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Polar Space Task Group Polar Space Task Group Status Report EC-PORS-5 - 21 February 2014 Wellington, New Zealand.

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Presentation on theme: "Polar Space Task Group Polar Space Task Group Status Report EC-PORS-5 - 21 February 2014 Wellington, New Zealand."— Presentation transcript:

1 Polar Space Task Group Polar Space Task Group Status Report EC-PORS February 2014 Wellington, New Zealand

2 Polar Space Task Group Latest Results (other than Inf.11) New Developments Evolution in Satellite based Services New and Forthcoming Sat. Missions PSTG Requirement initiatives Key Meetings in 2014 EC-PORS Feb. 2014

3 Polar Space Task Group CryoSat: Sea Ice Thickness vs. Model CryoSat PIOMAS Model

4 Polar Space Task Group Sea Ice Thickness vs. Model

5 Polar Space Task Group CryoSat sea ice thickness Data from CryoSat show interannual variability in Arctic sea ice volume, with autumn 2013 value 50% higher than in 2012 (though still amongst lowest in last 30 years. In October 2013, CryoSat measured approximately 9,000 cubic kilometers of sea ice compared to 6,000 cubic kilometers in October About 90% of increase in volume due to the retention of thick, multiyear ice around Northern Greenland and the Canadian Archipelago  Sea ice dynamics monitoring fundamental to mass balance understanding EC-PORS Feb. 2014

6 Polar Space Task Group New: EUMETSAT Operational Antarctic Sea Ice Drift Products EC-PORS Feb See:

7 Polar Space Task Group Satellite derived Ice Shelf Calving fluxes/basal melt rates 0 = (Basal Mass Loss + Surf Mass Balance + Grounding Line Flux) - Calving Flux Depoorter (2013) results using Satellite radar/laser altimetry + InSAR ice velocity map (for mass flux across grounding line) Total Calving flux 1,321 +/-144 GT/yr Basal mass loss -1,454 +/-174 GT/yr consistent with ocean model estimates Half of ice shelf mass lost by basal melting before the ice reaches the calving front Smaller calving fluxes than previously thought Data Needs: Long term altimetry + ice sheet wide InSAR monitoring (for velocity) EC-PORS Feb (m yr –1 ) Depoorter et al (2013): Nature doi: /nature12567 Calving Flux – Green; Basal Mass loss - Orange

8 Polar Space Task Group ESA-NASA Ice Sheet Mass Balance Intercomparison Exercise (IMBIE) IMBIE combined satellite altimetry, interferometry, and gravimetry data from the same regions, time spans, and models to examine ice sheet balance. Estimated mass change rates for four ice sheet regions (Greenland, East Antarctica, West Antarctica, and the Antarctic Peninsula) between 1992 and Image from Shepherd et al Shepherd et al Interannual variability driven by Surface Mass Balance and ice stream velocity Greenland is most dominant contributor to sea level EC-PORS Feb. 2014

9 Polar Space Task Group NOAA NRT Sea Level Record EC-PORS Feb Global mean and regional rate of change in sea level monitored Consequences of glacier/ice sheet mass input (eustatic) and steric effects monitored by altimeters

10 Polar Space Task Group GCW: Sat Obs. based Snow Trackers Satellite observations at continental scale Validation using in-situ obs. Env. Canada (upper) – Snow Cover Extent (SCE) vs. climatology FMI (lower) – GCW Snow Tracker - Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) relative to ESA 10yr GlobSnow climatology EC-PORS Feb. 2014

11 Polar Space Task Group Copernicus CryoLand Service goes live Pan European Service went live 1 Dec 2013 Funded by EU to stimulate the cryosphere aspects of the Copernicus Land Service Based on satellite and in- situ data Copernicus Sentinels to fulfil data requirements EC-PORS Feb See: for service portal, and For product viewer “GeoPortal” (*as above)

12 Polar Space Task Group New Services Development: Anistiamo EC-PORS Feb Objective To link different EO derived information products with on-going European information access initiatives. Products for sea-ice extent and concentration in the target area are currently routinely available (Polar View, MyOcean, OSI SAF). The Project addresses requirements for improved information services in the areas of Arctic Monitoring - including new products (ice drift maps, ice thickness maps). Near real-time information in fine scale (1-5 km) about sea ice drift with ice deformation rates, ice types and thickness in the area is currently needed Current partners in the project are: - Led by Kongsberg Satellite Services, Norway - Skytek, Ireland - Coastal and Marine Research Centre, Ireland - National Space Centre, Ireland - Norwegian Defence Research Establishment - Finnish Meteorological Institute - Space System Finland - Norut - Tromsø Centre for Remote Technology - Navielektro Funded by ESA

