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Texas Instruments James F. Salzman Distinguished Member Technical Staff Director of Technology, Radiation Effects Radiation Effects, and.

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Presentation on theme: "Texas Instruments James F. Salzman Distinguished Member Technical Staff Director of Technology, Radiation Effects Radiation Effects, and."— Presentation transcript:

1 Texas Instruments James F. Salzman Distinguished Member Technical Staff Director of Technology, Radiation Effects Radiation Effects, and Solutions for Space, & HiRel Applications AMICSA 2010 Third International Workshop on Analogue and Mixed Signal Integrated Circuits for Space Applications 5-7 September 2010 Noordwijk, The Netherlands

2 James F. Salzman Agenda TI HiRel Division Overview TI Fabrication Overview –Freising Wafer Fab - BiCOM ELDRS & Mitigation The Need for Reliable Space Products –Satellite Failures –Product Up-Screening issues Understanding Reliability for Space Products –Bathtub Reliability Curve –Extrinsic & Intrinix mechanisms Space Product Examples Summary AMICSA 2010

3 James F. Salzman AMICSA 2010 HiRel Products Life Cycle Intro Phase Out Decline MaturityGrowth Consumer Life Cycle As short as 9 months As long as 30 years Product Longevity Assured Extended product life cycles Obsolescence mitigation Supply beyond commercial availability Product resurrection Leading-edge technology and manufacturing HiRel approved fabs (certified by Defense & Aerospace standards) Access to latest process technologies (HPA07, BiCom, etc.) Broad packaging capabilities Market expertise Baseline control and qualification per unique market requirements: TID, SEU, high-temp, ceramic, QML –Q/V, EP, die solutions, etc. Commitment Overview of TI HiRel Division 30+ years of experience working with HiRel customers Largest dedicated organization in the industry Worldwide sales and support infrastructure

4 James F. Salzman AMICSA 2010 DMOS 5 200mm wafers CMOS & BiCMOS Dallas, Texas 180, 130 nm DMOS 6 300mm wafers Advanced CMOS Dallas, Texas 90, 65 & 45nm MIHO 5 & 6 200mm wafers CMOS Miho, Japan 200mm wafers CMOS Buchon, Korea ANAM Advanced, Reliable, Worldwide Production Supply FFAB 200mm wafers CMOS and BiCMOS Freising, Germany 200mm wafers CMOS & BiCMOS Military HiRel Sherman, Texas TI Sherman SFAB 200mm wafers CMOS DSP Headquarters Houston, Texas TI Stafford, Houston DMOS 4 200mm wafers CMOS Dallas, Texas 250, 180 & 130nm RFAB 300mm wafers Advanced BiCMOS Dallas, Texas 2.25X vs. 200mm

5 James F. Salzman AMICSA 2010 Hi-Rel COT Wafer Foundry Model Over 50 process flows available for COT Engagements Multiple Entry and Exit points for Customers

6 James F. Salzman AMICSA 2010 Year of foundation: 996 A.D. Oldest brewery in the world Approximately 47,000 inhabitants City of Freising Texas Instruments Deutschland Established in Germany: 1961 Start of Wafer Fab: 1976 ISO 9001 / TS / ISO 14001/EMAS / OHSAS certified Major regional employer ~ 700 Employees 450,000 W/year 45% SiGe ( BiCOM )

7 James F. Salzman AMICSA 2010 BiCOM-3XX Technology Overview Technology Features: Complementary SiGe BiCMOS 0.35 & 0.18um Class SiGe on SOI Triple Metal 5V & 3.3V CMOS Isolated CMOS 5V SiGe NPN 5V SiGe PNP TFR: NiCrAl 50 Ω/sq C: 0.7 fF/um 2 MIM R: Poly 290 Ω/sq Bipolar 3X Performance: NPNPNP H FE V A BV CEO f T mm Wafers Status: In Production Process Extensions: 3X: 25 GHz 3XL: 50 GHz 3XHV: 36V High-Speed & Performance Latch up Free TID > 150K Rad(si) ELDRS Free Easy Photo Compensation

8 James F. Salzman AMICSA 2010 Base EmitterCollector ELDRS Effects in Bipolar SiO Total dose radiation causes charge yield in SiO 2, and allows interface trap generation under low dose rate conditions. Effect is same as base emitter leakage causing a drop in transistor Gain. i.e. more base current is needed for same collector current. Typically lateral PNP gains are low to begin with, and will drop rapidly under low dose rate. SiGe uses a totally different type of structure with no base oxide, thus no hole trapping at high or low doses. +++

