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Students:  Crina Aloman  Victor Constantin  Simona Curtasu  Alexandru Manea “Elie Radu” Technical College Ploiesti, Romania.

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Presentation on theme: "Students:  Crina Aloman  Victor Constantin  Simona Curtasu  Alexandru Manea “Elie Radu” Technical College Ploiesti, Romania."— Presentation transcript:

1 Students:  Crina Aloman  Victor Constantin  Simona Curtasu  Alexandru Manea “Elie Radu” Technical College Ploiesti, Romania

2 human migration - a movement of humans from one place to another, with the intention of settling in the new location. some modern migration - a byproduct of wars, political conflicts, and natural disasters. contemporary migration is predominantly economically motivated. number of international migrants million in 2013; it could reach 405 million by of every 35 persons in the world is a migrant. Human migration: basic notions and facts

3 Pre-modern migrations Historical migration of human populations:  begins with the movement of Homo erectus out of Africa across Eurasia about a million years ago;  Homo sapiens appear to have occupied all of Africa about 150,000 years ago;  Homo sapiens moved out of Africa 70,000 years ago, and had spread across Australia, Asia and Europe by 40,000 years BC;  migration to the Americas took place 20,000 to 15,000 years ago;  by 2,000 years ago, most of the Pacific Islands were colonized.

4 Modern migrations: why do people migrate? Reasons for migrating: Economic Migrants – few opportunities to earn money in their own country. Leave to seek higher paid and more regular wages in more developed countries. Political Migrants – refugees from civil wars, or a persecuted minority within their own country; seeking safety. Social Migrants – seeking a better opportunity for their future lifestyle. Often affects families seeking a future with more opportunities for their children.

5 Push Factors: not enough jobs ■ few opportunities ■ primitive conditions ■ ■ desertification ■ famine or drought ■ political fear or persecution ■ slavery or forced labour ■ poor medical care ■ loss of wealth ■ natural disasters ■ death threats ■ pollution ■ bullying ■ war ■ discrimination. Pull factors: job opportunities ■ better living conditions ■ political and/or religious freedom ■ enjoyment ■ education ■ better medical care ■ attractive climates ■ security ■ family links ■ industry ■ better chances of marrying. Factors causing migrations

6 Impacts of migration  human migration affects:  population patterns and characteristics,  social and cultural patterns,  processes, economies, and physical environments;  as people move, their cultural traits and ideas diffuse along with them, creating and modifying cultural landscapes;  there are many arguments about the advantages and disadvantages of migration and how it has affected us locally.

7 Positive impacts on host countries (1)  job vacancies and skills gaps can be filled;  economic growth can be sustained;  services to an ageing population can be maintained when there are insufficient young people locally;  the pension gap can be filled by the contributions of new young workers and they also pay taxes;  immigrants bring energy and innovation;  host countries are enriched by cultural diversity;

8 Positive impacts on host countries (2)  facilitated growth in the economy;  brought benefits to the tourism industry through the development of new air routes;  had a positive influence on the productivity or efficiency of local workers;  contributed new ideas and a fresh approach to firms;  and greater cultural links with developing nations that will prove useful in growing international trade. In addition to these economic benefits: incomers have helped the health and care services to continue functioning; contributed to cultural diversity; increased the vitality, especially of some rural schools.

9 Negative impacts on host countries  depression of wages may occur but this seems to be temporary;  having workers willing to work for relatively low pay may allow employers to ignore productivity, training and innovation;  migrants may be exploited;  increases in population can put pressure on public services;  unemployment may rise if there are unrestricted numbers of incomers;  there may be integration difficulties and friction with local people;  large movements of people lead to more security monitoring;  ease of movement may facilitate organised crime and people trafficking.

10 Impacts on countries of origin Positive  developing countries benefit from remittances (payments sent home by migrants);  unemployment is reduced and young migrants enhance their life prospects;  returning migrants bring savings, skills and international contacts. Negative  economic disadvantage through the loss of young workers;  loss of highly trained people, especially health workers;  social problems for children left behind or growing up without a wider family circle.

11 Is migration a threat or an opportunity?  rapid increase in the number of immigrants worldwide → perception of immigration as a threat to security  In the most general sense of the term, security refers to the absence of threats. The following slides → investigate the claim that immigration is a threat to security by focusing on:  social,  economic  public security, arguing that immigration is a constructed and perceived threat rather than a real, objective danger.

12 Immigration and social security  social security - ways in which members of a state perceive their cultural, linguistic, religious or national identity to be threatened by immigrants.  inability of immigrants to integrate or assimilate → argument for having a negative effect on the society and government’s stability. On the other hand:  an immigrant-receiving state may hold a different notion of national identity → may be more tolerant and accepting different languages, cultures, and religions, supporting its policy of multiculturalism.

13 Immigration and economic security  labour migration → can be argued to pose a threat to the economic security of both the sending and the receiving state;  the emigration of highly skilled and qualified workers from developing countries:  “brain drain” in the sending country,  undesirable economic consequences in the receiving country. On the other hand:  immigration often has a positive impact on the employment levels of the host state.  effect of temporary unemployment → dissipates over time, as the state’s economy begins to adjust to the increase in labour supply.

14 Immigration and public security  immigration has been related to increased criminality → perception that immigration is a threat to public security.  there has been a connection between increased immigration flows and increased crime rates;  there is a trend showing that cities and countries that have high crime rates tend to have a higher immigrant population; On the other hand:  an abundance of evidence demonstrates that the correlation between immigration and criminality is very weak or non-existent;  some studies report:  neither wave of immigrants impacted rates of violent crime;  immigrant arrest rates were no higher than native arrest rates.

15 Summary and conclusion (1)  immigration poses a number of challenges to receiving states;  it is inevitable that immigration would be viewed as a threat to society and the economy, as well as to internal security and public order;  however, immigration is a perceived threat rather than an objective one.  ideas of national identity and notions of which cultural and ethnic groups can be accepted into a community inevitably change over time;  the act of labeling immigration as a security threat does more to harm society than it does to protect it;  it often results in xenophobic and racist attitudes, the exclusion of immigrant groups, and the perception of the immigrant as the enemy.

16 Summary and conclusion (2)  immigration can be beneficial for migrants, but only if their rights are protected properly;  immigration can be economically beneficial for both countries of origin and host countries;  however, with present economic and trading structures it is the rich and powerful countries that benefit most;  migration brings social and cultural pressures that need to be taken into account in planning for future services;  migration has the potential for bringing peoples together culturally but friction occurs if efforts are not made to dispel the myths held by local people;  it is also essential to provide good information about the local way of life to newcomers and ensure opportunities for people to mix and integrate;  where the economic preconditions exist, migration is inevitable. When people try to prevent immigration it just goes underground.

17 References 1. International Organization for Migration: library/documents/policies/immigration/pdf/general/emn_immigration_20 06_en.pdf library/documents/policies/immigration/pdf/general/emn_immigration_20 06_en.pdf The Economic, Labour Market and Skills Impacts of Migrant Workers 5. United Nations High Commission for Refugees. Available at url: International Labour Organization:

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