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CURRICULAR ISSUES OF INCLUSIVE EDUCATION: Challenges for Bangladesh M. Nazmul Haq Professor, I E R University of Dhaka.

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Presentation on theme: "CURRICULAR ISSUES OF INCLUSIVE EDUCATION: Challenges for Bangladesh M. Nazmul Haq Professor, I E R University of Dhaka."— Presentation transcript:

1 CURRICULAR ISSUES OF INCLUSIVE EDUCATION: Challenges for Bangladesh M. Nazmul Haq Professor, I E R University of Dhaka

2 What is inclusive education ? Inclusive education (IE) seeks to address the learning needs of all children with specific focus on those who are vulnerable to marginalization and exclusion 2

3 Conception of IE in Bangladesh Concept of IE in Bangladesh emerged from the constitutional obligation and fulfillment of CPU act (1991) It is taken as a strategy to improve enrollment status Maintain quality of education across different ability groups IE wants to serve those who have been socially and otherwise discriminated Schools are to be based on the principle of non- discrimination

4 Present position Government want to bring all children to school Facing challenge with disabled and disadvantaged There is no statistics of children with special needs No study about the real magnitude of the problem Ten types of children identified as problematic Strategy of IE has been adopted to tackle the problem

5 The targets of IE School should accommodate all children regardless of their physical, intellectual, social, emotional, linguistic or other conditions. It also includes disabled and gifted children, children from different linguistic or ethnic origins. 5

6 Some assumptions of inclusive curriculum Not all children should be doing the same thing at the same time Varying types and degrees of participation is appropriate Curriculum and school activities should be adjusted to accommodate the child’s individual needs 6

7 Actions for the assumptions Intentional and intense level of instruction Purposeful participation in activities Progress with assured achievement 7

8 How to adopt IE ? A five step model of IE adoption: Adopt the philosophy of IE Adapt the existing curriculum Develop infrastructure and facilities Train up supervisors and teachers Conduct necessary advocacies 8

9 Adaptation strategy Size: adapt size of content, concepts, items etc. Input: adapt the instructional inputs like, teaching aids, plan etc. Participation: allow the learners to participate in learning task 9

10 Adaptation strategy (cont.) Difficulty: reduce difficulty by adapting skills or aids Alternate: have alternate expectation from students Time: adapt the time as per need 10

11 Bring change to curricular action Reduce the following Lecturing Students’ passivity Asking for silence in the class Rote memorization Excessive competition Leveling students into ‘ability grouping’ 11

12 Bring change to curricular action (cont.) Increase the following Activity based or hands-on-learning Emphasis on higher order learning In-depth study on smaller topics Devote time to reading reference books Transfer responsibility to students for their goal- setting, record-keeping, monitoring, evaluation Allow them to choose their own materials 12

13 Bring change to curricular action (cont.) Increase the following (cont.): Attend to students’ affective needs Create collaborative working environment Segregating students for their diversified ability Deliver special help into the class Allow varied and cooperative roles by all Rely upon teacher’s descriptive evaluation 13

14 Screening Screening of learning needs of children through any of the following means:  Suspecting the need in the individual  Pinpointing the need  Measuring the magnitude of need 14

15 Suspecting need When a child lags behind from his/her age mates in normal functioning. Developmental milestones are delayed. Makes mistakes with normal functioning. Becomes lethargic and lacks motivation. Fails in performing duties on repeated demands. 15

16 Common suspects Have some physical problems Cannot see board in class Reads with difficulty etc. Do not respond to verbal cues Learns things with difficulty Often fails in school or achieve low Makes mistakes in scripts Fails to attend class lecture Restless or bully in class etc. 16

17 Pinpointing the problem Notice the problem for sure List difficulties the child faces Keep under observation for a stipulated time Contact with professionals for confirmation of the problem 17

18 Assessment of achievement Measure the achievement against the targeted behaviour Use qualitative measure instead of quantitative value or numbers Value teacher’s own judgment Consider parents or others assessment as an indicator of achievement Keep cumulative record of achievement 18

19 Rules of assessment and promotion Assessment of special child in IE setting is largely teacher centred and subjective Emphasize on quality of achievement rather than quantity Keep the record of achievement of every child in question Promote the child with time and grade irrespective of achievement 19

20 Promotion Promotion in IE setting is a prerogative of the child, here comparative achievement should not be the criteria Once the child is in the stream (s)he should move with the group (in case of MR) Children with VI, HI or other disability may receive rational treatment Avoid rigidity in promotion 20

21 What is the implication ? Teacher training Curriculum development Parental motivation Resource mobilization Inter-sectoral cooperation 21

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