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1. Tammy Farrar Research Meteorologist Weather Policy and Requirements Aviation Weather Division Federal Aviation Administration Presented by U.S. Turbulence.

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Presentation on theme: "1. Tammy Farrar Research Meteorologist Weather Policy and Requirements Aviation Weather Division Federal Aviation Administration Presented by U.S. Turbulence."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Tammy Farrar Research Meteorologist Weather Policy and Requirements Aviation Weather Division Federal Aviation Administration Presented by U.S. Turbulence Program Update Presented to: World Meteorological Organization Commission for Basic Systems Expert Team on Aircraft-based Observing Systems First Session Geneva, Switzerland September 10-13, 2013

3 3 Overview U.S. Turbulence Program Goals Eddy Dissipation Rate (EDR) Algorithm Deployment Status EDR Thresholds Issue Graphical Turbulence Guidance (GTG) Development and Enhancements FAA/Delta Air Lines EDR/GTG Demos Aviation Turbulence Workshop

4 4 U.S. Turbulence Program Goals To provide real-time turbulence observations and accurate forecasts to air traffic management, flight crews and dispatchers to aid in the avoidance of turbulence  Improve safety  Increase airspace capacity  Enhance operations efficiency (reducing fuel burn and environmental impacts from emissions). To quantify the benefits of providing such data in order to determine the most cost effective and optimal solutions for integrating turbulence data into flight operations.

5 5 Eddy Dissipation Rate (EDR) Algorithm UAL: 29 757s (fleet being de-commissioned) SWA: 1 737-700 (Testing, close to full deployment) DAL:  93 737s (mostly -800s with some -700s)  30 767s (mostly -300s with -400s coming online soon) KAL: 41 737s soon (in cooperation with DAL) “Tech Transfer” package in development at NCAR to allow airlines to implement EDR with minimal assistance

6 6 NCAR performing on-going statistical comparisons of EDR data with PIREPS from same or nearby aircraft  UAL: 2004-2012, DAL: 2009-2012; thousands of samples Results indicate the thresholds given in Annex 3 may be too high  Agrees with previously published studies by other researchers 6 EDR Thresholds Issue

7 7 Relation of EDR to PIREPs for medium- sized aircraft (B737,B757) Compared EDR data to nearby PIREPs –3.8 min –70 km –1200 ft PIREP Intensity scaled: 0-smooth, 1-smooth/light, 2 – light, 4 – moderate, 6 – severe, 8 - extreme ICAO thresholds:  Light = 0.10  Moderate = 0.40  Severe = 0.70 Suggested new threshold values based on data from this study (median values):  Light = 0.06 (<0.1)  Moderate = 0.22 (0.1-0.25)  Severe = 0.5 (0.26-0.7) Courtesy Julia Pearson

8 8 Impacts of Annex changes on cost, operations of member states necessitate good justification and coordination ahead of time Need for independent peer-review of the study United States investigating how to best bring this new information to ICAO for the Divisional Meeting scheduled in July 2014 8 EDR Thresholds Issue

9 9 Graphical Turbulence Guidance (GTG) Development and Enhancements Current Operational Version  Gridded high resolution (13 km) forecasts of turbulence for FL100-450  Preflight tool on Operational Aviation Digital Data Service (ADDS)  Includes EDR observations as input 2014  Explicit mountain wave turbulence forecasts for all levels Sfc – FL450 In development  Global GTG  Convectively-induced turbulence  Probabilistic

10 10 DAL EDR Proof of Concept Demo In 2008, under funding from the FAA’s Aviation Weather Research Program (AWRP), FAA and DAL launched a cooperative effort to begin integration of EDR and GTG into DAL flight operations Initial “Proof of Concept” Demo Sep 08-Jan 10 in DAL Operations Control Center (OCC) Dispatch Access to the EDR and GTG data provided via web-based Experimental ADDS “Turbulence Viewer” display

