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Texas Instruments AMICSA 2010 James F. Salzman

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1 Texas Instruments AMICSA 2010 James F. Salzman
Distinguished Member Technical Staff Director of Technology, Radiation Effects Radiation Effects, and Solutions for Space, & HiRel Applications AMICSA 2010 Third International Workshop on Analogue and Mixed Signal Integrated Circuits for Space Applications 5-7 September Noordwijk, The Netherlands

2 Agenda TI HiRel Division Overview TI Fabrication Overview
Freising Wafer Fab - BiCOM ELDRS & Mitigation The Need for Reliable Space Products Satellite Failures Product Up-Screening issues Understanding Reliability for Space Products Bathtub Reliability Curve Extrinsic & Intrinix mechanisms Space Product Examples Summary AMICSA 2010

3 Product Longevity Assured
Overview of TI HiRel Division Commitment 30+ years of experience working with HiRel customers Largest dedicated organization in the industry Worldwide sales and support infrastructure Leading-edge technology and manufacturing HiRel approved fabs (certified by Defense & Aerospace standards) Access to latest process technologies (HPA07, BiCom, etc.) Broad packaging capabilities As short as 9 months As long as 30 years Product Longevity Assured Consumer Life Cycle Extended product life cycles Obsolescence mitigation Supply beyond commercial availability Product resurrection HiRel Products Life Cycle HiRel approved fabs (certified by Defense & Aerospace standards) Access to latest process technologies (HPA07, BiCom, etc.) High reliability doesn’t mean high price, TI prices to market value (similar to automotive) The High-Reliability market requires device longevity TI HiRel will not obsolete a product for “convenience” HiRel policy is to NOT obsolete devices currently being used in active programs In the rare event that TI can no longer build a part, we offer several mechanisms to insure continuity of supply Die/Wafer Banks Device Banks TI will review each case individually to ensure a smooth transition HiRel is currently supplying several products no longer commercially available PALs, CODECS, TTL Logic, Legacy DSP Intro Growth Maturity Decline Phase Out Market expertise Baseline control and qualification per unique market requirements: TID, SEU, high-temp, ceramic, QML –Q/V, EP, die solutions, etc.

4 Advanced, Reliable, Worldwide Production Supply
TI Sherman SFAB MIHO 5 & 6 200mm wafers CMOS & BiCMOS Military HiRel Sherman, Texas 200mm wafers CMOS Miho, Japan DMOS 4 ANAM 200mm wafers CMOS Dallas, Texas 250, 180 & 130nm 200mm wafers CMOS Buchon, Korea DMOS 5 200mm wafers CMOS & BiCMOS Dallas, Texas 180, 130 nm FFAB 200mm wafers CMOS and BiCMOS Freising, Germany DMOS 6 Revision History 3.1 Original version Speaker’s Notes 300mm wafers Advanced CMOS Dallas, Texas 90, 65 & 45nm TI Stafford, Houston 200mm wafers CMOS DSP Headquarters Houston, Texas RFAB 300mm wafers Advanced BiCMOS Dallas, Texas 2.25X vs. 200mm

5 Hi-Rel COT Wafer Foundry Model
Multiple Entry and Exit points for Customers Over 50 process flows available for COT Engagements

6 Texas Instruments Deutschland
Year of foundation: 996 A.D. Oldest brewery in the world Approximately 47,000 inhabitants City of Freising Texas Instruments Deutschland Established in Germany: 1961 Start of Wafer Fab: 1976 ISO 9001 / TS / ISO 14001/EMAS / OHSAS certified Major regional employer ~ 700 Employees 450,000 W/year 45% SiGe ( BiCOM )

7 BiCOM-3XX Technology Overview
High-Speed & Performance Technology Features: Complementary SiGe BiCMOS 0.35 & 0.18um Class SiGe on SOI Triple Metal 5V & 3.3V CMOS Isolated CMOS 5V SiGe NPN 5V SiGe PNP TFR: NiCrAl 50 Ω/sq C: 0.7 fF/um2 MIM R: Poly 290 Ω/sq Bipolar 3X Performance: NPN PNP HFE VA BVCEO fT 200mm Wafers Status: In Production Process Extensions: 3X: 25 GHz 3XL: 50 GHz 3XHV: 36V Latch up Free TID > 150K Rad(si) ELDRS Free Easy Photo Compensation