9 James F. Salzman AMICSA 2010 ELDRS: Interface Trap Yield – Hfe reduction Under high dose rate there is a high generation of electron-hole pairs (charge yield). The holes are forced to the interface by positive gate voltage, while the electrons are swept away into the gate. The buildup of holes at the interface form a positive charge barrier and repel the generated protons (hydrogen), keeping them from the interface and forming interface states. They typically will recombine. Under lose dose rates there is low generation of electron-hole pairs. The holes are forced to the interface by positive gate voltage, while the electrons are swept away, in the same way under high dose rate, but the trapped hold buildup is much lower. The repelling force of the trapped holes is low enough to allow the generated protons (hydrogen) to migrate to the interface forming interface states.

10 James F. Salzman AMICSA 2010 Lateral PNP Transistor HFE Total Irradiated Dose Krads (si) E-Test Limits Device Design Limits PNP HFE Dose Rate Effects Enhanced Low Dose Rate Sensitivity 50 Rads/sec 10 mRads/sec

11 James F. Salzman AMICSA 2010 After J. R. Schwank, et al., IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 34, 1152 (1987) DVit Increases With the Amount of Hydrogen used in Processing The Effects of Hydrogen in Analog IC Processing Devices subject to 100% H 2 Test transistors and circuits subjected to small amounts of hydrogen trapped in hermetically sealed packages can significantly degrade the total dose and dose rate response of bipolar linear microelectronics. Ronald L. Pease, IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, December Krad 35 Krad 60 Krad Final Passivation (hydrogen injection) can greatly effect ELDRS performance in Bipolar Circuits NH 4 Used in producing Compressive Nitride Overcoat Little Hydrogen present in Passivation Process

12 James F. Salzman AMICSA 2010 Unitrode & Bipolar Product Improvement Legacy Unitrode & Bipolar ELDRS performance from SFAB/MFAB ~ 8KRad SFAB process adjustment made: Improved Reliability and Hardness SFAB Bipolar process now passes 10mRad/sec(si) on following devices: –UC1825 –UC1825A –UC1846 –UC1843A –UC1525B –UC1637W –UC19432JG Device FunctionPackageOld SMD #Old TI Part#New SMD #New TI Part# UC1825 J (16-CDIP) FK (20-LCCC) VEA V2A UC1825JQMLV UC1825LQMLV VEA V2A UC1825J-SP UC1825FK-SP UC1825AJ (16-CDIP) VEAUC1825AJQMLV VEAUC1825AJ-SP UC1525BFK (20-LCCC) V2AUC1525BLQMLV V2AUC1525BFK-SP UC1846 J (16-CDIP) FK (20-LCCC) VEA V2A UC1846JQMLV UC1846LQMLV VEA V2A UC1846J-SP UC1846FK-SP UC1843AJG (8-CDIP) VPAUC1843AJQMLV VPAUC1843AJG-SP More devices to follow in 2010 & Customers can always drive new releases In Qualification Available Now !! – See new Standard Microcircuit Drawing numbers below. In Qualification – SE555 – AM26LS33

13 James F. Salzman AMICSA 2010 P - substrate P + Base Poly SiGe Epi Base Silicided Emitter Poly Base Silicide Intrinsic Epi L-Spacer Interpoly Dielectric SCI Buried N + Layer BOX – Buried Oxide - ( Bonded Wafer Oxide ) – 0.4um Collector Silicide Deep Trench Charge Collection in BiCOM Charge Collection Volume NPN Heavy Ion Charge Track Space craft particle penetration N+

14 James F. Salzman AMICSA 2010 JC-13 Government Liaison – TI Chairman JC-13.4 Rad Hard – TI Participation JC-13.1 Discrete Devices JC-13.2 Microelectronics JC-13.4 Rad Hard - TI Active JC-13.5 Hybrids, RF/Microwave, MCM JC-14 Quality & Reliability – TI Active US Government Liaisons US Army US Navy US Air Force NASA DSCC DMEA GIDEP Teaming Europe/Japan/Asia JAXA - Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency ESA - European Space Agency CNES – French Space Agency DLR - Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V BSNC - British National Space Centre DSO – Singapore Defense Science Org DOS/ISRO – India Department of Space & Research Collaborative Relationships

