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Polar Space Task Group Status Report

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Presentation on theme: "Polar Space Task Group Status Report"— Presentation transcript:

1 Polar Space Task Group Status Report
EC-PORS February 2014 Wellington, New Zealand

2 Latest Results (other than Inf.11) New Developments
Evolution in Satellite based Services New and Forthcoming Sat. Missions PSTG Requirement initiatives Key Meetings in 2014 EC-PORS Feb. 2014

3 CryoSat: Sea Ice Thickness vs. Model
PIOMAS Model CryoSat 2011 2012 2013

4 Sea Ice Thickness vs. Model

5 CryoSat sea ice thickness
Data from CryoSat show interannual variability in Arctic sea ice volume, with autumn 2013 value 50% higher than in 2012 (though still amongst lowest in last 30 years. In October 2013, CryoSat measured approximately 9,000 cubic kilometers of sea ice compared to 6,000 cubic kilometers in October 2012. About 90% of increase in volume due to the retention of thick, multiyear ice around Northern Greenland and the Canadian Archipelago Sea ice dynamics monitoring fundamental to mass balance understanding EC-PORS Feb. 2014

6 New: EUMETSAT Operational Antarctic Sea Ice Drift Products
See: EC-PORS Feb. 2014

7 Satellite derived Ice Shelf Calving fluxes/basal melt rates
Calving Flux – Green; Basal Mass loss - Orange 0 = (Basal Mass Loss + Surf Mass Balance + Grounding Line Flux) - Calving Flux Depoorter (2013) results using Satellite radar/laser altimetry + InSAR ice velocity map (for mass flux across grounding line) Total Calving flux 1,321 +/-144 GT/yr Basal mass loss -1,454 +/-174 GT/yr consistent with ocean model estimates Half of ice shelf mass lost by basal melting before the ice reaches the calving front Smaller calving fluxes than previously thought Data Needs: Long term altimetry + ice sheet wide InSAR monitoring (for velocity) Depoorter et al (2013): Nature doi: /nature12567 (m yr–1) EC-PORS Feb. 2014

8 ESA-NASA Ice Sheet Mass Balance Intercomparison Exercise (IMBIE)
IMBIE combined satellite altimetry, interferometry, and gravimetry data from the same regions, time spans, and models to examine ice sheet balance. Estimated mass change rates for four ice sheet regions (Greenland, East Antarctica, West Antarctica, and the Antarctic Peninsula) between 1992 and Image from Shepherd et al Interannual variability driven by Surface Mass Balance and ice stream velocity Greenland is most dominant contributor to sea level EC-PORS Feb. 2014

9 NOAA NRT Sea Level Record
Global mean and regional rate of change in sea level monitored Consequences of glacier/ice sheet mass input (eustatic) and steric effects monitored by altimeters EC-PORS Feb. 2014

10 GCW: Sat Obs. based Snow Trackers
Satellite observations at continental scale Validation using in-situ obs. Env. Canada (upper) – Snow Cover Extent (SCE) vs. climatology FMI (lower) – GCW Snow Tracker - Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) relative to ESA 10yr GlobSnow climatology EC-PORS Feb. 2014

11 Copernicus CryoLand Service goes live
Pan European Service went live 1 Dec 2013 Funded by EU to stimulate the cryosphere aspects of the Copernicus Land Service Based on satellite and in-situ data Copernicus Sentinels to fulfil data requirements See: for service portal, and For product viewer “GeoPortal” (*as above) EC-PORS Feb. 2014

12 New Services Development: Anistiamo
Current partners in the project are: - Led by Kongsberg Satellite Services, Norway - Skytek, Ireland - Coastal and Marine Research Centre, Ireland - National Space Centre, Ireland - Norwegian Defence Research Establishment - Finnish Meteorological Institute - Space System Finland - Norut - Tromsø Centre for Remote Technology - Navielektro Objective To link different EO derived information products with on-going European information access initiatives. Products for sea-ice extent and concentration in the target area are currently routinely available (Polar View, MyOcean, OSI SAF). The Project addresses requirements for improved information services in the areas of Arctic Monitoring - including new products (ice drift maps, ice thickness maps). Near real-time information in fine scale (1-5 km) about sea ice drift with ice deformation rates, ice types and thickness in the area is currently needed Funded by ESA EC-PORS Feb. 2014

