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CBNRM in coastal Bulgaria: Advise on use and networking BSNN, Natura 2000 project on CZM Varna, Bulgaria, 2 July 2010 Lars T. Soeftestad Community-Based.

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Presentation on theme: "CBNRM in coastal Bulgaria: Advise on use and networking BSNN, Natura 2000 project on CZM Varna, Bulgaria, 2 July 2010 Lars T. Soeftestad Community-Based."— Presentation transcript:

1 CBNRM in coastal Bulgaria: Advise on use and networking BSNN, Natura 2000 project on CZM Varna, Bulgaria, 2 July 2010 Lars T. Soeftestad Community-Based Natural Resource Management Network, (CBNRM Net,

2 BSNN workshop, VarnaNatura 2000: CZM, 2 Jul 2010 CONTENT 1About yourself 2Aims with the session 3Presentation  3.1 Key terms  3.2 About CBNRM  3.3 Stakeholder analysis  3.4 Networking and networks 4Discussion 5Evaluation 2

3 BSNN workshop, VarnaNatura 2000: CZM, 2 Jul ABOUT YOURSELF In which sector do you work – public sector, civil society or private sector? At which level do you work – local, regional and/or national? What are your expectations with this session? Have you participated in similar trainings earlier? Which topic? Org. by whom? –Was it useful? What did you like & what not? 3

4 BSNN workshop, VarnaNatura 2000: CZM, 2 Jul 2010 About yourself, II List informal and formal relationshiops you ahve with organizations represented here, and with persons that participate in the session List relevant projects and activities 4

5 BSNN workshop, VarnaNatura 2000: CZM, 2 Jul AIMS WITH THE SESSION Support the project Present concepts, methods of analysis and ways of working Contribute to awareness raising and empowerment of project stakeholders Contribute to ensuring that the processes and results achieved by the project continues after project closure 5

6 BSNN workshop, VarnaNatura 2000: CZM, 2 Jul 2010 Aims with the session, II Provide tools for evaluating the project Support the integration of the coastal region further into wider contexts (Bulgaria, Eastern Europe, EU) 6

7 BSNN workshop, VarnaNatura 2000: CZM, 2 Jul 2010 Aims with the session, III Initiate and facilitate communicatioan between all stakeholders stakeholders that have interests in the coastal region, as located in public sector, civil society and private sector Support collective action and local partnerships Promote exchange of information and knowledge 7

8 BSNN workshop, VarnaNatura 2000: CZM, 2 Jul KEY TERMS Participation –Informal and formal participation in the democratic process –Is more participation needed ? Governance –Based on participation –The idea that people are involved, through a democratic process, in governing themselves –Characterize roles and positions in your own village and municipality 8

9 BSNN workshop, VarnaNatura 2000: CZM, 2 Jul 2010 Key terms, II Stakeholders –Persons have different roles and positions in communities and municipalities, etc. –This means they have different interests (or stakes) in policy- and decision-making Co-management –Association or collaboration between stakeholders that are dissimilar in certain respects 9

10 BSNN workshop, VarnaNatura 2000: CZM, 2 Jul ABOUT CBNRM CBNRM = Community-Based Natural Resource Management –Two parts to the term Definition CBNRM Net 10

11 BSNN workshop, VarnaNatura 2000: CZM, 2 Jul STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS What is a stakeholder? –Persons have different roles and positions in communities, municipalities, etc. –This means they have different interests (or stakes) in policy- and decision-making So, we have: –Roles and positions –Interests (stakes) –Influence and power 11

12 BSNN workshop, VarnaNatura 2000: CZM, 2 Jul 2010 On stakeholders, I What characterizes stakeholders? –Values –Preferences –Means –Goals Where do we find stakeholders? –Public sector (at several levels) –Civil society (at several levels –Private sector 12

13 On stakeholders, II Classification and types: –Outside Bulgaria / internationally Financing Fund and project administration –In Bulgaria Public, civil society and private sectors Adm. levels: from govt. to community / population Recipient/user and resource provider Critical/neutral and opportunistic Relationship to local population and the state BSNN workshop, VarnaNatura 2000: CZM, 2 Jul

