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Preventative Measures Ensuring the Health of US Cattle and Safety of US Beef John A. Scanga Associate Professor Center for Red Meat Safety Department of.

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Presentation on theme: "Preventative Measures Ensuring the Health of US Cattle and Safety of US Beef John A. Scanga Associate Professor Center for Red Meat Safety Department of."— Presentation transcript:

1 Preventative Measures Ensuring the Health of US Cattle and Safety of US Beef John A. Scanga Associate Professor Center for Red Meat Safety Department of Animal Sciences Colorado State University John A. Scanga Associate Professor Center for Red Meat Safety Department of Animal Sciences Colorado State University

2 U.S. Cattle Industry Overview (Field & Taylor, 2002) 814,000 beef herds = 33.1 million cows. 97,500 dairy herds = 9.1 million cows. 29 million feeder calves. 90% of beef cow herds have <100 hd but control only 50% of inventory. 1,800 feeding companies with >1000 hd capacity. 795 plants harvest steers & heifers. Top 5 packing companies (29 plants) account for 88-90% of cattle harvested. 814,000 beef herds = 33.1 million cows. 97,500 dairy herds = 9.1 million cows. 29 million feeder calves. 90% of beef cow herds have <100 hd but control only 50% of inventory. 1,800 feeding companies with >1000 hd capacity. 795 plants harvest steers & heifers. Top 5 packing companies (29 plants) account for 88-90% of cattle harvested.

3 U.S. Beef Industry Cow-calf production Calves are generally weaned at 205 days of age (6-7 months) Once weaned, calves will either be: Held on grass pastures (Backgrounding) Shipped directly to feedlot Cow-calf production Calves are generally weaned at 205 days of age (6-7 months) Once weaned, calves will either be: Held on grass pastures (Backgrounding) Shipped directly to feedlot

4 Backgrounding Cattle are retained after weaning for weight gain Generally until 9 to 10 months of age Cattle are retained after weaning for weight gain Generally until 9 to 10 months of age

5 Feedlot Cattle are fed an increasing amount of grain for days Target end weight is generally 1200 pounds; typically this is reached at an age of 15 to 19 months Cattle are fed an increasing amount of grain for days Target end weight is generally 1200 pounds; typically this is reached at an age of 15 to 19 months

6 Scientific Principles of BSE Prevention Cattle Feed Cattle Feed Cattle Beef Processing Consumer Block recycling of rendered mammalian proteins into cattle feed Exclude potentially infectious tissues (SRM’s) & minimize cross- contamination Exclude potentially infectious tissues (SRM’s) & minimize cross- contamination Rendering Facility

7 Role of U.S. Government in Controlling BSE Protecting the health of the U.S. cattle herd Food & Drug Administration (FDA) Monitor & Enforce Feed Ban Animal & Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) BSE Surveillance to Determine Prevalence & Verify Effectiveness of BSE Firewalls in U.S. Food Safety & Inspection Service (FSIS) Protecting the human food supply Monitor & enforce the Removal of SRM’s & Other New BSE- Related Regulations Agriculture Marketing Service (AMS) Provide auditing service to certify marketing programs (e.g., BEV)

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9 Beef Quality Assurance Mission Maximize consumer confidence in and acceptance of beef by focusing the industry’s attention on beef quality through the use of science, research and educational initiatives. Mission Maximize consumer confidence in and acceptance of beef by focusing the industry’s attention on beef quality through the use of science, research and educational initiatives.

10 Safety Criteria 1: Use of Feed and Feed Additives Safety Criteria 1: Use of Feed and Feed Additives Do not feed “prohibited” mammalian derived protein sources. Meat and bone meal or any other prohibited protein sources derived from mammalian muscle or bone tissue cannot be fed.

11 Mammalian Protein Ban The FDA (1997) has formulated rules and regulations that deal with the feeding of mammalian-derived products. No “prohibited” mammalian-derived protein sources can be fed in the BQA program. Proteins that are exempt Blood and blood by-products Milk products Pure porcine protein products Pure equine protein products Gelatin Always refer to label directions to determine if products are or are not approved for use in cattle. The FDA (1997) has formulated rules and regulations that deal with the feeding of mammalian-derived products. No “prohibited” mammalian-derived protein sources can be fed in the BQA program. Proteins that are exempt Blood and blood by-products Milk products Pure porcine protein products Pure equine protein products Gelatin Always refer to label directions to determine if products are or are not approved for use in cattle.

