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Dinah Peal S. Madelo Joanna Hope Buenavista III RADON \m/

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Presentation on theme: "Dinah Peal S. Madelo Joanna Hope Buenavista III RADON \m/"— Presentation transcript:


2 Dinah Peal S. Madelo Joanna Hope Buenavista III RADON \m/

3 Here are the questions to be answered :


5 Bases tastes bitter feel slippery change litmus blue and become less basic when mixed with acids.acidsAcids taste sour are corrosive to metals change litmus (a dye extracted from lichens) red and become less acidic when mixed with basesbases

6 Acids release a hydrogen ion into water (aqueous) solution. neutralize bases in a neutralization reaction. Bases release a hydroxide ion into water solution. (Or, in the Lowry - Brønsted model, cause a hydroxide Ion to be released into water solution by accepting a hydrogen ion in water.) neutralize acids in a neutralization reaction. The word - reaction is: Acid plus base makes water plus a salt. denature protein.


8 Acids are good conductors of electricity as they have H+ ions while bases are not and more slippery in texture. Bases contain OH-ions. Bases, while dissolving in water, release hydroxide ions which are one hydrogen and one oxygen atom each with a negative charge. On the other hand, acids release only hydrogen ions.

9 An acid and base are of opposite polarities and therefore, they neutralize each other. Acid and bases react with other substances in a caustic manner. Also, when it comes to chemical interaction, acids function as proton donators while bases function as proton acceptors. Both acids and bases may be classified as weak or strong. In the case of weak acids and bases, the conjugate result is strong but the weak acid or base does not dissociate properly in water. However, strong acids and bases manage almost complete dissociation in water though their conjugate acid or base is weak.


11 For both acid and base strength, a good way to determine strength is by looking at the relative stability of the anion. Any features in the molecule can add to the stability will make the anion a weaker base because it will not be seeking a H+. The terms "strong" and "weak" give an indication of the strength of an acid or base. The terms strong and weak describe the ability of acid and base solutions to conduct electricity. If the acid or base conducts electricity strongly, it is a strong acid or base. If the acid or base conducts electricity weakly, it is a weak acid or base.

12 Fig. 1.1 Use a conductivity Set-up to test the acid/bases Ability to conduct electricity


14 Acids and bases are quantified thru TILTRATION. Titration is an operation for the measurement of quantities of substances in solution by the method of 'volume analysis'. This process involves adding a solution of the reagent of known concentration (standard solution), taken in a burette (called 'titrant'), to an unknown solution (called analyte), taken in a flask known as titrat..


16 The strength of an acid or base in a solution is measured on a scale called a pH scale. The pH scale is a measure of the hydrogen ion concentration. It spans from 0 to 14 with the middle point (pH 7) being neutral (neither acidic or basic). Any pH number greater than 7 is considered a base and any pH number less than 7 is considered an acid. 0 is the strongest acid and 14 is the strongest base



19 Acids and bases can be found everywhere in the world around us. Lactic acid occurs in sour milk, citric acid in citrus fruits, oxalic acid in rhubarb, malic acid in apples, and tartaric acid in wine. Baking soda, antacids, and lye all contain bases. Acids and bases are also used widely in industry. Three of the top ten chemicals produced in the United States each year are acids or bases. In 1994, 40 billion kilograms (or about 90 billion pounds) of sulfuric acid were manufactured in the United States, making it the number one chemical in the chemical industry. In addition, 12 billion kilograms (about 26 billion pounds) of sodium hydroxide and 11 billion kilograms (about 25 billion pounds) of phosphoric acid were produced.

20 The most important single use of acids and bases is in the manufacture of other chemicals. Fertilizers, synthetic fabrics, pigments, petroleum, iron and steel, explosives, dyes, plastics, pesticides, soaps and detergents, paper, film, and many other chemicals are produced from acids and bases. They are also used for various other purposes, including cleaning surfaces, refining oil and sugar, electroplating metals, and treating food products.


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