14 On stakeholders, III Central government departments and agencies NGOs, Community- based organizations Family enterprises, Partnerships, Private corpo- rations Public utilities, Regulated corporations Universities, Foundations, Local govern- ments Cooperati- ves, Trade unions Civil society Private sector Public sector BSNN workshop, VarnaNatura 2000: CZM, 2 Jul

15 BSNN workshop, VarnaNatura 2000: CZM, 2 Jul 2010 On stakeholders, III Role of public adm. & civil society? Lack of NGOs a problem for governance? Is associating with others important? Stakeholders outside the coastal region determine and impact your work as well as your values Stakeholders have official and hidden agendas and goals 15

16 Stakeholder models, I From simple to complex: Line – 2 stakeholders –Donor and recipient, nation level –To be understood horizontally and vertically Triangle – 3 stakeholders –Local population added –To be understood horizontally and vertically BSNN workshop, VarnaNatura 2000: CZM, 2 Jul

17 Stakeholder models, II From simple to complex: Square – 4 stakeholders –Civil society in countries outside Slovenia added –More stakeholders means more relationships –Stakeholders have to relate to increasing numbers of other stakeholders BSNN workshop, VarnaNatura 2000: CZM, 2 Jul

18 Stakeholder models, III From simple to complex: Pentagon and further... –”Everybody” are (key) stakeholders: self- identification –Different types of rationality BSNN workshop, VarnaNatura 2000: CZM, 2 Jul

19 Stakeholder analysis, I Originally prepared by the World Bank A method to describe and analyse relationships between stakeholders Important for analysing and understanding interests, including conflicts and conflict resolution BSNN workshop, VarnaNatura 2000: CZM, 2 Jul

20 Stakeholder analysis, II In connection with planning of projects In connection with implementation and evaluation of projects Used also at the sector level Used in combination with other methods, incl. social assessment and social analysis BSNN workshop, VarnaNatura 2000: CZM, 2 Jul

21 Stakeholder analysis, III Stakeholder analysis consists of 4 steps: 1.Identify key stakeholders 2.Assess their interests and the potential impact of the project on these interests 3.Assess their influence and importance 4.Outline stakeholder participation strategy BSNN workshop, VarnaNatura 2000: CZM, 2 Jul

22 Stakeholder analysis, IV Stakeholder analysis, Step 1: Identify key stakeholders –Who are potential beneficiaries? –Who might be adversely affected? –Have vulnerable groups been identified? –Have supporters and opponents been identified? –What are the rel.ships among the stakeholders? BSNN workshop, VarnaNatura 2000: CZM, 2 Jul

23 Stakeholder analysis, V Stakeholder analysis, Step 2: Assess interests and the potential impact of the project on these interests –What are their expectations of the project? –What benefits are there likely to be? –What resources might they mobilize? –What stakeholder interests conflict with project goals? BSNN workshop, VarnaNatura 2000: CZM, 2 Jul

24 Stakeholder analysis, VI Stakeholder analysis, Step 3: Assess influence and importance (for each stakeholder assess the following): –Power & status (political, social, economic) –Degree of organization –Control of strategic resources –Informal influence (e.g., pers. connections) –Power relations with other stakeholders –Importance to the success of the project BSNN workshop, VarnaNatura 2000: CZM, 2 Jul

25 Stakeholder analysis, VII Stakeholder analysis, Step 4: Outline stakeholder participation strategy. Plan stakeholder involvement acc. to: –Interests, importance and influence of each stakeholder –Particular efforts needed to involve important stakeholders who lack influence –Appropriate forms of participation throughout the project cycle BSNN workshop, VarnaNatura 2000: CZM, 2 Jul

26 Stakeholder analysis, VIII Institutional analysis – at the micro- and macro-levels –Institutions or organizations are a special type of stakeholder that often requires separate analysis –Institutions facilitates and constrains the flow of knowledge and data between scales –Important for understanding and assessing power and empowerment BSNN workshop, VarnaNatura 2000: CZM, 2 Jul

