Presentation on theme: "Texas Instruments AMICSA 2010 James F. Salzman"— Presentation transcript:
1 Texas Instruments AMICSA 2010 James F. Salzman Distinguished Member Technical StaffDirector of Technology, Radiation EffectsRadiation Effects, and SolutionsforSpace, & HiRel ApplicationsAMICSA 2010Third International Workshop on Analogue and Mixed Signal Integrated Circuits for Space Applications5-7 September Noordwijk, The Netherlands
2 Agenda TI HiRel Division Overview TI Fabrication Overview Freising Wafer Fab - BiCOMELDRS & MitigationThe Need for Reliable Space ProductsSatellite FailuresProduct Up-Screening issuesUnderstanding Reliability for Space ProductsBathtub Reliability CurveExtrinsic & Intrinix mechanismsSpace Product ExamplesSummaryAMICSA 2010
3 Product Longevity Assured Overview of TI HiRel DivisionCommitment30+ years of experience working with HiRel customersLargest dedicated organization in the industryWorldwide sales and support infrastructureLeading-edge technology and manufacturingHiRel approved fabs (certified by Defense & Aerospace standards)Access to latest process technologies (HPA07, BiCom, etc.)Broad packaging capabilitiesAs short as 9 monthsAs long as 30 yearsProduct Longevity AssuredConsumer Life CycleExtended product life cyclesObsolescence mitigationSupply beyond commercial availabilityProduct resurrectionHiRel Products Life CycleHiRel approved fabs (certified by Defense & Aerospace standards)Access to latest process technologies (HPA07, BiCom, etc.)High reliability doesn’t mean high price, TI prices to market value (similar to automotive)The High-Reliability market requires device longevityTI HiRel will not obsolete a product for “convenience”HiRel policy is to NOT obsolete devices currently being used in active programsIn the rare event that TI can no longer build a part, we offer several mechanisms to insure continuity of supplyDie/Wafer BanksDevice BanksTI will review each case individually to ensure a smooth transitionHiRel is currently supplying several products no longer commercially availablePALs, CODECS, TTL Logic, Legacy DSPIntroGrowthMaturityDeclinePhase OutMarket expertiseBaseline control and qualification per unique market requirements: TID, SEU, high-temp, ceramic, QML –Q/V, EP, die solutions, etc.
5 Hi-Rel COT Wafer Foundry Model Multiple Entry and Exit points for CustomersOver 50 process flows available for COT Engagements
6 Texas Instruments Deutschland Year of foundation: 996 A.D.Oldest brewery in the worldApproximately 47,000 inhabitantsCity of FreisingTexas Instruments DeutschlandEstablished in Germany: 1961Start of Wafer Fab: 1976ISO 9001 / TS / ISO 14001/EMAS / OHSAS certifiedMajor regional employer ~ 700 Employees450,000 W/year45% SiGe ( BiCOM )
8 ELDRS Effects in Bipolar EmitterBaseCollectorSiO2++Total dose radiation causes charge yield in SiO2, and allows interface trap generation under low dose rate conditions. Effect is same as base emitter leakage causing a drop in transistor Gain. i.e. more base current is needed for same collector current. Typically lateral PNP gains are low to begin with, and will drop rapidly under low dose rate.SiGe uses a totally different type of structure with no base oxide, thus no hole trapping at high or low doses.
9 ELDRS: Interface Trap Yield – Hfe reduction Under high dose rate there is a high generation of electron-hole pairs (charge yield). The holes are forced to the interface by positive gate voltage, while the electrons are swept away into the gate. The buildup of holes at the interface form a positive charge barrier and repel the generated protons (hydrogen), keeping them from the interface and forming interface states. They typically will recombine.Under lose dose rates there is low generation of electron-hole pairs. The holes are forced to the interface by positive gate voltage, while the electrons are swept away, in the same way under high dose rate, but the trapped hold buildup is much lower. The repelling force of the trapped holes is low enough to allow the generated protons (hydrogen) to migrate to the interface forming interface states.
