Presentation on theme: "INEOS Films 1Specialties Business PVC and the Environment Let’s put the record straight!"— Presentation transcript:
INEOS Films 1Specialties Business PVC and the Environment Let’s put the record straight!
INEOS Films 2Specialties Business Opinions of PVC 1. PVC is dangerous – it is produced from noxious chlorine 2. PVC is dangerous to manufacture 3. PVC is unsafe to use 4. PVC is difficult to dispose of 5. PVC cannot be recycled 6. PVC burdens the incinerator 7. PVC production causes dioxin emission 8. PVC is a waste of oil and other resources 9. PVC productions waste energy 10. PVC has a major share in the “Greenhouse Effect“
INEOS Films 3Specialties Business PVC is not dangerous because it contains chlorine nChlorine is one of the most common naturally occurring elements nLiterally millions of tonnes of organo-chlorine compounds are produced each year in nature nChlorine is used for life-saving medicines and essential water treatments to protect people against deadly bacteria, germs and diseases nLife itself could not exist without chlorine chemistry
INEOS Films 4Specialties Business PVC is not dangerous because it contains chlorine Prof. J.Gordon Edwards, Professor of Biology and Entomology at San Jose University, USA, November 1997. “A world without chlorine would resemble a science-fiction scene of the worst kind - where surgeons operate without sutures and doctors treat intensive- care patients without IV tubes or oxygen tents. Instead of turning the public’s attention - as well as precious time and resources - to the fictitious threat of table salt, groups like Greenpeace should spend their time tackling the real monsters of our world today - such as AIDS, cancer, hunger and violence”
INEOS Films 5Specialties Business PVC is not dangerous to manufacture nOccupational exposure problems with Vinyl Chloride Monomer (VCM) were identified and solved by the industry 30 years ago nEmissions from VCM and PVC manufacturing plants are tightly controlled within safe regulatory limits
INEOS Films 6Specialties Business PVC is not dangerous to manufacture nClaims that PVC factories emit significant amounts of dioxins are untrue nINEOS is a signatory to the EVCM Charter for the manufacture of PVC and VCM which commits manufacturers to meet environmental standards in PVC and VCM production and voluntarily goes beyond regulatory requirements
INEOS Films 7Specialties Business PVC is safe to use nThe use of PVC and its additives in food contact, drinking water and medical applications are extremely regulated nPVC is used in many life-saving applications nPVC is used in many safety-critical applications nPVC is used in many applications where hygiene considerations are paramount
INEOS Films 8Specialties Business PVC is safe to use nStabilisers used in PVC formulations are integrated in the polymer matrix and represent no danger to public or environmental health nPVC has excellent fire protection properties. It is difficult to ignite and inherently fire retardant nWhen PVC does burn, the combustion products are relatively less toxic than combustion products from many other natural and synthetic materials
INEOS Films 9Specialties Business PVC is safe to use nHealth authorities world wide have rated PVC films as being harmless and as a result they are used in fields such as food packaging and medical equipment. nPVC pipes have been employed trouble-free for the transportation of our drinking and industrial water as well as for chemicals for over 50 years now. In contrast to other materials, PVC pipes are not attacked by aggressive soils. nBuilding materials (guttering, window frames and facade covering) have a life expectancy of at least 20 years with a minimum of maintenance.
INEOS Films 10Specialties Business PVC is safe to use nPVC has been mass-produced and utilised for more than 60 years now nPVC has been thoroughly researched and continuously improved nThere has been more positive knowledge gathered from studies and long-term testing of PVC than about other plastic nThe amount of dioxin released during PVC manufacturing is tightly regulated and the overall amount of dioxin releases is insignificant compared to other dioxin sources
INEOS Films 11Specialties Business PVC is safe to use Rigid PVC Films from INEOS : nContain no phthalates nContain no cadmium or lead stabilisers nAre physiologically safe nAre approved for packaging applications by the German Bundesgesundheitsamt (Federal Health Office) PVC does not contain dioxin!