27 BSNN workshop, VarnaNatura 2000: CZM, 2 Jul NETWORKING AND NETWORKS A network is a social structure of persons that are connected by various types of interdependency Members of a network are often involved in collective action A network’s structure can be presented visually (see next slide) 27

28 BSNN workshop, VarnaNatura 2000: CZM, 2 Jul 2010 Introduction, II Collective action –Two or more stakeholders collaborating to reach a joint goal or goals –Basis for participation and governance Networks –Why associate more formally with each other? –What is the connection between coastal zone management, sustainable development, transparency, governance, democratization and networking? 28

29 BSNN workshop, VarnaNatura 2000: CZM, 2 Jul 2010 On networks, I A simple network consists of nodes and links Stakeholders / Nodes: –Peripheral vs. central –Power vs. lack of power Relations / Links: –Strength –Direction –Content 29

30 BSNN workshop, VarnaNatura 2000: CZM, 2 Jul 2010 On networks, II Role of a network –Integrate members (i.e., stakeholders) –Disseminate and share information –Table and discuss common issues –Address, mediate and solve conflicts –Build trust Networks compared –With trad. social org. (in Eastern Europe in general and Bulgaria in particular) 30

31 BSNN workshop, VarnaNatura 2000: CZM, 2 Jul 2010 On networks, III Advantages of networks –General: inclusion, governance, participation, transparency –Specific: sustainable coastal zone management can only be reach through collaboration, necessary to think in terms of the coastal region Network versus partnership –Partnerships: few members, targeted, formal 31

32 BSNN workshop, VarnaNatura 2000: CZM, 2 Jul 2010 On networks, IV Case: Bulgaria’s near past –Negative aspects of a hierarchical societal structure –Individuals affiliated with public institutions often do not contribute, for specific reasons. What are some examples of this? 32

33 BSNN workshop, VarnaNatura 2000: CZM, 2 Jul 2010 Issues in networking, I Conflicts and conflict management –Why do conflicts arise? –Who are key stakeholders in the coastal region? –What are their views? –How do latent conflicts become real? –Conflicts are normal –What are your experiences with conflicts? 33

34 BSNN workshop, VarnaNatura 2000: CZM, 2 Jul 2010 Issues in networking, II Trust –What is trust? –Absence of trust often leads to conflict –How to build trust –Participants to presnet own experiences The harmony model (see following 5 slides) 34

35 BSNN workshop, VarnaNatura 2000: CZM, 2 Jul 2010 Issues in networking, III Harmony model, no. 1 Support Support Increase democracy org. civil society & economic dev. Building organizations = building societies Supporting civil society is positive in itself, anytime and anywhere 35

36 BSNN workshop, VarnaNatura 2000: CZM, 2 Jul 2010 Issues in networking, IV Harmony model, no. 2 Lacking understanding of conflicts and differences of interest Development is a transformation: new interests win and older ones disappear Strong organizations for new interests can support development, and vice versa 36

37 BSNN workshop, VarnaNatura 2000: CZM, 2 Jul 2010 Issues in networking, V Harmony model, no. 3 Country cooperation: strong external force –Interfer in social, political and ec. processes Civil society: there will be growth in organizations with varying legitimation Local stakeholders receive resources, which in turn may impact the balance between groups and interests 37

38 BSNN workshop, VarnaNatura 2000: CZM, 2 Jul 2010 Issues in networking, VI Harmony model, no. 4 Understand the social contract as a colla- borative (co-mgmt.) enterprise between stakeholders with different expertise and comparative advantages Get civil society to contribute to political and ec. development that benefit the people 38

39 BSNN workshop, VarnaNatura 2000: CZM, 2 Jul 2010 Issues in networking, VII Harmony model, no. 5 Strong organizations that are not integra- ted into society contribute to segmen ta- tion, opposition and conflicts that hamper development Modernization: develop political and administrative institutions that can handle conflicts and overcome obstacles 39

40 BSNN workshop, VarnaNatura 2000: CZM, 2 Jul 2010 Examples of networks Bulgaria –Black Sea NGO Network Romania and Eastern Europe –ProSomes (Bistrita Municipal Network) –Carpathian Network of Protected Areas International –Community-Based Natural Resource Management Network (CBNRM Net) 40

