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Hermeneutics The Use of the OT in the NT. The Significance of the Issue It is estimated that there are between 250 and 300 direct quotations of the OT.

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Presentation on theme: "Hermeneutics The Use of the OT in the NT. The Significance of the Issue It is estimated that there are between 250 and 300 direct quotations of the OT."— Presentation transcript:

1 Hermeneutics The Use of the OT in the NT

2 The Significance of the Issue It is estimated that there are between 250 and 300 direct quotations of the OT in the NT. The estimated number of allusions to the OT in the NT range from 442 to It is estimated that there are between 250 and 300 direct quotations of the OT in the NT. The estimated number of allusions to the OT in the NT range from 442 to NT citations of and allusions to the OT are a significant part of the debate of how the two testaments relate to one another, and therefore which theological system best handles all the data. NT citations of and allusions to the OT are a significant part of the debate of how the two testaments relate to one another, and therefore which theological system best handles all the data.

3 Major Views of the OT From church history, Rodney Peterson ( ) has isolated 4 ways that theologians have viewed the OT: From church history, Rodney Peterson (Continuity and Discontinuity: Perspectives on the Relationship between the Old and New Testaments, Essays in Honor of S. Lewis Johnson, Jr.) has isolated 4 ways that theologians have viewed the OT: The OT as mere history (non-predictive) The OT as mere history (non-predictive) The OT understood as an allegorical symbol The OT understood as an allegorical symbol The OT read through the NT The OT read through the NT The OT understood as complete, possessing its own theological integrity The OT understood as complete, possessing its own theological integrity

4 The Necessity of a Proper Methodology In order to understand how the NT writers were using the OT, every citation and allusion must be analyzed both in its Old and New Testament contexts. This must be done in a consistent and fair manner, upholding foundational principles of interpretation. Again, the ultimate issue is hermeneutical!

5 The Ten Most Common Purposes of the NT Writer’s Use of the OT

6 Top 10 List for NT Writer’s Use of the OT To point up the accomplishment or realization of an OT prediction. To point up the accomplishment or realization of an OT prediction. And they said to him, “In Bethlehem of Judea, for so it has been written by the prophet, ‘And you, Bethlehem, land of Judah, Are by no means least among the leaders of Judah; For out of you shall come forth a Ruler, Who will shepherd My people Israel’” (Matt 2:5-6, citing Micah 5:2). Now this took place that what was spoken through the prophet might be fulfilled, saying, “Say to the daughter of Zion, ‘Behold your King is coming to you, Gentle, and mounted on a donkey, Even on a colt, the foal of a beast of burden’” (Matt 21:4-5, citing Zech 9:9). Note: Zuck says that Matthew’s quotation from Isa 7:14 falls under this category; I disagree.

7 Top 10 List for NT Writer’s Use of the OT To confirm that a NT incident is in agreement with an OT principle. To confirm that a NT incident is in agreement with an OT principle. “And with this the words of the Prophets agree, just as it is written, ‘After these things I will return, And I will rebuild the tabernacle of David which has fallen, And I will rebuild its ruins, And I will restore it, In order that the rest of mankind may seek the Lord, And all the Gentiles who are called by My name,’ (James speaking in Acts 15:15-17, quoting from Amos 9:11-12). You who boast in the Law, through your breaking the Law, do you dishonor God? For “the name of God is blasphemed among the Gentiles because of you,” just as it is written (Paul in Rom 2:23-24, citing Isaiah 52:5).

8 Top 10 List for NT Writer’s Use of the OT To explain or clarify a point made in the OT. To explain or clarify a point made in the OT. The portion of the Sermon on the Mount in Matthew 5 is not adding to the OT law; instead, it is clarifying the true meaning of the law as originally given, one that had been corrupted by Israel’s religious leaders through the centuries. The portion of the Sermon on the Mount in Matthew 5 is not adding to the OT law; instead, it is clarifying the true meaning of the law as originally given, one that had been corrupted by Israel’s religious leaders through the centuries.

9 Top 10 List for NT Writer’s Use of the OT To support (i.e. furnish evidence for, corroborate) a point being made in the NT. To support (i.e. furnish evidence for, corroborate) a point being made in the NT. And they said, “Moses permitted a man to write a certificate of divorce and send her away.” But Jesus said to them, “Because of your hardness of heart he wrote you this commandment. But from the beginning of creation, God made them male and female. ‘For this cause a man shall leave his father and mother, and the two shall become one flesh;’ consequently they are no longer two, but one flesh. What therefore God has joined together, let no man separate” (Jesus speaking in Mark 10:4-9, citing Gen 2:24). But to the one who does not work, but believes in Him who justifies the ungodly, his faith is reckoned as righteousness, just as David also speaks of the blessing upon the man to whom God reckons righteousness apart from works: “Blessed are those whose lawless deeds have been forgiven, And whose sins have been covered. Blessed is the man whose sin the Lord will not take into account” (Paul in Romans 4:5-8, citing Psalm 32:1- 2).