13 Polar Space Task Group New & Forthcoming Missions New satellites launched –FY-3C – 23 Sept., 2013 –Sentinel-1A (Oct/Nov’13) Forthcoming launches: –Global Precipitation Mission (GPM) Core Observatory (27 Feb., 2014) –Sentinel-1A (tbc 3 April, 2014) –Soil Moisture Active/Passive (SMAP) – June 2014 –ALOS-2 (2014 launch) Recently approved Programmes –Polar Communications and Weather Satellite (PCW) 13 For FY-3C data, see

14 Polar Space Task Group Cryosphere Satellite Missions Planned/Pending approvalIn OrbitApproved Solid = R & D; Hatched = operational mission FY-3C FY-3B HY-1C RCM SAR/COSMO-SKYMED X-band TerraSAR/Tandem-X X-band ICESAT GMES S-3A, B RADARSAT-2 C-bandRADARSAT-1 C-band ICESAT-2 CryoSat-2 SAR/RISAT C-band IPY Ku-Scat & MSMR/OCEANSAT-2 HY-3 WSAR Seawinds/QuikSCAT Ku-band GMES S-1A, B SMOS WindSat AMSR-2/GCOM-W1 OLS & SSMI/DMSP— AVHRR & AMSU/NOAA GOCE JPSS 1 VIIRS/NPP Courtesy: M. Drinkwater Arctica-M 1 & 2 HEO missions PCW 1 & 2 MetOp -B, -C GRACE-C LEO missions PALSAR/ALOS L-band ASCAT & AVHRR/MetOp -A ALOS-2 Landsat DCM Landsat-5, -7 Aster/MODIS/EOS-Terra RA2 & ASAR/Envisat C-bandRA, SAR & Wind Scat/ERS-2 HY-2C HY-2BHY-2A MODIS & AMSR-E/EOS-Aqua HY-1B COCTS/HY-1A GRACE SPOT-4/5 MODI & MERSI/FY-3AVIRR/FY-1D

15 Polar Space Task Group JAXA to launch joint NASA/JAXA Global Precipitation Mission Core Observatory at the end of February GPM carries a dual-frequency radar and microwave radiometer –GPM’s goal is to set a new standard for precipitation (rain and snow) measurements from space worldwide every three hours – to 65 deg N and S - as part of an international constellation –See: –GPM Brochure: GPM Launch – 27 Feb 2014 EC-PORS Feb. 2014

16 Polar Space Task Group Sentinel-1A launch – April 2014 Sentinel-1A is the first launch of a pair of C-band SAR satellites S-1A launch date around end March/early April S-1A shall support Copernicus operational applications including operational oceanography and ice services EC-PORS Feb Artists impression of Sentinel-1 satellite in orbit Copernicus/GMES Sentinel info here: Data are free and open, and details of data access provided at the URL.

17 Polar Space Task Group Soil Moisture Active/Passive (SMAP) - Launch June 2014 SMAP Goal is to map soil moisture and freeze/thaw state Combination of L-band SAR and radiometer using 6m conically scanning antenna EC-PORS Feb Two day repeat at latitudes > 45 North and South. Together with ongoing ESA SMOS and NASA Aquarius missions, and along with the GPM Mission - SMAP will help to contribute to study of the water cycle, active layer thermodynamics, particularly in permafrost regions See:

18 Polar Space Task Group PSTG Initiatives Permafrost community requirements white paper (see attached slides from Workshop) PSTG Request for Community White paper development and/or Requirements consolidation for the snow user community Ongoing sea ice community requirements consolidation effort (led by J. Falkingham – under CSA support) EC-PORS Feb. 2014

19 Polar Space Task Group Cryosphere ECVs – Status Update ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI) progressing very successfully: CCI Ice Sheets recently distributed test products: Surface Elevation Change (SEC) gridded data from radar altimetry; Ice Velocity (IV) gridded data from synthetic aperture radar interferometry and feature tracking; Calving Front Location (CFL) time series of marine-terminating glaciers; Grounding Line Location (GLL) time series of marine-terminating glaciers. CCI Glacier has contributed extensively to the Randolph Glacier Inventory. The data can be downloaded via the website here: CCI project teams will meet 4-6 Feb, 2014 to review the next phase of their activities. The points of contact are; A. Shepherd (ice sheet); F. Paul (glaciers); Leif Toudal Pedersen (sea ice) EC-PORS Feb. 2014