41 BSNN workshop, VarnaNatura 2000: CZM, 2 Jul 2010 Co-management, I Co-management –Association or collaboration between stakeholders that are dissimilar in various respects –Mostly found between stakeholders at the local level (villages and municipalities) and the national level. That is, these stakeholders are located along a vertical axis. –Co-management has important advantages in terms of comparative advantages and sharing of responsibilities 41

42 BSNN workshop, VarnaNatura 2000: CZM, 2 Jul 2010 Co-management, II Co-management relations between key stakeholders – The past Central govt. Local govt. People Community- based groups 42

43 BSNN workshop, VarnaNatura 2000: CZM, 2 Jul 2010 Co-management, III Co-management relationships between key stakeholders – Future / Goal: Community- based groups Local govt. Co- management Central govt. 43

44 BSNN workshop, VarnaNatura 2000: CZM, 2 Jul 2010 The Bulgaria coastal network, I Underlying principles –Equity and equality –Public participation –Transparency –Governance Structure –Hierarchy versus horizontality –Roles: office holders and members 44

45 BSNN workshop, VarnaNatura 2000: CZM, 2 Jul 2010 The Bulgaria coastal network, II –Levels of involvement: Roles & passive versus active –Process of decision-making & expressing opinions Members and membership –Lacking role of civil society –Eligible members: public sector and private sector 45

46 BSNN workshop, VarnaNatura 2000: CZM, 2 Jul 2010 The Bulgaria coastal network, III Organizing networks –Appropriate approaches for creating network –Role of an external agent –Pro et contra: what are your views? Broadening the perspective –Partnerships (internal) & co-mgmt. (external) Past, ongoing and planned projects –Criteria for collaboration? Can network help? 46

47 BSNN workshop, VarnaNatura 2000: CZM, 2 Jul 2010 Conclusions, I Projects are increasingly process oriented Project admin. is hierarchic (communication) Relate not only to local stakeholders but also to colleagues and partners (cf. network analysis) Often difficult balancing act: compromises One learns as one go along 47

48 BSNN workshop, VarnaNatura 2000: CZM, 2 Jul 2010 Conclusions, II Stakeholder analysis important to under- stand what is happening at the local level –Increase effect and goal attainment –Decrease negative impacts Decrease in negative effect is little under- stood and even less focused on –Key stakeholders do not understand project cooperation and impacts –Key stakeholders have different agendas –Lead to conflicts, which must be addressed 48

49 BSNN workshop, VarnaNatura 2000: CZM, 2 Jul 2010 Challenges, I Get civil society to contribute to political and ec. dev. that benefits the people Strong org. that are not integrated in society contribute to segmentation, opposition and conflicts that hamper dev. Modernisation: develop political and adm. institutions that can handle conflicts and overcome obstacles 49

50 BSNN workshop, VarnaNatura 2000: CZM, 2 Jul 2010 Challenges, II Cooperation between public sector, private sector and civil society crucial Concern: strong outside intervention coupled with weak local basis for own autonomy Inability of public sector to support people via civil society organized activities 50

51 BSNN workshop, VarnaNatura 2000: CZM, 2 Jul 2010 Challenges, III Power and empowerment: –Ethics – knowledge to be used by whom and for what? –Concensus-building, consultation, participa- tion, governance, involvement, transparency, etc. –Traditional knowledge as both means & goal 51

52 BSNN workshop, VarnaNatura 2000: CZM, 2 Jul DISCUSSION To be based on material presented above, incl. your contributions Review flip chart lists on: –Local projects – past, ongoing and planned –Key stakeholders –Stakeholders’ views –Experiences with conflicts –Experiences with trust 52

53 BSNN workshop, VarnaNatura 2000: CZM, 2 Jul 2010 Discussion, II Your ongoing and planned projects / activities and this project –What is the optimal relationship? –How can the project support you & vice versa 53

54 BSNN workshop, VarnaNatura 2000: CZM, 2 Jul EVALUATION What did you learn? Something you had expected? Or something new? What is the key lesson you will take with you and apply in your future work? Should the session have focused on other issues and concerns? How does the session prepare you for the next session, namely making a network? 54


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