Presentation on theme: "A Chemical Reaction!!! Do now:"— Presentation transcript:
1A Chemical Reaction!!! Do now: What happens when you combine baking soda and vinegar?A Chemical Reaction!!!
2AnswerThe reaction between baking soda (NaHCO3) and vinegar (CH3COOH) is actually two reactions, an acid base reaction followed by a decomposition reaction. 1) When the two ingredients are mixed, hydrogen ions ( H+) from the vinegar react with the bicarbonate ions (HCO3- ) from the baking soda to form a new chemical called carbonic acid (H2CO3). 2) The carbonic acid thus formed then immediately decomposes into carbon dioxide gas (CO2) and water (H2O). H2CO3 ---> H2O + CO2 It's this carbon dioxide gas that you see bubbling and foaming as soon as you mix baking soda and vinegar together.
4Objectives Compare the difference between mixtures and solutions. Describe how pH determines how acidic and basic a solution is.Determine the importance of pH in the natural world.Narrate what pH means to you and how it affects the world.
5Mixtures and Solutions A mixture is a combination of substances in which the individual components retain their own properties and don’t react chemically.Neither component of the mixture changes.An example of a mixture is concrete which contains cement, rock, and sand mixed with it. Another example of a mixture is when you place oil and water in a pot- they don’t mix.
6Mixtures and Solutions A solution is a mixture in which one or more substances (solutes) are distributed evenly in another substance (solvent) and they mix chemically.Sugar molecules (solute) in a powdered drink mix dissolve easily in water (solvent) to form a solution.
7Question 1What is the difference between a mixture and a solution? (NY: St 4 KI 6.1c)In a mixture there are substances that don’t react, they are just nearby to each other while in a solution the substances can react in many different ways.
8What are acids and bases? Chemical reactions can occur only when conditions are right. Especially reactions that involve enzymes in living things.A chemical reaction may depend on:- energy availability- temperature- concentration of a substance- pH of the internal or surrounding environment
9Acids and basesThe pH is a measure of how acidic (H+) or basic (-OH) a solution is.A scale with values ranging from below 0 to above 14 is used to measure pH.More acidicMore basicNeutral
10Acids and basesAcids have a lot of Hydrogen ions (H+) and bases have a lot of Hydroxide ions (-OH).A solution is neutral if its pH equals seven.More acidicMore basicH+NeutralH+H+H+-OH-OHH+-OHH+-OHH+-OHH+H+H+H+-OH-OHH+H+-OH-OHH+H+H+(H+) + (-OH) =H2O-OH-OH-OHH+H+H+-OHH+H+-OHH+H+-OH-OH-OHH+H+
11Acids and basesSubstances with a pH above 7 are basic. A base is any substance that forms hydroxide ions (-OH) in water.Ammonia (pH 11)
12Acids and basesSubstances with a pH below 7 are acidic. An acid is any substance that forms hydrogen ions (H+) in water.Vinegar (pH 3)
13Question 2What are acids and bases? Give examples.An acid basically has an excess of Hydrogen ions (H+) and a base has an excess of Hydroxide ions (-OH) .Examples can be: lemon juice, ammonia, vinegar, drinking water, hydrated lime, clorox, drano, seltzer water, etc.
14Importance of pH in the natural world The rate of certain reactions is affected by the pH of the solution. If the reaction involves a proton, or H+, then a more acidic solution will have a faster rate. pH is really just a measure of the H+ concentration. So if H+ is a reactant, than a low pH will have a higher concentration of that reactant, making for a faster reaction. Similarly, if OH- is a reactant, than a high pH will make the reaction go faster because at a high pH, the concentration of OH- is large (and the concentration of H+ is small -- they are inversely proportional).
15Importance of pH in the natural world Acids and bases can also cause many substances to fall apart because they can force the bonds to break by taking away Hydrogens and Hydroxides from them to make water.Acids and bases are used in cooking, cleaning, making computers, batteries, enzyme reactions in your body, digestion, and countless other things.
16Importance of pH in the natural world Excess Carbon Dioxide production as a result of burning fossil fuels increases the amount of acid rain in the atmosphere. When this rain comes down it kills trees and fish by changing the pH values of their habitat. This affects humans indirectly by limiting the amount of oxygen that can be recycled back into the atmosphere and in our dependency on fish as food or fish meal.
17pH Facts Item pH Human Blood 7.41 Ocean Water 8.2 Acid Rain < 5.6 Milk~ 6.4Beer4-5Vinegar~ 3Bottled/Distilled water~ 4.5
18Question 3How can pH affect you? Write your answer in your note book in complete sentences. Explain your answers.
19H.W. Answer Hallman, “Multiple Choice,” p. 116-117, #s 1-20. Write out all the questions.
20Bibliography“Biology: The Dynamics of Life.” Glencoe Interactive Chalkboard. The Living Environment Edition. CD-ROM. New York: McGraw Hill, 2003.Yahoo Answers . 06/17.08