11 DVit Increases With the Amount of Hydrogen used in Processing The Effects of Hydrogen in Analog IC ProcessingDVit Increases With the Amount of Hydrogen used in ProcessingTest transistors and circuits subjected to small amounts of hydrogen trapped in hermetically sealed packages can significantly degrade the total dose and dose rate response of bipolar linear microelectronics.After J. R. Schwank, et al.,IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 34, 1152 (1987)Devices subject to 100% H2Ronald L. Pease, IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, December 2004NH4Used in producingCompressive Nitride OvercoatLittle Hydrogen presentin Passivation Process8 Krad35 Krad60 KradFinal Passivation (hydrogen injection) can greatly effect ELDRS performance in Bipolar Circuits
12 Unitrode & Bipolar Product Improvement Legacy Unitrode & Bipolar ELDRS performance from SFAB/MFAB ~ 8KRadSFAB process adjustment made: Improved Reliability and HardnessSFAB Bipolar process now passes 10mRad/sec(si) on following devices:UC1825UC1825AUC1846UC1843AUC1525BUC1637WUC19432JGAvailable Now !! –See new Standard Microcircuit Drawing numbers below.SE555AM26LS33In QualificationIn QualificationDevice FunctionPackageOld SMD #Old TI Part#New SMD #New TI Part#UC1825J (16-CDIP)FK (20-LCCC)VEAV2AUC1825JQMLVUC1825LQMLVVEAV2AUC1825J-SPUC1825FK-SPUC1825AVEAUC1825AJQMLVVEAUC1825AJ-SPUC1525BV2AUC1525BLQMLVV2AUC1525BFK-SPUC1846VEAV2AUC1846JQMLVUC1846LQMLVVEAV2AUC1846J-SPUC1846FK-SPUC1843AJG (8-CDIP)VPAUC1843AJQMLVVPAUC1843AJG-SPMore devices to follow in 2010 & Customers can always drive new releases
13 Charge Collection in BiCOM Space craftparticle penetrationNPNInterpolyDielectricSiGe EpiBaseP+ Base PolySilicided Emitter PolyL-SpacerDeep TrenchBase SilicideCollectorSilicide--+Intrinsic EpiSCI+-+N++-+-++Buried N+ Layer-+ChargeTrackBOX – Buried Oxide - ( Bonded Wafer Oxide ) – 0.4umChargeCollectionVolumeP - substrateHeavy Ion
14 Collaborative Relationships Europe/Japan/AsiaJAXA - Japan Aerospace Exploration AgencyESA - European Space AgencyCNES – French Space AgencyDLR - Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.VBSNC - British National Space CentreDSO – Singapore Defense Science OrgDOS/ISRO – India Department of Space & ResearchUS GovernmentLiaisonsUS ArmyUS NavyUS Air ForceNASADSCCDMEAGIDEPTeamingOther participants include…European Space Agency (ESA/ESTEC)National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA)International Electrotechnical CommissionAutomotive Electronics CouncilSTACK InternationalDefense Semiconductor Association (DSA)JC-13 Government Liaison – TI ChairmanJC-13.4 Rad Hard – TI ParticipationJC-13.1 Discrete DevicesJC-13.2 MicroelectronicsJC-13.4 Rad Hard - TI ActiveJC-13.5 Hybrids, RF/Microwave, MCMJC-14 Quality & Reliability – TI Active
15 MIL-STD 883H Method 1019.8 Changes Previous MIL-STD 883G, Method1 Hour Max TimeCo60Parts must be tested within one Hour after Radiation ExposureRadiation FacilitiesPortable Test EquipmentThis means you either have radiation sources at your company close to your testers, or you take a lot of test equipment to the Radiation Facilities. $$$$ !!!Updated MIL-STD 883H, MethodParts are exposed to Radiation and placed on Dry Ice and shipped to OEMParts now have up to 72 hours before testing must occur.( FedEx )Co60DRY ICETI ProductionTest EquipmentRadiation FacilitiesDry Ice prevents annealingThis means you can ship parts for radiation exposure, and have them shipped back to your production test facilities for standard re-test….
