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1 Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank Harnessing Indigenous Knowledge for Development Presentation to UNCTAD Conference on Traditional Knowledge November.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank Harnessing Indigenous Knowledge for Development Presentation to UNCTAD Conference on Traditional Knowledge November."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank Harnessing Indigenous Knowledge for Development Presentation to UNCTAD Conference on Traditional Knowledge November 1, 2000 Nicolas Gorjestani Chief Knowledge & Learning Officer Africa Region, The World Bank

2 2 Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank Overview * Development case for IK * World Bank’s IK Program * The way forward

3 3 Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank Knowledge is experience, everything else is information

4 4 Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank IK Affects People’s Lives Herbal medicine is an excellent example of IK that has affected lives around the globe... … but there is much more to it !

5 5 Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank What IK Achieved in Mozambique *Traditional authorities and local administration þmanaged 500,000 land transactions and þsettled 5 million refugees and displaced persons in two years *Used only local knowledge and capacity þno external assistance from government, donors or NGOs þno conflicts over land and rights *Impact: small holders re-launch agricultural growth How long would it have taken management consultants? Case of post-conflict resettlement

6 6 Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank What IK Achieved in Senegal *Adult education course by TOSTAN þapply literacy to solve a community problem þlearn about the consequences of circumcision on the health of girls þabolish the practice after sharing experiences within the community *Exchange experiences with other communities þinvolve male spiritual leaders þobtain presidential approval for the “Oath of Malicounda” *Impact: þMore than 16 communities abolish the practice within 18 months þSenegal officially abolishes practice in December 1998 Case of women of Malicounda How many development projects build on such social capital ?

7 7 Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank What IK Achieved in Burkina Faso *Literacy in local languages þ15,000 learners in Gulmancema language (41% women) þ4,000 literacy centers vs 3,000 formal schools using French þ52% of successful literacy center students were women *Impact þ> 50% of 72,000 literacy center students declared literate þnewly literate women used local language to develop accounting, management systems to run cooperative Case of local language literacy centers Do indicators of literacy capture such outcomes?

8 8 Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank What IK Achieved in Nigeria  Local inventor developed an electricity-free cooling system  Application : ‘pot-in-pot’ technology using local materials in Jigawa State þspace between two earthenware pots is filled with sand and watered þallows perishable foods to stay fresh for three weeks to a month þcosts less than 50 cents; used in 3/4 rural families in Jigawa  Impact : þFarmers avoid having to sell their produce immediately þDiseases caused by rotting food are reduced þWomen earn income from selling fruits, vegetables from their homes þGirls previously sent to sell food before it spoiled can now go to school þJobs created in pottery-making factories  Lesson : simple technology adapted to local setting creates impact Case of natural refrigeration system

9 9 Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank In the Development Process... * efficiency þIK is cost effective  IK uses appropriate technology * effectiveness þIK is locally managed þIK reaches the poor * sustainability þIK provides for mutual adaptation & learning  IK empowers local communities Indigenous knowledge could help to increase:

10 10 Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank In the Development Process... * raising agricultural production  Indigenous soil conservation technology (Burkina Faso) Indigenous soil conservation technology * increasing value of education systems  Local language instruction improves literacy skills (Mali) Local language instruction improves literacy skills * improving quality of health care þTraditional Birth Attendants help reduce maternal mortality (Uganda) * good governance þLocal institutions lead post-conflict land re-allocation (Mozambique) Indigenous knowledge could also contribute to:

11 11 Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank Development organizations are not storehouses of universally applicable knowledge just waiting to be transferred. That is why they should help: *empower communities to use global & local knowledge *connect communities to one another and to other sources of experience *learn with them what works in a given setting & facilitate adaptation with modern technology Role of Development Partners

12 12 Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank  actively participating in development dialogue  determining research agendas  enhancing good governance  integrating indigenous knowledge in development Empowerment Communities shape own development agenda by

13 13 Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank Helping local practitioners and communities to: òexchange knowledge of local practices òbuild traditional knowledge networks òengage authorities, researchers & experts òdialogue with development partners òleverage traditional & modern knowledge Enablement

14 14 Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank Empowerment through Enablement Building on traditional knowledge systems exchange engage connect Helping communities learn learn hear listen Learning from communities

15 15 Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank Genesis of IK Program Global Knowledge Conference 1997  vision of truly global knowledge partnership will be realized only when the poor participate as both users and contributors of knowledge Client Feed Back Surveys  40 percent “knowledge adaptation gap”  look for what works in communities Partnerships (bilateral & international organizations, NGOs, CBOs)

16 16 Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank What we have done to date... 4 IK practices data base (>200 cases) 4“IK Notes” publication (26 in print & Internet) 4“IK Report: A Framework for Action” 4 Multi-lingual Website: 4 Enhanced capacity of IK centers in 8 countries 4 Capacity building to develop National IK Strategies (Uganda) 4 Integrating IK into Bank-supported projects 4“Knowledge Packs” 4 IK Topic on Global Development GatewayGlobal Development Gateway

17 17 Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank IK in Bank-supported Projects ò Agricultural Research & Training Project II (Uganda) ò Lake Malawi Environment (Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania) ò Conservation and Sustainable Use of Medicinal Plants (Ethiopia) ò Northern Savana Biodiversity Conservation (Ghana) ò Management of Forests and Adjacent Lands (Benin) ò Micro-watershed & Environment Management Program (Nigeria) ò Education & Community School Program (Mali) ò HIV/AIDS Multi-sector Project (Cameroon)

18 18 Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank

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21 21 Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank The Way Forward þ Develop National Strategies on Utilization of IK þ Enhance capacity of national & regional IK networks þ Promote community-to-community exchanges þ Identify innovative mechanisms to protect IK Need partnerships to help :

22 22 Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank Balanced Flow of Knowledge Local Global Networks

23 23 Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank Building networks of IK practitioners Engage Exchange Learn Influence Healers Farmers Hunters

24 24 Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank Botanists Ministry of Health Doctors Pharmacists WHO/ World Bank Specialists Researchers PHC providers Health Care CBOs/ NGOs Traditional Healers Leveraging Knowledge Networks

25 25 Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank Uganda: RESCUER project in Iganga District l PHCs partner with traditional birth attendants l link attendants to health units thru ‘walkie-talkies’ l attendants serve as referral points l more women receive health services * Impact: maternal deaths declined by 50% in 3 years Lesson: leveraging modern & traditional knowledge systems can help to increase development impact Successful Adaptation Successful Leveraging

26 26 Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank Protection of IK: Some Principles ò Not all IK are patentable or subject to IPRs ò Documentation in written records a key to protection of IK ò Look for innovative forms of protection such as MTAs ò Emerging examples of fair& equitable benefit sharing (Cameroon) ò Regional agreements are potentially a cost effective form of protection (1996 Andean Pact allows prior informed consent) ò Community-to-community exchanges a possible platform

27 27 Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank Concluding Remarks þ IK is a critical factor in sustainable development þ Empowerment & enablement of local communities is a key to integrating IK into the development process þ Helping promote networks of traditional practitioners & community-to-community exchanges is a way to better disseminate good practices in IK þ Innovative mechanisms are needed to protect IK þ A regional approach is likely to be most cost effective þ World Bank is looking forward to partnerships to help advance this agenda

28 28 Nicolas Gorjestani, The World Bank Harnessing Indigenous Knowledge for Development Thank you


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