12 Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Inspections and Legal Sanctions Scientific Expertise Product Safety Food Drugs Medical devices Biologics Animal feed and drugs Cosmetics Radiation emitting products Inspections and Legal Sanctions Scientific Expertise Product Safety Food Drugs Medical devices Biologics Animal feed and drugs Cosmetics Radiation emitting products

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14 CVM Update On Ruminant Feed (BSE) Enforcement To help prevent the establishment and amplification of BSE through feed, in the U.S., FDA implemented a Final Rule that prohibits the use of most mammalian protein in feeds for ruminant animals (Ruminant Feed Ban, August 4, 1997). As of April 17, 2004, FDA and State officials had inspected 29,000 establishments (renderers, feedmills, protein blenders, ruminant feeders, on-farm mixers, pet food manufacturers, animal feed salvagers, distributors, retailers, transporters) % of establishments qualified as NAI (No Action Indicated). To help prevent the establishment and amplification of BSE through feed, in the U.S., FDA implemented a Final Rule that prohibits the use of most mammalian protein in feeds for ruminant animals (Ruminant Feed Ban, August 4, 1997). As of April 17, 2004, FDA and State officials had inspected 29,000 establishments (renderers, feedmills, protein blenders, ruminant feeders, on-farm mixers, pet food manufacturers, animal feed salvagers, distributors, retailers, transporters) % of establishments qualified as NAI (No Action Indicated). SOURCE: U.S. FDA, Center for Veterinary Medicine (April 22, 2004).

15 CVM Update On Ruminant Feed (BSE) Enforcement (June 20, 2005) Active firms whose initial inspection has been reported to FDA = 15,676 ・ Number of active firms handling materials prohibited from use in ruminant feed = 4,093 (26% of those active firms inspected) ・ Of the 4,093 active firms handling prohibited materials: 10 firms (0.2%) were classified as Official Action Indicated 98 firms (2.4%) were classified as Voluntary Action Indicated Active firms whose initial inspection has been reported to FDA = 15,676 ・ Number of active firms handling materials prohibited from use in ruminant feed = 4,093 (26% of those active firms inspected) ・ Of the 4,093 active firms handling prohibited materials: 10 firms (0.2%) were classified as Official Action Indicated 98 firms (2.4%) were classified as Voluntary Action Indicated

16 Procurement

17 Food Safety & Inspection Service (FSIS) A Department of USDA Inspection & Safety for Meat, Poultry, & Egg products Consumer Information & Awareness A Department of USDA Inspection & Safety for Meat, Poultry, & Egg products Consumer Information & Awareness

18 Food Safety and Inspection Service BSE Mitigation Measures (Implemented After January 12, 2004) Banned the use of air injection/retraction stunning methods Banned non-ambulatory animals from the food chain Mandated Test and Hold procedures for animals identified for BSE testing Banned Specified Risk Materials from the human food chain Banned Specified Risk Materials from incorporation into Advanced Meat Recovery Systems ***These systems were implemented under the principles of “Abundance of Caution.” They have been implemented into the regulatory process and are included in Pre-requisite programs or HACCP programs

19 Stunning (Captive Bolt, No Air Injection ) Captive Bolt Stunners

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21 Specified Risk Materials 9 CFR § January 12, Spinal Cord Vertebral Column Dorsal Root Ganglia Brain Skull Distal Ileum (Small Intestine) Trigeminal ganglia Eyes Tonsils > 30 Months of Age< 30 Months of Age Distal Ileum (Small Intestine) Tonsils

22 Infectivity of Bovine Tissues in Relation to Bovine Age Distal Ileum 6-18 months >38 months Tonsils 10 months Brain >32 months Spinal cord >32 months Dorsal root Ganglia >32 months Trigeminal Ganglia >36 months Source: G. A. H. Wells et al., 1998; Preliminary observations on the pathogenesis of experimental bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE): an update. Veterinary Record (1998) 142:

23 Tissue% Total Infectivity Cumulative Brain64.1%64.1% Spinal Cord25.6%89.7% Distal Ileum3.3%93.0% Dorsal Root Ganglia3.8%96.8% Trigeminal Ganglia2.6%99.4% Spleen0.3%99.7% Eyes0.3%100.0% Tissue% Total Infectivity Cumulative Brain64.1%64.1% Spinal Cord25.6%89.7% Distal Ileum3.3%93.0% Dorsal Root Ganglia3.8%96.8% Trigeminal Ganglia2.6%99.4% Spleen0.3%99.7% Eyes0.3%100.0% Relative BSE Infectivity Associated With Cattle Tissues Adapted from EU Scientific Steering Committee, % Infectivity from an Animal with Clinical Disease

24 Identifying, Marking, & Segregating Carcasses of Cattle that are >30 Months of Age

25 Bovine Dentition

26 Removal of Spinal Cord

27 SRM Removal & Disposal Carcass Disassembly Vertebral Column [DRG] is removed from Carcasses  30 MOA & sent to inedible rendering Removal of Vertebral Column [DRG] Wash/Sanitize Affected Equipment after Carcasses of Cattle  30 MOA