13 New & Forthcoming Missions
New satellites launched FY-3C – 23 Sept., 2013 Sentinel-1A (Oct/Nov’13) Forthcoming launches: Global Precipitation Mission (GPM) Core Observatory (27 Feb., 2014) Sentinel-1A (tbc 3 April, 2014) Soil Moisture Active/Passive (SMAP) – June 2014 ALOS-2 (2014 launch) Recently approved Programmes Polar Communications and Weather Satellite (PCW) For FY-3C data, see 13

14 Cryosphere Satellite Missions
03 02 04 06 08 10 11 12 13 15 16 07 09 05 14 RCM SAR/COSMO-SKYMED X-band TerraSAR/Tandem-X X-band ICESAT GMES S-3A, B RADARSAT-2 C-band RADARSAT-1 C-band ICESAT-2 CryoSat-2 SAR/RISAT C-band IPY Ku-Scat & MSMR/OCEANSAT-2 HY-3 WSAR Seawinds/QuikSCAT Ku-band GMES S-1A, B SMOS WindSat AMSR-2/GCOM-W1 OLS & SSMI/DMSP— AVHRR & AMSU/NOAA GOCE JPSS 1 VIIRS/NPP Courtesy: M. Drinkwater Arctica-M 1 & 2 HEO missions PCW 1 & 2 MetOp -B, -C GRACE-C LEO missions PALSAR/ALOS L-band ASCAT & AVHRR/MetOp -A ALOS-2 Landsat DCM Landsat-5, -7 Aster/MODIS/EOS-Terra RA2 & ASAR/Envisat C-band RA, SAR & Wind Scat/ERS-2 HY-2C HY-2B HY-2A MODIS & AMSR-E/EOS-Aqua HY-1B COCTS/HY-1A GRACE I have revised/updated this figure (Mark – 12 Oct 2012) All polar orbiters in LEO or HEO will contribute considerably to polar science. It is necessary to fully harness these tools for the benefit of the user community SAR/Optical Imaging, Gravity, Altimetry, Scatterometry all meet valuable needs HY-1C VIRR/FY-1D MODI & MERSI/FY-3A FY-3B FY-3C SPOT-4/5 Planned/Pending approval In Orbit Approved Solid = R & D; Hatched = operational mission

15 GPM Launch – 27 Feb 2014 JAXA to launch joint NASA/JAXA Global Precipitation Mission Core Observatory at the end of February GPM carries a dual-frequency radar and microwave radiometer GPM’s goal is to set a new standard for precipitation (rain and snow) measurements from space worldwide every three hours – to 65 deg N and S - as part of an international constellation See: GPM Brochure: EC-PORS Feb. 2014

16 Sentinel-1A launch – April 2014
Sentinel-1A is the first launch of a pair of C-band SAR satellites S-1A launch date around end March/early April S-1A shall support Copernicus operational applications including operational oceanography and ice services Artists impression of Sentinel-1 satellite in orbit Copernicus/GMES Sentinel info here: https://sentinel.esa.int/web/sentinel/home Data are free and open, and details of data access provided at the URL. EC-PORS Feb. 2014

17 Soil Moisture Active/Passive (SMAP) - Launch June 2014
SMAP Goal is to map soil moisture and freeze/thaw state Combination of L-band SAR and radiometer using 6m conically scanning antenna Two day repeat at latitudes > 45 North and South. Together with ongoing ESA SMOS and NASA Aquarius missions, and along with the GPM Mission - SMAP will help to contribute to study of the water cycle, active layer thermodynamics, particularly in permafrost regions See: EC-PORS Feb. 2014

18 PSTG Initiatives Permafrost community requirements white paper (see attached slides from Workshop) PSTG Request for Community White paper development and/or Requirements consolidation for the snow user community Ongoing sea ice community requirements consolidation effort (led by J. Falkingham – under CSA support) EC-PORS Feb. 2014

19 Cryosphere ECVs – Status Update
ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI) progressing very successfully: CCI Ice Sheets recently distributed test products:    http://www.esa-icesheets-cci.org/ Surface Elevation Change (SEC) gridded data from radar altimetry; Ice Velocity (IV) gridded data from synthetic aperture radar interferometry and feature tracking; Calving Front Location (CFL) time series of marine-terminating glaciers; Grounding Line Location (GLL) time series of marine-terminating glaciers. CCI Glacier has contributed extensively to the Randolph Glacier Inventory. The data can be downloaded via the website here: CCI project teams will meet 4-6 Feb, 2014 to review the next phase of their activities. The points of contact are; A. Shepherd (ice sheet); F. Paul (glaciers); Leif Toudal Pedersen (sea ice) EC-PORS Feb. 2014

