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TEN STEPS to BUILDING COLLEGE READING SKILLS FIFTH EDITION John Langan © 2011 Townsend Press.

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Presentation on theme: "TEN STEPS to BUILDING COLLEGE READING SKILLS FIFTH EDITION John Langan © 2011 Townsend Press."— Presentation transcript:

1 TEN STEPS to BUILDING COLLEGE READING SKILLS FIFTH EDITION John Langan © 2011 Townsend Press

2 Dictionary Advice in a Nutshell You should own both a paperback and a hardbound dictionary. Your computer (if you have one) may have a built-in dictionary; also, you can easily visit an online dictionary. Use spelling hints to help you look up in the dictionary a word you cannot spell. A dictionary entry will tell you how a word is spelled and pronounced and give you various meanings of the word. It will also provide other helpful information about words. DICTIONARY SKILLS

3 This Chapter in a Nutshell You should own both a paperback and a hardbound dictionary. Your computer (if you have one) may have a built-in dictionary; also, you can easily visit an online dictionary. Use spelling hints to help you look up in the dictionary a word you cannot spell. A dictionary entry will tell you how a word is spelled and pronounced and give you various meanings of the word. It will also provide other helpful information about words.

4 The dictionary is a valuable tool. To help you use it, this chapter explains in a clear and detailed way what you need to know about dictionaries and the information they provide. CHAPTER 1 Dictionary Use This Chapter in a Nutshell

5 CHAPTER 1 Dictionary Use Owning Your Own Dictionaries You can benefit greatly by owning two dictionaries. The first dictionary you should own is a paperback edition you can carry with you. Any of the following would be a good choice:

6 CHAPTER 1 Dictionary Use Owning Your Own Dictionaries You can benefit greatly by owning two dictionaries. The second dictionary you should own is a desk-sized, hardcover edition, which should be kept in the room where you study. Here are two good hardbound dictionaries:

7 CHAPTER 1 Dictionary Use Online Dictionaries If your computer is connected to the Internet, you may find it easy to check words online. Here is one dictionary site you can go to: www.merriam-webster.com

8 CHAPTER 1 Dictionary Use Online Dictionaries If you go online to www.merriam- webster.com and type in the word www.merriam- webster.com fortify, you will see something like this:

9 CHAPTER 1 Dictionary Use Online Dictionaries Notice the speaker icon next to the word fortify. If you click on this icon, the word will be pronounced for you.

10 CHAPTER 1 Dictionary Use Finding Words in the Dictionary Using Guidewords to Find a Word One way to find a given word in a dictionary is to use guidewords—the pair of words at the very top of each dictionary page. Here are the top and bottom parts of a page in one paperback dictionary:

11 CHAPTER 1 Dictionary Use The first guideword tells what the first word is on that page. Finding Words in the Dictionary / Using Guidewords to Find a Word The second guideword tells what the last word is on the page. All the word entries on the page fall alphabetically between the two guidewords.

12 CHAPTER 1 Dictionary Use Finding Words in the Dictionary / Using Guidewords to Find a Word Which word below would be found on the dictionary page with the guidewords armful / arsenic? art aroma allow armful | arsenic

13 CHAPTER 1 Dictionary Use Finding Words in the Dictionary / Using Guidewords to Find a Word Which word below would be found on the dictionary page with the guidewords armful / arsenic? art aroma allow armful | arsenic The word aroma falls alphabetically between armful and arsenic. The word art comes after arsenic. The word allow comes before armful.

14 CHAPTER 1 Dictionary Use Finding a Word You Can’t Spell Finding Words in the Dictionary If you want to find a word in the dictionary, but you don’t know how to spell the word, you have to guess what the letters might be. Here are three hints to help you in such cases: Hint 1: If you’re not sure about the vowels in a word, you will have to experiment. Vowels often sound the same. So try an i in place of an a, an i in place of an e, and so on. If, for example, you don’t find a word that sounds as if it begins with pa, try looking under pe, pi, po, pu, or py.

