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1 Apollonian and Dionysian Tendencies in the Arts.

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1 1 Apollonian and Dionysian Tendencies in the Arts

2 2. Young Bacchus (Dionysus) by.Caravaggio Apollo. Temple of Zeus at Olympia, BCE. Apollonian Reason, Dionysian Intuition. Meanad

3 3 Portrait of Friedrich Nietzsche ( ) by Edward Munch. Friedrich Nietzsche: Birth of Tragedy from the Spirit of Music (1872) Theory: Tragedy is rooted in strong emotions that arise from the struggle between two creative tendencies: emotion and reason.

4 4 Oedipus Rex by Sophocles Oedipus supported by his daughters, Antigone and Ismene. Performance, the Coliseum, Rome

5 5

6 6 Old Gods Live -- help us gain insight... Roommates Children A walk in the woods Weekends Food Sex and Love Institutions Religion Education How can the distinction be used to explain these? 1. Ways to appreciate drama 2. tendencies in human personality 3. way people behave 4. how social institutions operate 5. guide to how we judge and interact with others. Romeo and Juliet

7 7 ROMEO [To JULIET] If I profane with my unworthiest hand This holy shrine, the gentle fine is this: My lips, two blushing pilgrims, ready stand to smooth that rough touch with a tender kiss. JULIET Good pilgrim, you do wrong your hand too much, Which mannerly devotion shows in this; For saints have hands that pilgrims' hands do touch, And palm to palm is holy palmers' kiss. ROMEO Have not saints lips, and holy palmers too? JULIET Ay, pilgrim, lips that they must use in prayer. ROMEO O, then, dear saint, let lips do what hands do; They pray, grant thou, lest faith turn to despair. JULIET Saints do not move, though grant for prayers' sake. ROMEO Then move not, while my prayer's effect I take. Thus from my lips, by yours, my sin is purged. JULIET Then have my lips the sin that they have took. ROMEO Sin from thy lips? O trespass sweetly urged! Give me my sin again. JULIET You kiss by the book. ROMEO and JULIET. William Shakespeare Act 1. Scene V. A hall in Capulet's house.

8 8 Institutions Religion: Mythology Old Testament Catholicism Altruism - Heresy - European Reformation Protestantism Puritanism Nathaniel Hawthorne, The Scarlet Letter (1850). Apollonian and Dionysian elements

9 9 Marriage Ceremony Shakespeares time A Catholic ceremony today.

10 10 Gianlorenzo Bernini, Ecstasy of St. Teresa, Cornaro Chapel,

11 11 Hester Prynne portrayed 1850s The Scarlet Letter Nathaniel Hawthorne

12 12 School

13 13 Jokes, Dreams and Slips

14 14 Jokes: Dionysian release Jokes and their Relation to the Unconscious. Sigmund Freud: A Freudian slip is when you say one thing but you mean your mother.

15 15 Salvador Dali. Metamorphosis of Narcissus Freud commented: Ive never seen such a perfect example of Spanish man before, what a fanatic! Dalí said that this work was all about the death and petrifaction of Narcissus.

16 16 Henri Matisse Title: The Piano Lesson 1916 Apollonian/ Dionysian?

17 17 Johann Sebastian Bach Ludwig von Beethoven Rock concert Music-most Dionysian art? Apollonian/Dionysian response? I hated it because I didnt know what it meant. Role of critical analysis... What would be a Dionysian expectation for music?

18 18 What is the sound-scape of your life? Music was meant to stir the emotions, not thought processes. Do you agree?

19 19 William Wordsworth "Poetry is the spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings; it takes its origin from emotion recollected in tranquility.". --Distanced emotion aesthetic distance Drama, literature, poetry--most Apollonian? --Apollonian elements in drama, literature, poetry: emphasis on morality intentional communication of ideas goal of improving society orderly structures distanced emotions (aesthetic distance) --Dionysian elements?

20 20

21 21

22 22 Maurice Ravel ( ), Bolero, A Paradox... Form: Elements composed of basic elements : tone, scale, rhythm, melody... Principles (music has them too): coherence and unity through repetition, organization. - Impulse/idea, content --> strict Form --> Dionysian effect. Embedding..

23 23 Stages of Creativity First InsightSaturationIncubation *4.5. IlluminationVerification. (The Ah-Ha!) See Betty Edwards, Drawing on the Artist Within, 1986.

24 24 Visual Arts Basic Elements of Visual Art: Line, shape, form, color, texture, space Composition Unity and variety Likeness, alteration

25 25

26 26 W. Kandinsky. Composition VII

27 27 Persian Miniature

28 28 F. Goya. Shootings of the 3rd of May,

29 29 Donatello Title: David bronze. ca

30 30 Michelangelo David. marble 1504.