INEOS Films 12Specialties Business PVC is safe to use “As far as I am aware, no member of the public has ever been harmed by PVC, and many people owe their lives to it. It is time we learned to live in peace with a rather wonderful plastic.” Dr. John Emsley, writer of the award -winning ‘Consumer’s Good Chemical Guide’,UK, 1994. “The only way you could harm anyone with PVC is to hit them over the head with a large piece of it“ Prof. Michael Gallagher, Professor of Chemistry at the University of New South Wales, Australia, January 1996. “PVC is perfectly safe and this is why it is used for bottles for mineral water, bags for blood transfusions, and fine bore tubing that is inserted into premature babies. DTI, Chemicals and Biotechnology Division, Technology Foresight Document, UK Government, March 1996.
INEOS Films 13Specialties Business PVC waste is safely managed “Based on current knowledge, the National EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) has concluded that the methods used today for the management of PVC waste, namely landfill disposal and incineration for energy recovery, can continue to be accepted from an environmental viewpoint.” “It is acceptable from a health and environmental viewpoint to re-use products, or process and re-use products, made of recycled PVC...” Swedish EPA, June 1996.
INEOS Films 14Specialties Business PVC waste is safely managed nPVC applications typically have a long life-cycle which reduces the need for product replacement and waste nVirtually all manufacturing waste and a large proportion of installation waste are already being recycled nPost-use recycling schemes are operating for major PVC product applications nPost-use PVC products “Made in Germany” are perfectly safe. They have a completely neutral affect on the environment.
INEOS Films 15Specialties Business PVC waste is safely managed There are 2 main methods of disposal : n Recycling n Combustion As well in the landfill, PVC still plays an important role.
INEOS Films 16Specialties Business PVC recycling nMechanical recycling: The mechanical recycling process is preferred when the different types of products in the waste stream can be easily separated and sorted. After extracting other substances, the sorted PVC products are ground and cleaned for reprocessing into new products. Today, PVC products such as bottles, pipes, windows, cables and flooring are being successfully recycled. e.g. in Behringen/Thüringen and Rahden, Westfalen Germany
INEOS Films 17Specialties Business PVC recycling nFeedstock recycling: Feedstock recycling is the chosen option when mixtures of plastics or multi-material products cannot be economically separated into pure streams. In this process, polymers, including PVC, are thermally broken down into their chemical raw materials which can then be purified and recycled as feed stocks to petrochemical or polymers production plants. (PVC thermo splitting)
INEOS Films 18Specialties Business PVC in the landfill nPVC helps to form a safe, stable landfill. All the evidence shows that the PVC polymer itself does not degrade and that its additives do not produce harmful gas or leach ate concentrations. PVC products made in Germany have a completely neutral affect on the environment. nPVC films are even used to seal tips in order to avoid contamination of natural water sources.
INEOS Films 19Specialties Business Incineration of PVC nThe energy potential of PVC in an incinerator is much higher than the energy potential of coal nBurning temperatures, cooling temperatures and rates are critical for the reduction of toxic gases within the incinerator nPVC is not decisive for the production of dioxin in the waste nPVC has no influence on the production of dioxin during the combustion of garbage
INEOS Films 20Specialties Business PVC waste is safely managed nExtensive studies in several countries have all concluded, that the removal of PVC from the waste stream has no effect on the amount of dioxins produced when waste is incinerated nThe contribution of all acid gases from the burning of PVC is less than 0.25%
INEOS Films 21Specialties Business Incineration of PVC nOnly 50% of the proportion of HCl arising in an incinerator is caused by PVC. The other 50% is caused by chlorine contained in paper, food, plant fibres etc. The HCl is neutralised and the arising calcium chloride (salt) is reused. nEmission controls to prevent acid gas emission from the waste incinerators are required, even if no PVC is in the waste stream
INEOS Films 22Specialties Business Incineration of PVC – Salt Cycle nBy adding water during the flue gas washing, HCl arises. This HCl is purified and neutralised by the suspension of calcium hydroxide in the water. This creates salt again which is used by the chemical industry again
INEOS Films 23Specialties Business Incineration of PVC – CO2 Emission PS, PE, PP and PET have a remarkable higher CO2 emission rate during the incineration than PVC. ( the salt does not burn). PVC therefore helps to reduce the CO2 emission.
INEOS Films 24Specialties Business Fire behaviour nPVC is self-extinguishing if the flame is taken away. It only burns with other materials nPS, PP and PET are easily inflammable. PS drops when burning nPVC has no special position in terms of toxic fire gases.