15 CHAPTER 1 Dictionary Use Finding Words in the Dictionary / Finding a Word You Can’t Spell Hint 2: These groups or combinations of letters below often sound alike. If your word isn’t spelled with one of the letters in a pair or group shown below, try another in the same pair or group. For example, if it isn’t spelled with a k, it might be spelled with a c. c/kc/sf/v/phg/jqu/kw/ks/c/z sch/sc/sksh/ch shun/tion /sion w/whable/ibleai/ay al/el/le ancy/ency ate/iteau/awea/eeer/or ie/eiou/owoo/uy/i/e

16 CHAPTER 1 Dictionary Use Finding Words in the Dictionary / Finding a Word You Can’t Spell Hint 3: Consonants are sometimes doubled in a word. If you can’t find your word with a single consonant, try doubling it.

17 CHAPTER 1 Dictionary Use Learning from a Dictionary Entry Sample Dictionary Entry 7 Usage Labels All of the following information may be provided in a dictionary entry: 1 Spelling and Syllables 2 Pronunciation Symbols and Accent Marks 3 Parts of Speech 4 Irregular Forms of Words 5 Definitions (Meanings) 6 Synonyms

18 CHAPTER 1 Dictionary Use Learning from a Dictionary Entry 1 Spelling and Syllables The dictionary first gives the correct spelling and syllable breakdown of a word. In the entry for disrespect, the word is divided into three syllables. 123 Dots separate the words into syllables.

19 CHAPTER 1 Dictionary Use / 1 Spelling and Syllables Learning from a Dictionary Entry donatecompensateobedient How many syllables are in each of these words? 121231234 4 syllables 2 syllables3 syllables

20 CHAPTER 1 Dictionary Use 2 Pronunciation Symbols and Accent Marks In a dictionary entry, the information in parentheses shows you how to pronounce the word. Learning from a Dictionary Entry It includes two kinds of symbols: pronunciation symbols and accent marks.

21 CHAPTER 1 Dictionary Use / 2 Pronunciation Symbols and Accent Marks Learning from a Dictionary Entry Pronunciation Symbols The pronunciation symbols tell the sounds of the consonants and the vowels in a word. Vowels are the letters a, e, i, o, and u. (Sometimes y is also a vowel, as in myself and copy.) To know how to pronounce the vowel sounds, use the pronunciation key in your dictionary.

22 CHAPTER 1 Dictionary Use / 2 Pronunciation Symbols and Accent Marks Learning from a Dictionary Entry Pronunciation Symbols To use the pronunciation key, match the symbol (√, ∂, and so on) with the letter or letters in bold print in the short word that follows the symbol. Here is a sample pronunciation key: For instance, √ (also called “short a”) sounds like the a in hat.

23 CHAPTER 1 Dictionary Use / 2 Pronunciation Symbols and Accent Marks Learning from a Dictionary Entry Pronunciation Symbols Pronunciation Key The i in disrespect has the symbol µ. The first e in the word also has the symbol µ. It is also pronounced like the i in the word sit. This tells you that the i is pronounced like the i in the word sit.

24 CHAPTER 1 Dictionary Use / 2 Pronunciation Symbols and Accent Marks Learning from a Dictionary Entry Pronunciation Symbols Pronunciation Key The second e in disrespect is pronounced like the e in what word? Answer: Like the e in ten

25 CHAPTER 1 Dictionary Use / 2 Pronunciation Symbols and Accent Marks Learning from a Dictionary Entry Accent Marks The black marks in the pronunciation guide are accent marks. The line after the t at the end of disrespect is a bold accent mark. It shows which syllable has the strongest stress. The first syllable (dis) has a lighter accent mark after it. That syllable is more stressed than the unaccented second syllable but less strongly stressed than the last syllable.