31 31 Drama To provide catharsis or provoke? To entertain?

32 32 Plan of Versailles Versailles Palace and Gardens

33 33 Dionysian/Apollonian? Theory, structure: Practice: The flow of life: Apollonian and Dionysian qualities have much to do with personal decisions and responses to events. -->Balance. Combine elements.

34 34 Raphael. School of Athens, The Vatican.

35 35 Question: Can a rebellious art form remain Dionysian in a museum setting? I.M. Pei, Museum of Rock and Roll, Cleveland, Ohio.

36 36 Apollo and Daphne Marble. Gianlorenzo Bernini

37 37 Henry Matisse. The Joy of Life

38 38 Henri Matisse. The Music Lesson

39 39 STUDY FOR APOLLONIAN and DIONYSIAN TENDENCIES. Be ready to identify characteristics of an Apollonian characteristics of a Dionysian event, person, thing, idea Remember the back and forth swing in people religion, education:realized person Mardi Grasinfinite person Ash Wednesdayluomo universale Versaillesliteralist (?) St. Petersbalance

40 40 Form and content of plays and writing: Sophocles Oedipus Rex, Shakespeares Romeo and Juliet Nathaniel Hawthorne, Scarlet Letter poetry of Angelo J Lewis and A.E. Housman, Nietzsches Birth of Tragedy from the Spirit of Music Victor Hugos Les Miserables W. Wordsworths emotion recollected in tranquility aesthetic pleasure aesthetic distance catharsis Sigmund Freuds theory of jokes

41 41 Embedding, comparisons, form and content in music and art Michelangelos and Donatellos David Bernini, St. Teresa Goya, 3 rd of May Raphael, School of Athens Matisse, Music Lesson Kandinsky, Composition VII Rock concerts, museums Ravels Bolero Victorian Age


43 43 MATCHING Choose the best term for these descriptions from the options below them. 1. ____said, the creative struggle between emotion and reason leads to powerful works of art. 2. The author of a poem about someone with fifty more years to live, during which he intends to live seizing every opportunity to experience beautiful things 3. ____ who said, jokes and slips of the tongue release Dionysian impulses. A) Beethoven B) Mozart C) Plato D) Freud E) Nietzsche AB) A.E. Housman.

44 44 MATCHING 4. Persons with an objective approach to subjects. 5. Leonardo and Einstein are examples of this. 6. Persons whose knowledge of the past informs their present. 7.The Greek god of the sun (hence of light and truth) is named: A) Plato B) realized human beings C) Apollo D) literalists E) critical thinkers AB) uomo universale

45 45 MATCHING. 8. A framework of circumstances and relationships around a subject. 9. A statement that is believed to contain a reasoned foundation for ethical behavior. 10. A process that describes, defines, and analyzes. 11.Plausible but self-serving reasons for actions. A) critical thinkingB) principle C) rationalization D) context E) buried assumptions

46 46 MULTIPLE CHOICE. 12. Which of the following would NOT be considered one of the disciplines to study in the humanities? A) music B) biology C) television D) philosophy 13. Which of these items would NOT belong in the repertoire of a professional critic when assessing an artistic work? A) adding observations about the production, performers, or artist's technique. B) not trusting ones initial response. C) noticing details in the work and in the presentation of the work. D) using many adjectives that describe mostly one's personal feelings about the work.

47 The Dionysian spirit is most applicable to which of the following artistic creations? A) the improvisations of a jazz musician B) the precise, fourteen-line structure of a sonnet C) the balanced composition of a landscape painting D) the structural design of St. Peter's cathedral in Rome 15. The rigidly Apollonian Protestant sect that dominated New England in the 17th century (providing the basis for Hawthorne's The Scarlet Letter) is known as: A)Puritanism B) Roman Catholicism C) Protestantism D) Mysticism

48 48 MATCHING 16. This artistic work shows the Dionysian side of religion. 17. This play depicts the Apollonian authority of the family squelching two Dionysian lovers. A. Michelangelo's David B). Bernini's The Ecstasy of St. Teresa C. Miss Saigon D. Romeo and Juliet E) Oedipus Rex TRUE (A) or FALSE (B) 18. Knowledge of historical context allows people to better understand the meaning of the artistic work, even though the style of the work may be out of date. 19.Clear by Angelo John Lewis gives a Dionysian appearance to poetry. 20. Dionysians trust in luck.

49 Educational theory is Apollonian; educational practice is more Dionysian. 22. Sigmund Freud wrote a famous essay attacking the belief that Greek myths contained psychological realities. Would teach critical thinking (A) or Would NOT (B). Which questions would help teach critical thinking? (A) Which would not? (B) 23. At what temperature does water boil? 24.What is the relationship of 17 th century music and the gardens of Versailles? 25.Who sculpted the statue of David found in Florence?