15 James F. Salzman AMICSA 2010 MIL-STD 883H Method Changes Co60 Radiation Facilities Updated MIL-STD 883H, Method Parts must be tested within one Hour after Radiation Exposure 1 Hour Max Time Portable Test Equipment This means you either have radiation sources at your company close to your testers, or you take a lot of test equipment to the Radiation Facilities. $$$$ !!! Previous MIL-STD 883G, Method Co60 Radiation Facilities Parts are exposed to Radiation and placed on Dry Ice and shipped to OEM Parts now have up to 72 hours before testing must occur. ( FedEx ) Dry Ice prevents annealing This means you can ship parts for radiation exposure, and have them shipped back to your production test facilities for standard re-test…. TI Production Test Equipment DRY ICE

16 James F. Salzman AMICSA 2010 Newspaper Headlines Jan 15, Engineers are trying to determine what happened to the telecommunications satellite Astra 5A, which inexplicably failed on Jan. 15 after 12 years of operation. The satellite has since been adrift in space, moving out of its geostationary position about 22,300 miles (35,888 km) above Earth and is moving eastward along its orbital arc. adrift in space Mar 7, The reason for the loss of the satellite, experts confirmed, was a failure of its electronic components. And the so-called electronic-component base constituted the basis of this spacecraft. The loss of the satellite reminded specialists of a two-year-old story.... Low-quality components said to be the cause of Russian satellite failure -Low-quality components said to be the cause of Russian satellite failure Mar 20, the in-orbit satellite failure of the Coast Guard demonstration or the quick-launch satellites, satellite launch and construction delays and cost overruns and in-orbit satellite failures or reduced performance; the failure of our system or reductions in levels of service due to faulty components... Satellite Failure Rate ~ 20/year Sept 1, 2009 The Indian space agency has announced that it lost contact with its lunar orbiter Chandrayaan-1 on Saturday last week. The mission, which has achieved most of its scientific objectives, carried three European instruments. Radio contact with Chandrayaan-1 was lost at 22:00 CEST on 28 August Aug 08, 2009 NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter is in safe mode, a precautionary standby status, and in communications with Earth after unexpectedly switching to its backup computer on Thurs. Aug. 6. This is the fourth computer shutdown on the Mar’s Reconnaissance Orbiter this year Satellite Grim Reaper

17 James F. Salzman AMICSA 2010 KNOWN SEMICONDUCTOR FAILURE MECHANISMS Electromigration (leads, contacts, vias) Stress Migration (notching, voiding) Dielectric Leakage / Time-Dependent Dielectric Breakdown Antenna Charging Mobile Ions (surface inversion) Corrosion Channel Hot Carriers (parametric degradation, NMOS, PMOS) NBTI (Negative Bias Temperature Instability) Gate Oxide Integrity (GOI) Time Dependent Dielectric Breakdown TDDB Thermo-Mechanical Stresses (shear, tensile, fillers, etc.) Bonding (intermetallic voiding, chip-outs) Heat Dissipation (impact on failure rate) Radiation Effects

18 James F. Salzman AMICSA 2010 Typical Up Screening to QMLV flow by some Suppliers Obtain die from various sources Radiation Test & Ceramic package Up-Screening as Required Sell to end User Typically Fab less No process information Unknown design rules Unknown heritage Unknown future Unknown FIT Mechanisms NBTI TDDB CHC Metal Migration Etc. Out sourced to 3rd Party May use several vendors Relies on 3 rd party quality Lack of process information Lack of Wafer Level Reliability Lack of package Thermal Analysis Typical Lack of experience Limited product information Limited Destructive Physical Analysis Size Lack of full time reliability Engineer Commercial die reliability ~ 10 years Questionable Product Lack of Ownership

19 James F. Salzman AMICSA 2010 The Reliability Bath Tub Curve Time Failure Rate Time Failure Rate Extrinsic failures - caused by some type of processing or material defects Intrinsic failures - happen as a result of wearout The “bathtub curve” is really the addition of two curves.