16 Newspaper Headlines Satellite Failure Rate ~ 20/year Sept 1, The Indian space agency has announced that it lost contact with its lunar orbiter Chandrayaan-1 on Saturday last week. The mission, which has achieved most of its scientific objectives, carried three European instruments. Radio contact with Chandrayaan-1 was lost at 22:00 CEST on 28 AugustAug 08, 2009 NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter is in safe mode, a precautionary standby status, and in communications with Earth after unexpectedly switching to its backup computer on Thurs. Aug. 6. This is the fourth computer shutdown on the Mar’s Reconnaissance Orbiter this year Mar 7, The reason for the loss of the satellite, experts confirmed, was a failure of its electronic components. And the so-called electronic-component base constituted the basis of this spacecraft. The loss of the satellite reminded specialists of a two-year-old story. ... Low-quality components said to be the cause of Russian satellite failure -Mar 20, the in-orbit satellite failure of the Coast Guard demonstration or the quick-launch satellites, satellite launch and construction delays and cost overruns and in-orbit satellite failures or reduced performance; the failure of our system or reductions in levels of service due to faulty components ...Jan 15, Engineers are trying to determine what happened to the telecommunications satellite Astra 5A, which inexplicably failed on Jan. 15 after 12 years of operation. The satellite has since been adrift in space, moving out of its geostationary position about 22,300 miles (35,888 km) above Earth and is moving eastward along its orbital arc.Satellite Grim ReaperSatellite Failure Rate ~ 20/year
18 Typical Up Screening to QMLV flow by some Suppliers Obtain die fromvarious sourcesRadiation Test &Ceramic packageUp-Screeningas RequiredSell to end UserTypically Fab lessNo process informationUnknown design rulesUnknown heritageUnknown futureUnknown FIT MechanismsNBTITDDBCHCMetal MigrationEtc.Out sourced to 3rd PartyMay use several vendorsRelies on 3rd party qualityLack of process informationLack of Wafer Level ReliabilityLack of package Thermal AnalysisTypical Lack of experienceLimited product informationLimited Destructive Physical Analysis SizeLack of full time reliability EngineerCommercial die reliability ~ 10 yearsQuestionable ProductLack of Ownership
19 The Reliability Bath Tub Curve The “bathtub curve” is really the addition of two curves.Extrinsic failures - caused by some type of processing or material defectsFailureRateTimeIntrinsic failures - happen as a result of wearoutFailureRateTime
20 The Reliability Bath Tub Curve No reliability discussion can be complete without mentioning the bathtub curve.EFR Testing/OutlierProduct QualsProcess Quals/WLRWear outIntrinsic FailuresInfant MortalityExtrinsic FailuresFailure RateEFRDPPMFITBurn-in 24 hrsDPPM to CustomerUseful LifetimeRandom Failures6 months – 1 year10 yearsDefects Parts Per MillionTYPICAL TIME (log scale)
21 A Closer Look at Intrinsic Failures The total intrinsic failure curve is the sum of the failure rate of allpossible wearout mechanisms.TotalNBTIRadiationFailure RateChannel Hot CarriersElectromigrationGate OxideTDDBSmallRandomFIT’sUseful LifeTimeRadiation is just one of many FIT mechanisms, and often is not the Major mechanism !!!
24 DAC5670 2.4GSPS 14bit Rad Testing Features Applications 14-bit resolution2.4 GSPS maximum update rate DACDual differential input portsMaximum 1.2 GSPS each portSelectable 2x Interpolation with Fs/2 mixingLVDS and HypertransportTM voltage level compatibleEven/Odd demultiplexed dataDDR output clockDLL optimized clock timing synchronized to togglinginput reference bitOn-chip termination resistors3.3 V Analog Supply OperationOn-Chip 1.2V ReferenceDifferential Scalable Current Outputs: 2 to 20 mAPower Dissipation: max op conditions192-pin Ball Ceramic BGAEXTIOEXTLO1.2 VReferenceBIASJIOUTPIOUTN14-b DACDAREFPDAREFNInputRCVRDA[13:0]PDA[13:0]Nx2SIFSCLKDENBOIFormatterRESETBTxENABLEAVDDAGNDVGControlM[7:]DB[13:0]NDB[13:0]PCLK_OUTPCLK_OUTNPRTDLL÷ 2÷1÷ 4Rad TestingPassed 100Krad(Si) TIDNo 85MevQMLV Qualified and ReleasedApplicationsPoint to Point MicrowaveTelecommunication TransceiverDirect Synthesis Modems