11 11 DAL EDR Proof of Concept Demo User concerns  Crew/Dispatch: Multiple (sometimes conflicting) data sources, PIREP subjectivity, cabin management, tolerance for risk  ATC: No access to real-time turbulence data in work area, ride reports passed from controller to controller during shift change, “blocked” out altitudes can persist for hours  Flight Attendants: Cabin management/ uncooperative passengers, obligation to continue duties when seatbelt sign is on

12 12 DAL EDR Proof of Concept Demo Conclusions + Demo was limited in scope (product neither directly integrated into DAL applications nor actively used by entire DAL community) + Anecdotal results pointed towards an improvement in dispatcher decision-making process + Quantifying the actual benefits is difficult + Ultimately we need to determine the best means to provide the data real-time for tactical use in the cockpit

13 FAA/DAL EDR Uplink Demo Follow-on effort to the 2008-10 EDR Proof of Concept Demo with DAL dispatchers and flight planners Quantify the efficiency and capacity benefits to the NAS by providing GTG / EDR information on the flight deck Identify feasibility of providing and displaying GTG / EDR information on the flight deck through existing WiFi link Identify and address human factors considerations associated with providing GTG / EDR information on the flight deck

14 FAA/DAL EDR Uplink Demo Demonstration Team FAA Weather Research Division FAA Flight Procedures Standards Branch FAA Concept Analysis Branch Delta Airlines National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Basic Commerce & Industries (BCI) Metron Aviation, Inc AvMET Applications, Inc



17 FAA/DAL EDR Uplink Demo Phase I - Complete  Jumpseat and/or maintenance flights  Assess WiFi accessibility in cockpit  EDR data conversion (Web Feature Service)  Develop alternative viewer application  Develop display application software  FAA and Delta Safety Risk Assessment  Down-select to single tablet PC (Class I/II EFB) device type for operational demonstrations iPad selected

18 FAA/DAL EDR Uplink Demo Phase II – Nearly Complete  Conduct HITLs to assess the human factors issues associated with the use of the tablet PCs 10 sessions Line Check Airmen  Develop final operational demonstration procedures  Develop pilot questionnaire for operational demonstrations Automated means to capture flight specific data and associated pilot responses  Develop tools to capture sensitivity, cost benefits, and modeling information

19 FAA/DAL EDR Uplink Demo Phase III – On-going  Conduct 12 month operational flight demonstrations of the GTG/EDR display with 40 LCAs  Conduct analysis of LCA responses to flight crew questionnaires  Conduct NAS Capacity Benefits Quantification Weather-ATM Analysis and Visualization Environment (WAVE) tool (AvMet Applications, Inc.) Historical “weather-centric” ATM analysis tool & research platform FAA’s Aircraft Situation Display to Industry (ASDI) Weather, including turbulence FAA Concept Analysis Branch NAS simulations

20 FAA/DAL EDR Uplink Demo Analysis Focus Areas Workload Impacts  Pilot decision making  Flightcrew – cabin crew  Pilots – ATC  Pilots – dispatch Safety Impacts  Aircraft cabin management Environmental Impacts  Altitude deviations to avoid turbulence areas  Fuel requirements (greenhouse emissions)  NAS airspace reallocations

21 FAA/DAL EDR Uplink Demo Potential Risk / Constraint Existing Supplemental Type Certificate (STC) prohibiting WiFi use in cockpit of 737NG aircraft  Possible interference with Honeywell Phase III Display Units (DU)  Mitigation procedures identified LCA, HITL simulations, physical distance and phase of flight restrictions  DAL successfully petitioned FAA for exemption from STC for use of iPads  DAL also using Microsoft Surface tablets on 757s  FAA seeking modification to SRMD to include 757/767s

22 Turbulence Viewer

23 Profile View

24 Report Generator

25 25 Hosted by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) August 28-29, 2013, Boulder, CO Approximately 60 participants  Air Traffic Management Community  US and international operators  Aviation forecasters  General Aviation  US National Transportation Safety Board, FAA Safety  Commercial weather providers Issues raised: Probabilistic fcst needs, data sharing, convective turbulence, EDR “feels like”, limits of the science, commercial vs GA, global harmonization Presentations available on 25 Aviation Turbulence Workshop

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27 27 Questions?

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