20 Key Meetings Meetings in 2013
 2nd International Workshop on Passive Microwave Sea Ice Concentration (18-19 Feb, 2013) Workshop on sea ice thickness retrieval from ERS and ENVISAT radar altimeters (15th March 2013, Cambridge, UK) Meetings held in 2014 GCW Steering Group - Iceland ESA hosted Workshop on Permafrost in conjunction with WCRP CliC, IPA & GTN-P: Feb, 2014 Forthcoming Meetings in 2014 CCI sea ice workshop – Sept, 2014 PSTG Meeting – Sept/Oct 2014 EC-PORS Feb. 2014

21 DUE Permafrost Workshop 2014
EC-PORS Feb. 2014

22 Sponsored by International Permafrost Association (IPA), the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost (GTN-P) and WCRP Climate and Cryosphere project (CliC) 70 participants, including young scientists, from all over the World 4 Break-out sessions including discussions of updates to user requirements expressed in the IGOS Cryosphere report and summarised in ESA’s DUE Permafrost Project Summary of Key Requirements: 3 priority variables for baseline mapping: LST, snow and land surface. "Special" mapping for cold spots (with intense in-situ) and "hot" spots (high dynamic areas) as well as for mountain permafrost with inventory of rock glaciers and permafrost extent. Updated requirements will be consolidated for the European Conference on permafrost EUCOP4 in June.

23 Polar permafrost observation sites with long term measurents in the past or currently being set up
Current Cryonet sites

24 all permafrost areas with high resolution optical data
Arctic coastal erosion Source: AWI One annual coverage of all permafrost areas with high resolution optical data Arctic coasts (high resolution optical/SAR) Transects (including different permafrost types) in addition to spots required for Permafrost modelling Identification of change hot spots

25 Baseline Mapping Land Surface Temperature with higher resolution (e.g. 10 – 50 m) and gap filling Circumpolar and mountain landscape / ecotype mapping with permafrost related classes (e.g. mosses, lichens, tundra, …) – annually, 10 – 30 m resolution Circumpolar waterbody product e.g. based on TerraSAR-X / TanDEM-X, Sentinel-1 Continuation of snow cover, SWE (and snow depth) monitoring Large area subsidence monitoring (circumpolar, mountains)? Higher resolution soil moisture mapping

26 Cold-Spot / “Hot spot” / Supersites monitoring lowland permafrost
“Special” Mapping Requests Cold-Spot / “Hot spot” / Supersites monitoring lowland permafrost Antarctica Mountain permafrost Infrastructure (e.g. pipelines, railways, urban areas) North – South transects Annual high-res mapping of coastlines in high latitudes HR/VHR data in Northern latitudes Inventory of rock glaciers and mountain permafrost extent

27 General Requirements Uniform DEM in Northern latitudes for scientific use (TanDEM-X) – 90m / 30m and 12m for dedicated sites Find areas with rapid and significant changes as well as areas most representative landscape conditions Inter-comparison and cross-validation of monitoring and modelling Up- and down-scaling between different scenarios General concern: consistency and quality of measurements Continuity and long time series EO training courses

28 Summary and Considerations for EC-PORS
EC-PORS requested to reflect on PSTG progress Space Agencies can be tasked effectively as illustrated by ice sheet example of response to a consolidated set of user requirements Similar sets of consolidated requirements are a prerequisite to effective planning and coordination of PSTG Agency commitments EC-PORS Task Teams to reflect on how best to harmonise PSTG strategic priorities with GCW and GIPPS foci and activities PSTG rep. simply cannot attend all GCW, WWRP meetings For EC-PORS to consider how best to capture consolidated space observation needs of observing system initiatives such as SAON, SOOS, etc. EC-PORS to consider providing any critical needs or strategic priority inputs to forthcoming PSTG4 meeting in Sept/Oct 2014

29 News Examples - Based on Space data
Greenland glacier hits record speed: Alaska's Arctic icy lakes lose thickness ESA's CryoSat sees Arctic sea-ice volume bounce back EC-PORS Feb. 2014


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