10 Top 10 List for NT Writer’s Use of the OT To illustrate a NT truth. To illustrate a NT truth. However, they did not all heed the glad tidings; for Isaiah says, “LORD, who has believed our report?” (Paul in Rom 10:16, citing Isa 53:1). For the word of the cross is to those who are perishing foolishness, but to us who are being saved it is the power of God. For it is written, “I will destroy the wisdom of the wise, And the cleverness of the clever I will set aside” (Paul in 1 Cor 1:18-19, citing Isa 29:14).

11 Top 10 List for NT Writer’s Use of the OT To apply the OT, often in a creative way, to a NT incident or truth. To apply the OT, often in a creative way, to a NT incident or truth. Just as it is written, “For Thy sake we are being put to death all day long; We were considered as sheep to be slaughtered” (Paul in Rom 8:36, citing Psa 44:22). Now all this took place that what was spoken by the Lord through the prophet might be fulfilled, saying, “Behold, the virgin shall be with child, and shall bear a Son, and they shall call His name Immanuel,” which translated means, “God with us” (Matthew 1:22-23, citing Isa 7:14). Matthew has several of this kind of use. See article by Dyer. Matthew has several of this kind of use. See article by Dyer.

12 Top 10 List for NT Writer’s Use of the OT To summarize an OT concept. To summarize an OT concept. For what does the Scripture say? “And Abraham believed God, and it was reckoned to him as righteousness” (Paul in Romans 4:3, in the midst of his argument of justification by faith, citing Gen 15:6).

13 Top 10 List for NT Writer’s Use of the OT Simply to use OT terminology. Simply to use OT terminology. But you are a chosen race, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, a people for God's own possession, that you may proclaim the excellencies of Him who has called you out of darkness into His marvelous light (Peter in 1 Peter 2:9, taking OT terminology originally referring to Israel and applying it to the church).

14 Top 10 List for NT Writer’s Use of the OT To draw a parallel with an OT incident. To draw a parallel with an OT incident. God has not rejected His people whom He foreknew. Or do you not know what the Scripture says in the passage about Elijah, how he pleads with God against Israel? “Lord, they have killed Thy prophets, they have torn down Thine altars, and I alone am left, and they are seeking my life.” But what is the divine response to him? “I have kept for Myself seven thousand men who have not bowed the knee to Baal.” In the same way then, there has also come to be at the present time a remnant according to God's gracious choice (Paul in Rom 11:2-5, citing 1 Kings 19:14, 18).

15 Top 10 List for NT Writer’s Use of the OT To relate an OT situation to Christ. The focus here i To relate an OT situation to Christ. The focus here is on the “typical” aspect in the OT passage that relates to Jesus’ life and ministry. Most citations from the Book of Psalms apply to Jesus in a “typical” way (king, man, righteous sufferer, etc.). And he arose and took the Child and His mother by night, and departed for Egypt; and was there until the death of Herod, that what was spoken by the Lord through the prophet might be fulfilled, saying, “Out of Egypt did I call My Son” (Matt 2:14-15, Matthew citing Hosea 11:1). For to which of the angels did He ever say, “Thou art My Son, Today I have begotten Thee”? And again, “I will be a Father to Him And He shall be a Son to Me” (Heb 1:5, the author of Hebrews citing Psa 2:7)? They said therefore to one another, “Let us not tear it, but cast lots for it, to decide whose it shall be”; that the Scripture might be fulfilled, “They divided My outer garments among them, and for My clothing they cast lots” (John 19:24, John citing Psa 22:18)

16 Procedures for Interpreting NT Quotations of the OT Study the NT context in which the OT citation or allusion occurs. Study the NT context in which the OT citation or allusion occurs. Investigate the OT context of the passage to which the quotation or allusion refers, in its own historical and textual contexts. Investigate the OT context of the passage to which the quotation or allusion refers, in its own historical and textual contexts. Note the differences, if any, between the OT passage and its NT quotation or citation. Note the differences, if any, between the OT passage and its NT quotation or citation. Determine how the NT writer is using the OT passage (see Top 10 purposes). Determine how the NT writer is using the OT passage (see Top 10 purposes). Relate these conclusions to the NT passage. Relate these conclusions to the NT passage.

17 Next Week: Hermeneutics and Hot Chocolate at our House. Read Applying God’s Word Today in Zuck


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