28 Advanced Meat Recovery Systems Process used to salvage meat remains on bones after fabrication May not contain vertebral column bones or skulls Product is verified by FSIS testing that it is free of any central nervous tissue Process used to salvage meat remains on bones after fabrication May not contain vertebral column bones or skulls Product is verified by FSIS testing that it is free of any central nervous tissue

29 Mechanically Separated Meat Mechanically separated meat products are produced by mechanically removing meat from bone. use of an auger to crush the bones down to a pre-determined size use of a “screen” which separates the meat and smaller bone particles from the larger bone particles. Mechanically separated meat must be labeled as “Mechanically Separated ‘Species’” and must meet the provisions outlined in the excerpt from the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations below. The new Interim Final Rules published by FSIS on January 12, clearly state that Mechanically Separated Beef is no longer allowed for production. This information can be found at: Mechanically separated meat products are produced by mechanically removing meat from bone. use of an auger to crush the bones down to a pre-determined size use of a “screen” which separates the meat and smaller bone particles from the larger bone particles. Mechanically separated meat must be labeled as “Mechanically Separated ‘Species’” and must meet the provisions outlined in the excerpt from the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations below. The new Interim Final Rules published by FSIS on January 12, clearly state that Mechanically Separated Beef is no longer allowed for production. This information can be found at: or: or:

30 Advanced Meat Recovery These systems differ from MS systems in that they remove the actual bone particles. Instead of crushing the bones and squeezing the remaining meat through a screen, the AMR system uses the bones to “rub” each other and remove the edible meat products. AMR systems generally incorporate: a presize, which actually breaks the bones down to a uniform size, A machine separator which peels meat off of the bones A belt separator which removes any residual bone and other ligaments, tendons, or collagen through a system of belts and drums. AMR product does not have to be labeled as “AMR product”, it may be labeled as “meat” if it meets the standards described in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations. These systems differ from MS systems in that they remove the actual bone particles. Instead of crushing the bones and squeezing the remaining meat through a screen, the AMR system uses the bones to “rub” each other and remove the edible meat products. AMR systems generally incorporate: a presize, which actually breaks the bones down to a uniform size, A machine separator which peels meat off of the bones A belt separator which removes any residual bone and other ligaments, tendons, or collagen through a system of belts and drums. AMR product does not have to be labeled as “AMR product”, it may be labeled as “meat” if it meets the standards described in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations.

31 AMR Standards Calcium content cannot exceed 130mg/100g. The added iron content cannot be greater than 3.5mg/100g. As mandated by the FSIS Interim rules published in January of 2004, AMR cannot be produced using the skulls and vertebral columns derived from animals greater than 30 months. As mandated by the FSIS Interim rules published in January of 2004, AMR product cannot contain the presence of brain, trigeminal ganglia, spinal cord, or dorsal root ganglia. Calcium content cannot exceed 130mg/100g. The added iron content cannot be greater than 3.5mg/100g. As mandated by the FSIS Interim rules published in January of 2004, AMR cannot be produced using the skulls and vertebral columns derived from animals greater than 30 months. As mandated by the FSIS Interim rules published in January of 2004, AMR product cannot contain the presence of brain, trigeminal ganglia, spinal cord, or dorsal root ganglia.

32 Advanced Meat Recovery -- Economics Prior to discovery of Mad Cow Disease in the USA: Yield of AMR tissue 10 pounds per head. With changes in SRMs after Mad Cow Disease in the USA: Yield of AMR tissue 3 pounds per head. Prior to discovery of Mad Cow Disease in the USA: Yield of AMR tissue 10 pounds per head. With changes in SRMs after Mad Cow Disease in the USA: Yield of AMR tissue 3 pounds per head. SOURCE: G. C. Smith (January 20, 2004) “Some packing plants may decide to go back to hand-deboning or Whizzard-knife trimming of vertebral column, long bones, and flat bones… and not use AMR.”

33 Summary of U.S. BSE Mitigation Procedures Production Pre- Slaughter Beef Slaughter & Carcass Chilling Carcass Disassembly Rendering FDA Mammalian to Ruminant Feed Ban Feed Affidavits Animal Identification Feed Mill Reviews Feed Testing Exclusion of Downer Cattle FSIS Antemortem inspection Test & Hold Policy APHIS Surveillance No air injection stunning Age Determination Age Segregation & Carcass Identification [30 mo. of age & older] SRM Removal & Disposal Sanitation & Dedicated Equipment FSIS Postmortem Inspection Carcass Identification & Segregation [30 Months of Age & Older] SRM Removal & Disposal Equipment Sanitation Product Separation & Labeling AMR & MSM Policies MBM Labeling Inedible Processing of SRM’s MBM sales designation Handling Equipment Clean-out Procedures FDA Verification


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