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Do now: ► What happens when you combine baking soda and vinegar? A Chemical Reaction!!!

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Presentation on theme: "Do now: ► What happens when you combine baking soda and vinegar? A Chemical Reaction!!!"— Presentation transcript:

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2 Do now: ► What happens when you combine baking soda and vinegar? A Chemical Reaction!!!

3 Answer ► The reaction between baking soda (NaHCO3) and vinegar (CH3COOH) is actually two reactions, an acid base reaction followed by a decomposition reaction. 1) When the two ingredients are mixed, hydrogen ions ( H+) from the vinegar react with the bicarbonate ions (HCO3- ) from the baking soda to form a new chemical called carbonic acid (H2CO3). 2) The carbonic acid thus formed then immediately decomposes into carbon dioxide gas (CO2) and water (H2O). H2CO3 ---> H2O + CO2 It's this carbon dioxide gas that you see bubbling and foaming as soon as you mix baking soda and vinegar together.

4 Aim: What is pH? Mr. M. Gonzalez 2008

5 Objectives ► Compare the difference between mixtures and solutions. ► Describe how pH determines how acidic and basic a solution is. ► Determine the importance of pH in the natural world. ► Narrate what pH means to you and how it affects the world.

6 A mixture is a combination of substances in which the individual components retain their own properties and don’t react chemically. Mixtures and Solutions Neither component of the mixture changes. An example of a mixture is concrete which contains cement, rock, and sand mixed with it. Another example of a mixture is when you place oil and water in a pot- they don’t mix.

7 A solution is a mixture in which one or more substances (solutes) are distributed evenly in another substance (solvent) and they mix chemically. Mixtures and Solutions Sugar molecules (solute) in a powdered drink mix dissolve easily in water (solvent) to form a solution.

8 Question 1 What is the difference between a mixture and a solution? (NY: St 4 KI 6.1c) In a mixture there are substances that don’t react, they are just nearby to each other while in a solution the substances can react in many different ways.

9 Chemical reactions can occur only when conditions are right. Especially reactions that involve enzymes in living things. What are acids and bases? A chemical reaction may depend on: - energy availability - temperature - concentration of a substance - pH of the internal or surrounding environment

10 The pH is a measure of how acidic (H + ) or basic ( - OH) a solution is. Acids and bases A scale with values ranging from below 0 to above 14 is used to measure pH. Neutral More acidicMore basic

11 Acids and bases Acids have a lot of Hydrogen ions (H + ) and bases have a lot of Hydroxide ions (-OH). A solution is neutral if its pH equals seven. More acidicMore basic Neutral H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ - OH H+H+ (H + ) + ( - OH) = H 2 O H+H+ - OH H+H+

12 Substances with a pH above 7 are basic. A base is any substance that forms hydroxide ions ( - OH) in water. Acids and bases Ammonia (pH 11)

13 ► Substances with a pH below 7 are acidic. An acid is any substance that forms hydrogen ions (H + ) in water. Acids and bases Vinegar (pH 3)

14 Question 2 What are acids and bases? Give examples. (H + ) An acid basically has an excess of Hydrogen ions (H + ) and a base has an excess of Hydroxide ions ( - OH). Examples can be: lemon juice, ammonia, vinegar, drinking water, hydrated lime, clorox, drano, seltzer water, etc.

15 ► The rate of certain reactions is affected by the pH of the solution. If the reaction involves a proton, or H+, then a more acidic solution will have a faster rate. pH is really just a measure of the H+ concentration. So if H+ is a reactant, than a low pH will have a higher concentration of that reactant, making for a faster reaction. Similarly, if OH- is a reactant, than a high pH will make the reaction go faster because at a high pH, the concentration of OH- is large (and the concentration of H+ is small -- they are inversely proportional). Importance of pH in the natural world

16 ► Acids and bases can also cause many substances to fall apart because they can force the bonds to break by taking away Hydrogens and Hydroxides from them to make water. ► Acids and bases are used in cooking, cleaning, making computers, batteries, enzyme reactions in your body, digestion, and countless other things. Importance of pH in the natural world

17 ► Excess Carbon Dioxide production as a result of burning fossil fuels increases the amount of acid rain in the atmosphere. When this rain comes down it kills trees and fish by changing the pH values of their habitat. This affects humans indirectly by limiting the amount of oxygen that can be recycled back into the atmosphere and in our dependency on fish as food or fish meal. Importance of pH in the natural world

18 pH Facts ItempH Human Blood 7.41 Ocean Water 8.2 Acid Rain < 5.6 Milk ~ 6.4 Beer4-5 Vinegar ~ 3 Bottled/Distilled water ~ 4.5

19 Question 3 How can pH affect you? Write your answer in your note book in complete sentences. Explain your answers.

20 H.W. ► Answer Hallman, “Multiple Choice,” p , #s ► Write out all the questions.

21 Bibliography ► “Biology: The Dynamics of Life.” Glencoe Interactive Chalkboard. The Living Environment Edition. CD-ROM. New York: McGraw Hill, ► Yahoo Answers. 06/ AAHSCxH AAHSCxH AAHSCxH


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