20 James F. Salzman AMICSA 2010 No reliability discussion can be complete without mentioning the bathtub curve. TYPICAL TIME (log scale) Failure Rate Infant Mortality Extrinsic Failures Useful Lifetime Wear out Intrinsic Failures EFR Testing/OutlierProcess Quals/WLRProduct Quals 6 months – 1 year 10 years Burn-in 24 hrs FIT DPPM to Customer EFR DPPM Random Failures The Reliability Bath Tub Curve Defects Parts Per Million

21 James F. Salzman AMICSA 2010 The total intrinsic failure curve is the sum of the failure rate of all possible wearout mechanisms. Time Failure Rate Total Gate Oxide TDDB Electromigration Channel Hot Carriers A Closer Look at Intrinsic Failures Radiation NBTI Radiation is just one of many FIT mechanisms, and often is not the Major mechanism !!! Small Random FIT’s Useful Life

22 James F. Salzman AMICSA 2010

23 James F. Salzman AMICSA 2010

24 James F. Salzman AMICSA 2010 DAC GSPS 14bit 14-bit resolution 2.4 GSPS maximum update rate DAC –Dual differential input ports –Maximum 1.2 GSPS each port Selectable 2x Interpolation with Fs/2 mixing LVDS and HypertransportTM voltage level compatible Even/Odd demultiplexed data DDR output clock DLL optimized clock timing synchronized to toggling input reference bit On-chip termination resistors 3.3 V Analog Supply Operation On-Chip 1.2V Reference Differential Scalable Current Outputs: 2 to 20 mA Power Dissipation: max op conditions 192-pin Ball Ceramic BGA  Point to Point Microwave  Telecommunication Transceiver  Direct Synthesis Modems EXTIO EXTLO 1.2 V Reference BIASJ IOUTP IOUTN 14-b DAC DAREFP DAREFN Input RCVR DA[13:0]P DA[13:0]N x2 SIF S C L K S D E N B S D O S D I O Input Formatter RESETB TxENABLE AVDD AGND D V D D D G N D Control M O D E [ 7 : 0 ] DB[13:0]N DB[13:0]P CLK_OUTP CLK_OUTN C L K P C L K N I O G N D I O V D D D L L L O C K D L L R E S E T DLL ÷ 2 ÷1 ÷ 4 Passed 100Krad(Si) TID No 85Mev QMLV Qualified and Released

25 James F. Salzman AMICSA 2010 QML-V Data Converter Roadmap DAC b 2.4 GHz ADS b 105 MHz ADS b 1GSPS In Development ADS b 250 MHz ADS Ch 24b 128KHz DAC b 400 MHz Released ADS b 500 MHz ADS6445 Quad 14b 125MSPS

26 James F. Salzman AMICSA 2010 TPS50601-SP 6A Monolithic QMLV Point of Load DC-DC Converter -55 o C to 210 o C Operating Temp Vin = 4.5V to 8V Min Output Voltage to 0.9V Integrated Power MOSFETS TID performance – 100K Rad No > 85MeV 6A Output Current 210 o C Operation Synchronous operation –300kHz to 1.4MHz Switching Frequency Power Good, Enable, Adjustable Slow- start, Current Limit Adjustable Under voltage Lockout Cold Sparing capable 20 Pin Ceramic Flatpack Known Good Die (KGD) Options Start-up Inrush Current Limited Reduced External Components Easy On/Off Control Self-Protected from Fault Conditions Low Power Consumption when Switched Off Small with Good Thermal Performance Customers can use standard TI design software Product Preview

27 James F. Salzman AMICSA 2010 TI Rad Hard SRAM Releases

28 James F. Salzman AMICSA 2010 Strong technology/product portfolio for HiRel applications –New devices being QMLV and RHA qualified –Customer & Internal driven roadmaps TI-owned Wafer Fabs, Processes and Designs –Third party designs validated against TI design rules and processes Established QML-V qualification and production flows –Fully support New Technology requirements of MIL-PRF –All optimizations approved through DSCC, Aerospace, and NASA Investments being made to enhance radiation tolerance and reliability –Addresses the needs of multiple market segments, DHD, Medical, Space - –Based on commercial high volume processes –3 rd party IP partnerships for radiation improvements –Specific devices may be ported to commercial rad-tolerant processes –Total dose radiation testing is performed at qualification on all new QML-V product releases –Custom radiation test options are available for SEE & ELDRS characterization - TI Space Products and QML-V Strategies