50 50 DISCUSSION. Explain outstanding Dionysian and Apollonian features of this work (3 pts). Salvador Dali. Metamorphosis of Narcissus

51 51


53 53 MATCHING Choose the best term for each description from the options below them. 1. The author of The Immortal Class: Bike Messengers and the Cult of Human Power. 2. ____who said that the creative struggle between emotion and reason leads to powerful works of art. 3. ____Don Campbell said, listening to this composers music may help us problem solve and create. A) Ravel B) Mozart C) T. Culley D) Plato E) Freud AB) Nietzsche.

54 54 MATCHING 4. The Greek god of the earth, spring, and renewal (hence whatever was natural and beyond rational analysis) is named 5. Leonardo and Einstein are examples of this. 6. A person whose reality was only surface deep and who was not given to critical thought: 7.Persons with an objective approach to subjects. A) Plato B) critical thinkers C) uomo universale D) Dionysus E) T. Culley AB) W. Tatlock.

55 55 MATCHING 8. Poem with a clearly Dionysian theme, expressing distrust of any laws, yet it is encased in Apollonian structure and language. 9. This famous abstract painting may at first appear totally Dionysian, but it includes some Apollonian overtones in the finishing. 10. This sculpture depicts the Dionysian in religion. 11. This famous modern-day musical is based on a famous novel that questions whether the Apollonian justice system can accommodate a Dionysian exception. A)Donatello's David B) Angelo J. Lewis's "Clear" C) V. Hugo's Les Miserables D) V. Kandinsky's Black Lines E) A.E. Housman's "The Laws of God, the Laws of Man"

56 56 TRUE (A) or FALSE (B) 12. The word "cyber" was originally a Greek word meaning "helmsman," the person in command of the ship. 13.The critical thinker knows enough not to challenge peoples assumptions. 14.The Puritanism of 17th century New England tended to an Apollonian extreme. 15. Theory is Dionysian; trial and error is Apollonian.

57 57 TRUE (A) or FALSE (B). 16.Miss Saigon is an update of Mozarts opera, The Marriage of Figaro. 17. Timeless Dionysian elements include uninhibited dance, repeated chants, mysticism, and emphasis on feeling and instinct. 18. Giving labels to historical periods is Apollonian. 19. The extreme Apollonian is rigid and uncompromisinglike Hester Prynne's vengeful husband in The Scarlet Letter.

58 58 MULTIPLE CHOICE 20. Which one of the following would NOT be considered a gift of the humanities? The ability to: A) find pleasure in the beautiful B) think critically C) understand how the concepts of the past affect the present D) analyze various geologic structures within the earth's mass 21. Which one of these individualsas both a lover of science as a lover of humanities designed the first submarine, the first airplane, studied how the human circulatory system worked, invented the hydrometer (a machine that measure the specific gravity of liquids), and painted the Mona Lisa? A) Orville Wright B) Galileo C) Michelangelo D) Leonardo da Vinci 22. William Wordsworth defined poetry as what "recollected in tranquility"? A) emotion B) memoryC) despairD) beauty

59 59 Which questions would help teach critical thinking? (A) -->Which would not? (B) 23.Who painted Matisses Piano Lesson ? 24. Which provides a better vacation, whitewater rafting or a cruise? 25. How much did Miss Saigon make at the box office?

60 60 Which questions would help teach critical thinking? (A) -->Which would not? (B) 23.Who painted Matisses Piano Lesson ? 24. Which provides a better vacation, whitewater rafting or a cruise? MULTIPLE CHOICE: 25. According to Martha Graham, modern dance should A.imitate nature around us B. show everyday actions human existence D. portray exotic creatures.

61 61 DISCUSSION. Explain outstanding Dionysian and Apollonian features of this work (3 pts). Henri Matisse The Piano Lesson

62 62 In another moment Alice was through the glass*, and had jumped lightly down into the Looking-glass room.... Then she began looking about, and noticed that what could be seen from the old room was quite common and uninteresting, but that all the rest was as different as possible.... They dont keep this room so tidy as the other, thought Alice to herself. DISCUSSION. What are the Dionysian and Apollonian features of this work? (3 pts.) Alice in Wonderland *glass or looking glass = mirror

63 63 Isamu Noguchi Water Stone. 1980s. DISCUSSION. Explain outstanding Dionysian and Apollonian features of this work (3 pts).

64 64 G. L. Bernini, St. Teresa. DISCUSSION. Explain outstanding Dionysian and Apollonian features of this work (3 pts).

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