20 Polar Space Task Group Key Meetings Meetings in nd International Workshop on Passive Microwave Sea Ice Concentration (18-19 Feb, 2013) Workshop on sea ice thickness retrieval from ERS and ENVISAT radar altimeters (15th March 2013, Cambridge, UK) Meetings held in 2014 GCW Steering Group - Iceland ESA hosted Workshop on Permafrost in conjunction with WCRP CliC, IPA & GTN-P: Feb, 2014 Forthcoming Meetings in 2014 CCI sea ice workshop – Sept, 2014 PSTG Meeting – Sept/Oct 2014 EC-PORS Feb. 2014

21 Polar Space Task Group DUE Permafrost Workshop 2014 EC-PORS Feb. 2014

22 Polar Space Task Group Sponsored by International Permafrost Association (IPA), the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost (GTN-P) and WCRP Climate and Cryosphere project (CliC) 70 participants, including young scientists, from all over the World 4 Break-out sessions including discussions of updates to user requirements expressed in the IGOS Cryosphere report and summarised in ESA’s DUE Permafrost Project Summary of Key Requirements: o 3 priority variables for baseline mapping: LST, snow and land surface. o "Special" mapping for cold spots (with intense in-situ) and "hot" spots (high dynamic areas) as well as for mountain permafrost with inventory of rock glaciers and permafrost extent. Updated requirements will be consolidated for the European Conference on permafrost EUCOP4 in June.

23 Polar Space Task Group Polar permafrost observation sites with long term measurents in the past or currently being set up Current Cryonet sites

24 Polar Space Task Group One annual coverage of all permafrost areas with high resolution optical data Arctic coasts (high resolution optical/SAR) Transects (including different permafrost types) in addition to spots required for Permafrost modelling Identification of change hot spots Arctic coastal erosion Source: AWI

25 Polar Space Task Group Baseline Mapping Land Surface Temperature with higher resolution (e.g. 10 – 50 m) and gap filling Circumpolar and mountain landscape / ecotype mapping with permafrost related classes (e.g. mosses, lichens, tundra, …) – annually, 10 – 30 m resolution Circumpolar waterbody product e.g. based on TerraSAR-X / TanDEM- X, Sentinel-1 Continuation of snow cover, SWE (and snow depth) monitoring Large area subsidence monitoring (circumpolar, mountains)? Higher resolution soil moisture mapping

26 Polar Space Task Group “Special” Mapping Requests Cold-Spot / “Hot spot” / Supersites monitoring -lowland permafrost -Antarctica -Mountain permafrost -Infrastructure (e.g. pipelines, railways, urban areas) North – South transects Annual high-res mapping of coastlines in high latitudes HR/VHR data in Northern latitudes Inventory of rock glaciers and mountain permafrost extent

27 Polar Space Task Group General Requirements Uniform DEM in Northern latitudes for scientific use (TanDEM-X) – 90m / 30m and 12m for dedicated sites Find areas with rapid and significant changes as well as areas most representative landscape conditions Inter-comparison and cross-validation of monitoring and modelling Up- and down-scaling between different scenarios General concern: consistency and quality of measurements Continuity and long time series EO training courses

28 Polar Space Task Group Summary and Considerations for EC-PORS EC-PORS requested to reflect on PSTG progress Space Agencies can be tasked effectively as illustrated by ice sheet example of response to a consolidated set of user requirements –Similar sets of consolidated requirements are a prerequisite to effective planning and coordination of PSTG Agency commitments EC-PORS Task Teams to reflect on how best to harmonise PSTG strategic priorities with GCW and GIPPS foci and activities –PSTG rep. simply cannot attend all GCW, WWRP meetings For EC-PORS to consider how best to capture consolidated space observation needs of observing system initiatives such as SAON, SOOS, etc. EC-PORS to consider providing any critical needs or strategic priority inputs to forthcoming PSTG4 meeting in Sept/Oct

29 Polar Space Task Group News Examples - Based on Space data Greenland glacier hits record speed: – Alaska's Arctic icy lakes lose thickness – ESA's CryoSat sees Arctic sea-ice volume bounce back – EC-PORS Feb. 2014

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