29 James F. Salzman AMICSA 2010 For More Information The TI HiRel, Defense & Aerospace Internet Site The TI Product Information Center support.ti.com/sc/pic/americas.htm

30 James F. Salzman AMICSA 2010 Thank You

31 James F. Salzman AMICSA 2010

32 James F. Salzman AMICSA 2010 Down Hole Drilling Harsh Environments Environmental Operating Issues –Shock and vibration –Temperature and pressure –High reliability over target lifetime Seismic applications-40°C to +125°C1 year Logging while drilling-40°C to +150°C1000 hours -40°C to +175°C 200 hours Wireline -40°C to +175°C 400 hours Reservoir monitoring+150°C to +225°C 6 months Permanent applications +150°C 5 years NBTI, hot carrier, device leakage and latchup are main issues The same techniques used to harden against radiation effects, improve NBTI, device leakage, and latchup in high temperature applications !!

33 James F. Salzman AMICSA 2010 Targets 1000MSPS sample rate 12-Bit resolution Total Power Dissipation: 2.2W 72dBc SFDR at 1.25GHz IF and 1GSPS 57.5dBFS SNR at 1.25GHz IF and 1GSPS 2.1GHz -3dB Input Bandwidth 2.0 Vpp Differential Input Voltage –Adjustable from Vpp DDR LVDS Outputs (1 or 2 Bus option) Inter-leaving Trim Adjustments provided on-chip to achieve >1GSPS –For gain: range Vpp, resolution 120uV –For offset: range +/-20mV, resolution 120uV –For clock phase: range +/-50ps, resolution 200fs 100 pin CQFP package Temperature Range = -55°C to +125°C Currently accepting pre-production sample orders! ADS b 1GSPS ADC

34 James F. Salzman AMICSA 2010 Radiation Hardened 16M SRAM  The C05HA512K32 is a high performance CMOS SRAM organized as 524,288 words by 32 bits.  20ns read, 10ns write maximum access time  Asynchronous functionally compatible with commercial 512Kx32 SRAM’s  Built-in EDAC (Error Detection and Correction) to mitigate soft errors  Built-in Scrub Engine for autonomous correction (scrub frequency and delay is user defined user)  CMOS compatible input and output level, three state bidirectional data bus  3.3 +/- 0.3V I/O, 1.8 +/- 0.15V CORE  68 Lead Ceramic Quad Flat Pack  Qualified Product Release 3Q 2011

35 James F. Salzman AMICSA 2010 Passivation Can Drive Interface Trap Generation Under Radiation After J. R. Schwank, et al., IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 34, 1152 (1987) The Interface Trap Generation Increases with the Amount of Hydrogen used in Processing Metal 1 SiO 2 (TEOS) Metal 2 SiO 2 (TEOS) Nitride Active Components MFAB Metal 1 SiO 2 (TEOS) Metal 2 SiO 2 (TEOS) Active Components SFAB Nitride passivation is produced using Ammonia NH 3, + Silane SiH 4 where 11 hydrogen atoms are released to form a single molecule of Si 3 NH 4 ( Nitride ) passivation. TEOS ( Tetraethylorthosilicate ) does not use Ammonia and has no hydrogen generation in the formation of SiO 2. It is used as interlevel dielectric. This step is simply repeated for final passivation as a replacement for Nitride. Si(OC2H5)4 → SiO2 + 2O(C2H5)2 Trapped Hydrogen from Nitride Production SFAB TID ELDRS Level = 40-50K rads MFAB TID ELDRS Level = 6-8K rads Interface Traps Reduces Transistor Gain in Bipolar Transistors !!!

36 James F. Salzman AMICSA 2010 BiCOM3ZL – Technology Overview Technology Features: SiGe BiCMOS ( 1833BiCOM3ZL) DT / STI Isolation 0.18 um 5LM Gox = 75 /38 A 50 GHz 3.3V NPN / PNP 3.3V CMOS 1.8V CMOS Isolated NMOS 15V DECMOS EEPROM Poly Fuse Varactors C: 2.0 fF/um 2 TIN HSR: Poly 310Ω/sq LSR: Poly 10Ω/sq TFR: SiCr:C 50Ω/sq Thick 6um Cu Inductors 2 GH 200mm Wafers 30% Shrink over 3XL Status: Qualified Release 2Q10 NPN PNP

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