8 ELDRS Effects in Bipolar
Emitter Base Collector SiO2 + + Total dose radiation causes charge yield in SiO2, and allows interface trap generation under low dose rate conditions. Effect is same as base emitter leakage causing a drop in transistor Gain. i.e. more base current is needed for same collector current. Typically lateral PNP gains are low to begin with, and will drop rapidly under low dose rate. SiGe uses a totally different type of structure with no base oxide, thus no hole trapping at high or low doses.

9 ELDRS: Interface Trap Yield – Hfe reduction
Under high dose rate there is a high generation of electron-hole pairs (charge yield). The holes are forced to the interface by positive gate voltage, while the electrons are swept away into the gate. The buildup of holes at the interface form a positive charge barrier and repel the generated protons (hydrogen), keeping them from the interface and forming interface states. They typically will recombine. Under lose dose rates there is low generation of electron-hole pairs. The holes are forced to the interface by positive gate voltage, while the electrons are swept away, in the same way under high dose rate, but the trapped hold buildup is much lower. The repelling force of the trapped holes is low enough to allow the generated protons (hydrogen) to migrate to the interface forming interface states.

10 Enhanced Low Dose Rate Sensitivity
PNP HFE Dose Rate Effects 90 80 70 60 Lateral PNP Transistor HFE 50 40 30 50 Rads/sec 20 10 mRads/sec 10 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 E-Test Limits Total Irradiated Dose Krads (si) Device Design Limits

11 DVit Increases With the Amount of Hydrogen used in Processing
The Effects of Hydrogen in Analog IC Processing DVit Increases With the Amount of Hydrogen used in Processing Test transistors and circuits subjected to small amounts of hydrogen trapped in hermetically sealed packages can significantly degrade the total dose and dose rate response of bipolar linear microelectronics. After J. R. Schwank, et al., IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 34, 1152 (1987) Devices subject to 100% H2 Ronald L. Pease, IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, December 2004 NH4 Used in producing Compressive Nitride Overcoat Little Hydrogen present in Passivation Process 8 Krad 35 Krad 60 Krad Final Passivation (hydrogen injection) can greatly effect ELDRS performance in Bipolar Circuits

12 Unitrode & Bipolar Product Improvement
Legacy Unitrode & Bipolar ELDRS performance from SFAB/MFAB ~ 8KRad SFAB process adjustment made: Improved Reliability and Hardness SFAB Bipolar process now passes 10mRad/sec(si) on following devices: UC1825 UC1825A UC1846 UC1843A UC1525B UC1637W UC19432JG Available Now !! – See new Standard Microcircuit Drawing numbers below. SE555 AM26LS33 In Qualification In Qualification Device Function Package Old SMD # Old TI Part# New SMD # New TI Part# UC1825 J (16-CDIP) FK (20-LCCC) VEA V2A UC1825JQMLV UC1825LQMLV VEA V2A UC1825J-SP UC1825FK-SP UC1825A VEA UC1825AJQMLV VEA UC1825AJ-SP UC1525B V2A UC1525BLQMLV V2A UC1525BFK-SP UC1846 VEA V2A UC1846JQMLV UC1846LQMLV VEA V2A UC1846J-SP UC1846FK-SP UC1843A JG (8-CDIP) VPA UC1843AJQMLV VPA UC1843AJG-SP More devices to follow in 2010 & Customers can always drive new releases

13 Charge Collection in BiCOM
Space craft particle penetration NPN Interpoly Dielectric SiGe Epi Base P+ Base Poly Silicided Emitter Poly L-Spacer Deep Trench Base Silicide Collector Silicide - - + Intrinsic Epi SCI + - + N+ + - + - + + Buried N+ Layer - + Charge Track BOX – Buried Oxide - ( Bonded Wafer Oxide ) – 0.4um Charge Collection Volume P - substrate Heavy Ion

