2 Probability sampling (3marks) In probability sampling the elements in the population have some known chance or probability of being selected as sample subjects. probability sampling designs are used when the representativeness of the sample is of importance in the interests of wider generalizability . The different probability sampling designs area) simple random samplingb) systematic samplingc) stratified samplingd) cluster sampling
3 Qualitative research (3marks) This research is concerned with qualitative phenomena generally involving study of human behaviour.Such a research tries to measure the attitudes and opinions of the people using the technique of interview and observation. various projective techniques like thematic apperception test, word association test, sentence completion test are used.Qualitative research is needed in situations where it is not possible to quantify the phenomena and the responses are going to of subjective nature.
4 Q) How will you measure attitude Q) How will you measure attitude? What are the tools available for attitude measurement?(5marks)Attitude is a mental state of an individual which is very difficult to measure.Attitude cannot be observed because psychological variables are dormant or hidden.Prediction from behavior data, interviews with structured questionnaires and scales are the usual tools for attitudinal measurement.The skill of the researcher is very important here for correct measurement of attitude.
5 Solution…. The different scales used to measure attitude are: Rating scalesRanking scalesRating scales – They have several response categories and are used to bring out responses with regard to the object, event or person under study. The following rating scales are often used in organisational research:Dichotomous scale – Yes or NoCategory scale – Multiple choiceLikert scale – used to indicate agreement
6 Contd…….!!!Semantic differential scale – Bipolar attributes at the extremesNumerical scaleItemized rating scale – Responses are to be numberedGraphic rating scale – Using small cartoon pictures indicating the responsesStapel scale – It measures both the directions simultaneously
7 Contd…….!!!Ranking scales – They make comparisons between or among objects, events or persons and bring out the preferred choices and rank them accordingly.Paired comparison – This scale is used when, among a small number of objects, respondents are asked to choose between two objects at a time.Forced choice - This enables respondents to rank objects relative to one another, among the alternatives provided.
9 Q) Evaluate the use of interview as a tool for collection of data Q) Evaluate the use of interview as a tool for collection of data. Also mention the precaution to be taken in conducting interviews. (5marks)Interview method is a direct method of collecting data and is the most important method of collection of data. It is a verbal method of securing data in the field of surveys. Through this method we can know the views and ideas of other persons. It is a method of social interaction The interview is a systematic method by which a person enters more or less imaginatively into the life of a comparatively stranger. Thus in interview method the researcher tries to penetrate deeply into the imagination of the respondent. The interviewer tries to enter into the feelings of the respondent.
10 Contd…Characteristics of an interview 1.it is a close contact or interaction including dialogue between 2 or more persons. 2.it has a definite object such as knowing the views and ideas of others. 3.Interview can be conducted over the telephone also. 4.Interview method enables to study the social problems.
11 Contd…Objectives of an interview 1.Interview are useful to exchange ideas and to elicit information. 2.Interview method helps to collecting information about unknown facts through face to face contact. 3.Through interview we can formulate hypothesis . 4.social facts are qualitative. They are found in the form of ideas, feelings views etc. Through interview it is possible to collect information about qualitative facts.
12 Contd….While conducting interview interviewer should have certain qualities….. 1.He should be honest, sincere, intelligent and impartial. 2.He should be interested in conducting interview. 3.He should be adaptable to all the respondents. 4.He should possess a good personality. 5.He must be temperamentally good. 6.He should have necessary education. 7.Interviewer must possess technical competence and practical experience. 8.The interviewer should be able to speak and understand and dialect and language of the people whom to be stidied.
13 Process of hypothesis testing & tools for testing hypothesis. (5marks) Def: An unproven or supposition that tentatively explain certain facts or phenomena that is empirically testable. It is a statement an assumption about the nature of the world. Null hypothesis-is a statement that states there is no difference between the variables. Alternative hypothesis- would be that there is a difference between variables.
14 Contd…Steps: 1. Formulate H0 & Hl 2. Select an appropriate statistical technique and the corresponding test statistic. 3. Choose the level of significance. 4. Determine the sample size and collect the data. Calculate the value of the test statistic. 5. Compare the calculated value of test statistic with tabled value . 6. If calculated value is greater than the tabled value then we reject H0.