtesy of Rachel Olsen

45 GIS: purpose Storing, retrieving, analysing and presenting local knowledge Supports discussion and decision-making process Appropriate for external audiences Useful for land-use planning

46 GIS: resources Expensive Time consuming A great deal of training will be required Technical expertise required Supplies required include: –a computer –GIS software package

47 GIS: setting Useful when fostering relationships between governments and decision makers Illustrating large scale patterns of land use

48 Internet-based mapping Uses web applications such as Google Maps and Google Earth Links to multimedia information Uses video, digital photos and text Information stored on computers Can reach a very wide audience Closer to traditional oral systems of knowledge transfer

49 Source: Google Maps -

50 Internet-based mapping: purpose Visualising and delivering rich multimedia community knowledge External and internal consumption Dispersed communities Bringing new skills to communities

51 Internet-based mapping: resources Expensive Some requirements may not be available Considerable training time Supplies required include: –a computer with an Internet connection (preferably high speed) –digital camera(s) –video equipment –audio recording devices

52 Internet-based mapping: setting Appropriate for sharing knowledge widely May not be suitable for private information Bringing together dispersed groups

53 Choosing a method Community members have the final say Map makers should consider four factors: –the purpose of the PGIS activity; –the resources that are available; –the expected outcome; –the institutional setting or environment.

54 Choosing a method




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