14 Collaborative Relationships
Europe/Japan/Asia JAXA - Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency ESA - European Space Agency CNES – French Space Agency DLR - Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V BSNC - British National Space Centre DSO – Singapore Defense Science Org DOS/ISRO – India Department of Space & Research US Government Liaisons US Army US Navy US Air Force NASA DSCC DMEA GIDEP Teaming Other participants include… European Space Agency (ESA/ESTEC) National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) International Electrotechnical Commission Automotive Electronics Council STACK International Defense Semiconductor Association (DSA) JC-13 Government Liaison – TI Chairman JC-13.4 Rad Hard – TI Participation JC-13.1 Discrete Devices JC-13.2 Microelectronics JC-13.4 Rad Hard - TI Active JC-13.5 Hybrids, RF/Microwave, MCM JC-14 Quality & Reliability – TI Active

15 MIL-STD 883H Method 1019.8 Changes
Previous MIL-STD 883G, Method 1 Hour Max Time Co60 Parts must be tested within one Hour after Radiation Exposure Radiation Facilities Portable Test Equipment This means you either have radiation sources at your company close to your testers, or you take a lot of test equipment to the Radiation Facilities. $$$$ !!! Updated MIL-STD 883H, Method Parts are exposed to Radiation and placed on Dry Ice and shipped to OEM Parts now have up to 72 hours before testing must occur. ( FedEx ) Co60 DRY ICE TI Production Test Equipment Radiation Facilities Dry Ice prevents annealing This means you can ship parts for radiation exposure, and have them shipped back to your production test facilities for standard re-test….

16 Newspaper Headlines Satellite Failure Rate ~ 20/year
Sept 1, The Indian space agency has announced that it lost contact with its lunar orbiter Chandrayaan-1 on Saturday last week. The mission, which has achieved most of its scientific objectives, carried three European instruments. Radio contact with Chandrayaan-1 was lost at 22:00 CEST on 28 August Aug 08, 2009 NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter is in safe mode, a precautionary standby status, and in communications with Earth after unexpectedly switching to its backup computer on Thurs. Aug. 6. This is the fourth computer shutdown on the Mar’s Reconnaissance Orbiter this year  Mar 7, The reason for the loss of the satellite, experts confirmed, was a failure of its electronic components. And the so-called electronic-component base constituted the basis of this spacecraft. The loss of the satellite reminded specialists of a two-year-old story. ... Low-quality components said to be the cause of Russian satellite failure - Mar 20, the in-orbit satellite failure of the Coast Guard demonstration or the quick-launch satellites, satellite launch and construction delays and cost overruns and in-orbit satellite failures or reduced performance; the failure of our system or reductions in levels of service due to faulty components ... Jan 15, Engineers are trying to determine what happened to the telecommunications satellite Astra 5A, which inexplicably failed on Jan. 15 after 12 years of operation. The satellite has since been adrift in space, moving out of its geostationary position about 22,300 miles (35,888 km) above Earth and is moving eastward along its orbital arc. Satellite Grim Reaper Satellite Failure Rate ~ 20/year

17 KNOWN SEMICONDUCTOR FAILURE MECHANISMS
Electromigration (leads, contacts, vias) Stress Migration (notching, voiding) Dielectric Leakage / Time-Dependent Dielectric Breakdown Antenna Charging Mobile Ions (surface inversion) Corrosion Channel Hot Carriers (parametric degradation, NMOS, PMOS) NBTI (Negative Bias Temperature Instability) Gate Oxide Integrity (GOI) Time Dependent Dielectric Breakdown TDDB Thermo-Mechanical Stresses (shear, tensile, fillers, etc.) Bonding (intermetallic voiding, chip-outs) Heat Dissipation (impact on failure rate) Radiation Effects

18 Typical Up Screening to QMLV flow by some Suppliers
Obtain die from various sources Radiation Test & Ceramic package Up-Screening as Required Sell to end User Typically Fab less No process information Unknown design rules Unknown heritage Unknown future Unknown FIT Mechanisms NBTI TDDB CHC Metal Migration Etc. Out sourced to 3rd Party May use several vendors Relies on 3rd party quality Lack of process information Lack of Wafer Level Reliability Lack of package Thermal Analysis Typical Lack of experience Limited product information Limited Destructive Physical Analysis Size Lack of full time reliability Engineer Commercial die reliability ~ 10 years Questionable Product Lack of Ownership