26 CHAPTER 1 Dictionary Use / 2 Pronunciation Symbols and Accent Marks Learning from a Dictionary Entry Which syllable is most strongly stressed in each of the words below? Answers: Second Third First Accent Marks

27 CHAPTER 1 Dictionary Use Learning from a Dictionary Entry 3 Parts of Speech Every word in the dictionary is either a noun, a verb, an adjective, or another part of speech. In dictionary entries, the parts of speech are shown by letters in italics. In the entry for disrespect, for example, the abbreviations v. and n. tell us that disrespect is both a verb and a noun.

28 CHAPTER 1 Dictionary Use Learning from a Dictionary Entry / 3 Parts of Speech n. — nounv. — verb pron. — pronounconj. — conjunction adj. — adjectiveprep. — preposition adv. — adverbinterj. — interjection n. — nounv. — verb pron. — pronounconj. — conjunction adj. — adjectiveprep. — preposition adv. — adverbinterj. — interjection Here are the most common abbreviations for parts of speech:

29 CHAPTER 1 Dictionary Use / 3 Parts of Speech Learning from a Dictionary Entry In the dictionary entry below, what parts of speech are given for the word insult? Answers: Verb and Noun

30 CHAPTER 1 Dictionary Use Learning from a Dictionary Entry 4 Irregular Forms of Words When other forms of a word are spelled in an irregular way, those forms are shown in the dictionary entry. Here are some examples:

31 CHAPTER 1 Dictionary Use Learning from a Dictionary Entry 5 Definitions Words often have more than one meaning. The dictionary lists the different meanings. You can tell which definition of a word fits a given sentence by the meaning of the sentence.

32 CHAPTER 1 Dictionary Use Learning from a Dictionary Entry / 5 Definitions Modern technology can revive patients who have actually been considered medically dead. revive: 1. To bring back to life or consciousness. 2. To impart or regain health or vigor. 3. To restore to use. Which dictionary meaning for the word revive best fits the sentence below?

33 CHAPTER 1 Dictionary Use Learning from a Dictionary Entry / 5 Definitions Modern technology can revive patients who have actually been considered medically dead. revive: 1. To bring back to life or consciousness. 2. To impart or regain health or vigor. 3. To restore to use. Which dictionary meaning for the word revive best fits the sentence below? Definition 1 best fits the sentence: Modern technology can bring a patient back to life.

34 CHAPTER 1 Dictionary Use Learning from a Dictionary Entry 6 Synonyms A synonym is a word whose meaning is similar to that of another word. For instance, two synonyms for the word fast are quick and speedy.

35 CHAPTER 1 Dictionary Use Learning from a Dictionary Entry / 6 Synonyms Dictionary entries sometimes end with synonyms. More information on synonyms as well as antonyms (words with opposite meanings) can be found in a thesaurus (thµ- sôr£®s), which is a collection of synonyms and antonyms. If you have access to the Internet, you can find a free thesaurus online by going to www.merriam-webster.comwww.merriam-webster.com or www.thesaurus.comwww.thesaurus.com

36 CHAPTER 1 Dictionary Use Learning from a Dictionary Entry / 6 Synonyms You may want to own a paperback thesaurus such as one of the following:

37 CHAPTER 1 Dictionary Use Learning from a Dictionary Entry 7 Usage Labels Besides listing definitions, a dictionary often includes usage labels: terms that tell us if a meaning is considered something other than “Standard English.” One meaning for the verb crash, “to go to sleep,” is labeled “Slang.” The phrase hang in, meaning “to persist,” is labeled “Informal.” The word ain’t is labeled “Nonstandard.” Such labels indicate language not considered appropriate in formal speech and writing. Examples of Usage Labels

38 CHAPTER 1 Dictionary Use Learning from a Dictionary Entry / 7 Usage Labels In addition to usage labels, the dictionary provides field labels—special meanings of a word within a certain field. The following definition of the word mouse is labeled “Computer Science”: A hand-held input device used to move about a computer screen and operate programs. Example of Field Labels


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