26 TPS50601-SP 6A Monolithic QMLV Point of Load DC-DC Converter Start-up Inrush Current LimitedReduced External ComponentsEasy On/Off ControlSelf-Protected from Fault ConditionsLow Power Consumption when Switched OffSmall with Good Thermal PerformanceCustomers can use standard TI design software-55oC to 210oC Operating TempVin = 4.5V to 8VMin Output Voltage to 0.9VIntegrated Power MOSFETSTID performance – 100K RadNo > 85MeV6A Output Current210oC OperationSynchronous operation300kHz to 1.4MHz Switching FrequencyPower Good, Enable, Adjustable Slow-start, Current LimitAdjustable Under voltage LockoutCold Sparing capable20 Pin Ceramic FlatpackKnown Good Die (KGD) OptionsProduct Preview
28 TI Space Products and QML-V Strategies Strong technology/product portfolio for HiRel applicationsNew devices being QMLV and RHA qualifiedCustomer & Internal driven roadmapsTI-owned Wafer Fabs, Processes and DesignsThird party designs validated against TI design rules and processesEstablished QML-V qualification and production flowsFully support New Technology requirements of MIL-PRF-38535All optimizations approved through DSCC, Aerospace, and NASAInvestments being made to enhance radiation tolerance and reliabilityAddresses the needs of multiple market segments, DHD, Medical, Space -Based on commercial high volume processes3rd party IP partnerships for radiation improvementsSpecific devices may be ported to commercial rad-tolerant processesTotal dose radiation testing is performed at qualification on all new QML-V product releasesCustom radiation test options are available for SEE & ELDRS characterization
29 For More Information The TI HiRel, Defense & Aerospace Internet Site The TI Product Information Centersupport.ti.com/sc/pic/americas.htm
32 Down Hole Drilling Harsh Environments Environmental Operating IssuesShock and vibrationTemperature and pressureHigh reliability over target lifetimeSeismic applications -40°C to +125°C 1 yearLogging while drilling -40°C to +150°C 1000 hours-40°C to +175°C hoursWireline °C to +175°C hoursReservoir monitoring +150°C to +225°C monthsPermanent applications +150°C yearsNBTI, hot carrier, device leakage and latchup are main issuesThe same techniques used to harden against radiation effects, improve NBTI, device leakage, and latchup in high temperature applications !!
33 ADS b 1GSPS ADCTargets1000MSPS sample rate12-Bit resolutionTotal Power Dissipation: 2.2W72dBc SFDR at 1.25GHz IF and 1GSPS57.5dBFS SNR at 1.25GHz IF and 1GSPS2.1GHz -3dB Input Bandwidth2.0 Vpp Differential Input VoltageAdjustable from VppDDR LVDS Outputs (1 or 2 Bus option)Inter-leaving Trim Adjustments provided on-chip to achieve >1GSPSFor gain: range Vpp, resolution 120uVFor offset: range +/-20mV, resolution 120uVFor clock phase: range +/-50ps, resolution 200fs100 pin CQFP packageTemperature Range = -55°C to +125°CCurrently accepting pre-production sample orders!33
34 Radiation Hardened 16M SRAM The C05HA512K32 is a high performance CMOS SRAM organized as 524,288 words by 32 bits.20ns read, 10ns write maximum access timeAsynchronous functionally compatible with commercial 512Kx32 SRAM’sBuilt-in EDAC (Error Detection and Correction) to mitigate soft errorsBuilt-in Scrub Engine for autonomous correction (scrub frequency and delay is user defined user)CMOS compatible input and output level, three state bidirectional data bus3.3 +/- 0.3V I/O, 1.8 +/- 0.15V CORE68 Lead Ceramic Quad Flat PackQualified Product Release 3Q 2011
35 Passivation Can Drive Interface Trap Generation Under Radiation Interface Traps Reduces Transistor Gain in Bipolar Transistors !!!Nitride passivation is produced using Ammonia NH3, + Silane SiH4 where 11 hydrogen atoms are released to form a single molecule of Si3NH4 ( Nitride ) passivation.TEOS ( Tetraethylorthosilicate ) does not use Ammonia and has no hydrogen generation in the formation of SiO2. It is used as interlevel dielectric. This step is simply repeated for final passivation as a replacement for Nitride. Si(OC2H5)4 → SiO2 + 2O(C2H5)2The Interface Trap Generation Increases with the Amount of Hydrogen used in ProcessingAfter J. R. Schwank, et al., IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 34, 1152 (1987)MFAB TID ELDRS Level = 6-8K radsSFAB TID ELDRS Level = 40-50K radsTrapped Hydrogen from Nitride ProductionMFABSFABNitrideSiO2 (TEOS)Metal 2Metal 2SiO2 (TEOS)SiO2 (TEOS)Metal 1Metal 1SiO2 (TEOS)SiO2 (TEOS)Active ComponentsActive Components