19 The Reliability Bath Tub Curve
The “bathtub curve” is really the addition of two curves. Extrinsic failures - caused by some type of processing or material defects Failure Rate Time Intrinsic failures - happen as a result of wearout Failure Rate Time

20 The Reliability Bath Tub Curve
No reliability discussion can be complete without mentioning the bathtub curve. EFR Testing/Outlier Product Quals Process Quals/WLR Wear out Intrinsic Failures Infant Mortality Extrinsic Failures Failure Rate EFR DPPM FIT Burn-in 24 hrs DPPM to Customer Useful Lifetime Random Failures 6 months – 1 year 10 years Defects Parts Per Million TYPICAL TIME (log scale)

21 A Closer Look at Intrinsic Failures
The total intrinsic failure curve is the sum of the failure rate of all possible wearout mechanisms. Total NBTI Radiation Failure Rate Channel Hot Carriers Electromigration Gate Oxide TDDB Small Random FIT’s Useful Life Time Radiation is just one of many FIT mechanisms, and often is not the Major mechanism !!!

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24 DAC5670 2.4GSPS 14bit Rad Testing Features Applications
14-bit resolution 2.4 GSPS maximum update rate DAC Dual differential input ports Maximum 1.2 GSPS each port Selectable 2x Interpolation with Fs/2 mixing LVDS and HypertransportTM voltage level compatible Even/Odd demultiplexed data DDR output clock DLL optimized clock timing synchronized to toggling input reference bit On-chip termination resistors 3.3 V Analog Supply Operation On-Chip 1.2V Reference Differential Scalable Current Outputs: 2 to 20 mA Power Dissipation: max op conditions 192-pin Ball Ceramic BGA EXTIO EXTLO 1.2 V Reference BIASJ IOUTP IOUTN 14-b DAC DAREFP DAREFN Input RCVR DA[13:0]P DA[13:0]N x2 SIF S C L K D E N B O I Formatter RESETB TxENABLE AVDD AGND V G Control M [ 7 : ] DB[13:0]N DB[13:0]P CLK_OUTP CLK_OUTN P R T DLL ÷ 2 ÷ 1 ÷ 4 Rad Testing Passed 100Krad(Si) TID No 85Mev QMLV Qualified and Released Applications Point to Point Microwave Telecommunication Transceiver Direct Synthesis Modems

25 QML-V Data Converter Roadmap
ADS6445 Quad 14b 125MSPS DAC5675 14b 400 MHz ADS1278 8 Ch 24b 128KHz ADS5444 13b 250 MHz ADS5424 14b 105 MHz ADS5463 12b 500 MHz ADS5400 12b 1GSPS DAC5670 14b 2.4 GHz In Development Released 2010 2011 2012 25 25

26 TPS50601-SP 6A Monolithic QMLV Point of Load DC-DC Converter
Start-up Inrush Current Limited Reduced External Components Easy On/Off Control Self-Protected from Fault Conditions Low Power Consumption when Switched Off Small with Good Thermal Performance Customers can use standard TI design software -55oC to 210oC Operating Temp Vin = 4.5V to 8V Min Output Voltage to 0.9V Integrated Power MOSFETS TID performance – 100K Rad No > 85MeV 6A Output Current 210oC Operation Synchronous operation 300kHz to 1.4MHz Switching Frequency Power Good, Enable, Adjustable Slow-start, Current Limit Adjustable Under voltage Lockout Cold Sparing capable 20 Pin Ceramic Flatpack Known Good Die (KGD) Options Product Preview

27 TI Rad Hard SRAM Releases

28 TI Space Products and QML-V Strategies
Strong technology/product portfolio for HiRel applications New devices being QMLV and RHA qualified Customer & Internal driven roadmaps TI-owned Wafer Fabs, Processes and Designs Third party designs validated against TI design rules and processes Established QML-V qualification and production flows Fully support New Technology requirements of MIL-PRF-38535 All optimizations approved through DSCC, Aerospace, and NASA Investments being made to enhance radiation tolerance and reliability Addresses the needs of multiple market segments, DHD, Medical, Space - Based on commercial high volume processes 3rd party IP partnerships for radiation improvements Specific devices may be ported to commercial rad-tolerant processes Total dose radiation testing is performed at qualification on all new QML-V product releases Custom radiation test options are available for SEE & ELDRS characterization