INEOS Films 25Specialties Business Dioxin Emission “Many countries have found metal production and manufacturing, historical use of chlorinated phenols, and incineration in poor combustors to be important dioxin sources, not PVC. Additionally, my group has shown natural formation of dioxins in compost, sewage sludge, and sediments can also play an important role.” Prof. Christoffer Rappe, Professor of Environmental Chemistry, Umea University, Sweden, July 1997.
INEOS Films 26Specialties Business Dioxin emissions nDioxin emissions from the UK’s largest VCM and PVC manufacturing facility <0.05g TEQ* p.a. rate nDioxin emissions from engines of Deep Sea Tug (of the type favoured by some environmental NGOs) 0.07g TEQ* p.a. rate (source: TNO study) *TEQ = Toxic Equivalent
INEOS Films 27Specialties Business TEQ Method nToxic Equivalents, or TEQs, are used to report the toxicity-weighted masses of mixtures of PCDD/Fs. The TEQ method of dioxin reporting is more meaningful than simply reporting the total number of grams of a mixture of variously toxic compounds because the TEQ method offers toxicity information about the mixture.
INEOS Films 28Specialties Business Dioxin emissions Dioxin emissions of the industry is strictly regulated: nThe highest Dioxin concentration allowed from industrial discharges is 0.1ng/cubic metre of emission. nThe Dioxin concentration in the vicinity of a standard BBQ cooking meat has been measured as 0.7ng/cubic metre i.e. 7 times the industrial concentration limit. (Robin des Bois, France, 2003) nThe PVC industry makes an insignificant and reducing contribution to total dioxin emissions nThe PVC industry continues to deliver improvements in the efficiency of its manufacturing processes. Emissions from PVC manufacturing represent less than 0.05% of the total material processed.
INEOS Films 29Specialties Business PVC does not waste resources nFeedstock resources for PVC: o 57% of the Molecular Weight (MW) of PVC is chlorine derived from salt : §50 Quadrillion T of dissolved salt are in the world’s seas - enough to put a layer around the world 45 metres thick §200 Billion T of salt deposits underground o The remainder of the MW is from hydrocarbon feedstocks : §Ethylene from oil (equivalent to circa 0.3% of annual oil use) §Ethylene from sugar crops is also used for PVC production. nAdvantages of salt abundance & low reliance on hydrocarbon resources.
INEOS Films 30Specialties Business PVC does not waste resources nPVC contains 43% crude oil and 57% salt nPET, PP and PS are 100% based on crude oil Quantity of oil needed to produce 1 kg: PET 1,9 kg PS 1,3 kg PVC 0,5 kg
INEOS Films 31Specialties Business PVC productions is not energy consuming nEnergy needed to produce 1 kg of: PVC56.50 MJ PP70.00 MJ PET83.81 MJ GPPS 86.28 MJ (general purpose PS) HIPS 90.74 MJ (high impact PS)
INEOS Films 32Specialties Business PVC productions is not energy consuming
INEOS Films 33Specialties Business PVC productions is not energy consuming Source: Software GaBi 4 Database – PE Europe
INEOS Films 34Specialties Business PVC is not energy consuming 4% PVC96% water 37% glass63% water By using PVC bottles, 60% more product is delivered, 80% less packaging and 40% less petrol are needed.
INEOS Films 35Specialties Business Emission – Greenhouse Effect nThe emission during production of 1 kg of: PVCGPPSHIPSPET mg CO 2 2,000,0002,600,0002,800,0002,330,000 mg SO x 8,20011,00012,00025,000 mg NO x 9,60012,60012,00020,200 mg HCl 1502635110
INEOS Films 36Specialties Business PVC productions is not energy consuming nPVC manufacture uses less energy than other plastics (including bio plastics). Carbon Dioxide emissions associated with PVC manufacture are correspondingly low. nWe could always look into the possibility of making PVC products CARBON NEUTRAL by investing in carbon offset, of course there will be additional costs but this could well provide a “conscience free” substrate nThe CO2 emission of a human being is 300 kg p.a.
INEOS Films 37Specialties Business Conclusion The PVC industry has developed a good knowledge of sustainability. PVC has many economic, social and environmental sustainability advantages as compared to competing materials, however there is still more we can do. The PVC industry has invested heavily in sustainable development and the Vinyl 2010 programme is receiving recognition. Some competing materials claim environmental and sustainability advantages over PVC – this is usually based either on myths about the environmental impact of PVC or unjustifiably biased opinions about the competing materials.