29 For More Information The TI HiRel, Defense & Aerospace Internet Site
The TI Product Information Center support.ti.com/sc/pic/americas.htm

30 Thank You

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32 Down Hole Drilling Harsh Environments
Environmental Operating Issues Shock and vibration Temperature and pressure High reliability over target lifetime Seismic applications -40°C to +125°C 1 year Logging while drilling -40°C to +150°C 1000 hours -40°C to +175°C hours Wireline °C to +175°C hours Reservoir monitoring +150°C to +225°C months Permanent applications +150°C years NBTI, hot carrier, device leakage and latchup are main issues The same techniques used to harden against radiation effects, improve NBTI, device leakage, and latchup in high temperature applications !!

33 ADS b 1GSPS ADC Targets 1000MSPS sample rate 12-Bit resolution Total Power Dissipation: 2.2W 72dBc SFDR at 1.25GHz IF and 1GSPS 57.5dBFS SNR at 1.25GHz IF and 1GSPS 2.1GHz -3dB Input Bandwidth 2.0 Vpp Differential Input Voltage Adjustable from Vpp DDR LVDS Outputs (1 or 2 Bus option) Inter-leaving Trim Adjustments provided on-chip to achieve >1GSPS For gain: range Vpp, resolution 120uV For offset: range +/-20mV, resolution 120uV For clock phase: range +/-50ps, resolution 200fs 100 pin CQFP package Temperature Range = -55°C to +125°C Currently accepting pre-production sample orders! 33

34 Radiation Hardened 16M SRAM
The C05HA512K32 is a high performance CMOS SRAM organized as 524,288 words by 32 bits. 20ns read, 10ns write maximum access time Asynchronous functionally compatible with commercial 512Kx32 SRAM’s Built-in EDAC (Error Detection and Correction) to mitigate soft errors Built-in Scrub Engine for autonomous correction (scrub frequency and delay is user defined user) CMOS compatible input and output level, three state bidirectional data bus 3.3 +/- 0.3V I/O, 1.8 +/- 0.15V CORE 68 Lead Ceramic Quad Flat Pack Qualified Product Release 3Q 2011

35 Passivation Can Drive Interface Trap Generation Under Radiation
Interface Traps Reduces Transistor Gain in Bipolar Transistors !!! Nitride passivation is produced using Ammonia NH3, + Silane SiH4 where 11 hydrogen atoms are released to form a single molecule of Si3NH4 ( Nitride ) passivation. TEOS ( Tetraethylorthosilicate ) does not use Ammonia and has no hydrogen generation in the formation of SiO2. It is used as interlevel dielectric. This step is simply repeated for final passivation as a replacement for Nitride. Si(OC2H5)4 → SiO2 + 2O(C2H5)2 The Interface Trap Generation Increases with the Amount of Hydrogen used in Processing After J. R. Schwank, et al., IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 34, 1152 (1987) MFAB TID ELDRS Level = 6-8K rads SFAB TID ELDRS Level = 40-50K rads Trapped Hydrogen from Nitride Production MFAB SFAB Nitride SiO2 (TEOS) Metal 2 Metal 2 SiO2 (TEOS) SiO2 (TEOS) Metal 1 Metal 1 SiO2 (TEOS) SiO2 (TEOS) Active Components Active Components

36 BiCOM3ZL – Technology Overview
EEPROM Poly Fuse Varactors C: 2.0 fF/um2 TIN HSR: Poly 310Ω/sq LSR: Poly 10Ω/sq TFR: SiCr:C 50Ω/sq Thick 6um Cu Inductors 2 GH 200mm Wafers 30% Shrink over 3XL Status: Qualified Release 2Q10 Technology Features: SiGe BiCMOS ( 1833BiCOM3ZL) DT / STI Isolation 0.18 um 5LM Gox = 75 /38 A 50 GHz 3.3V NPN / PNP 3.3V CMOS 1.8V CMOS Isolated NMOS 15V DECMOS NPN PNP

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