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Irish IPv6 Task Force - Irish IPv6 Task Force Introduction to IPv6 Fundamentals.

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Presentation on theme: "Irish IPv6 Task Force - Irish IPv6 Task Force Introduction to IPv6 Fundamentals."— Presentation transcript:

1 Irish IPv6 Task Force - Irish IPv6 Task Force Introduction to IPv6 Fundamentals

2 Irish IPv6 Task Force - Irish IPv6 Task Force IPv6 Training Slide-sets 1.The Bigger Picture: Why is IPv6 so Important? 2.Introduction to IPv6 Fundamentals (technical) <- This slide set is second in a series 3.IPv6 Deployment & Strategy (technical) 4. The Business Case for IPv6 5.Mobile IPv6 (technical) 6.IPv6 Quality of Service (technical) 7.IPv6 Security (technical)

3 Irish IPv6 Task Force - Presentation Structure Introduction Why IPv6 was designed. IPv6 Addressing (format, types and policy). How IPv6 interacts with other layers Transition mechanisms. The current state of IPv6.

4 Irish IPv6 Task Force - Introduction

5 Introduction Introduction to IPv6 technical details. Only overview, not comprehensive. Further information in complementary sources. Will also touch on policy/history where it influences technical matters.

6 Irish IPv6 Task Force - Why IPv6 was designed.

7 Irish IPv6 Task Force - IPv4: Late 80s/Early 90s Hosts went from 10,000 to 100,000 between 1987 to 1989. IP space was classful: −126 class A of 16M hosts, −16K class B of 64K, − 2M class C of 253. Concern about routing and addressing. By 1993, people reckoned there was < 1year worth of address space left. Lead to CIDR: Classless Interdomain Routing.

8 Irish IPv6 Task Force - CIDR Class A, B and C had network/host boundary. CIDR puts the boundary on any bit. Net First Address Net Mask Prefix Length MIT18.0.0.0255.0.0.0/8 TCD134.226.0.0255.255.0.0/16 Schools87.32.0.0255.240.0.0/12

9 Irish IPv6 Task Force - NAT Connection from private block is made. Allocate public address/ports, record in rules. Outgoing packets have private address and port replaced. Incoming packets have public address and port replaced. Network Address Translation made it possible to use fewer addresses. Idea: rewrite addresses using rules. Allows use of private address space.

10 Irish IPv6 Task Force - IPv4 Today NAT/CIDR have bought IPv4 (too much?) time. IPv4 has developed new problems since. Security (spam, viruses, botnets, exploits, …) Routing (scalability, stability, multihoming) NAT (inhibitor, robustness, performance, cost) Politics/Market (scarce resources, must be (seen to be?) distributed fairly)

11 Irish IPv6 Task Force - IPv6 OSI 7 Layer Model. TCP/IP spans many layers. IP is layer 3. IPv6 is a new layer 3. So we keep TCP, UDP, HTTP, … Need to update the glue between layers too.

12 Irish IPv6 Task Force - Major Changes Bigger addresses (128 bit up from 32 bit). Better extensibility (extension headers). Built in autoconfiguration (DHCP/PPP still possible). Mandatory IPsec. More integrated multicast. ARP replaced with Neighbour Discovery.

13 Irish IPv6 Task Force - IPv6 Addressing (format, types and policy)

14 Irish IPv6 Task Force - Addresses Compromise between variable and 64 bit. 128 bit addresses: 340282366920938463463374607431768211456. In practice you loose space to structure. 64 bits for hosts: enough for biggest subnets? 64 bits for networks: enough to make aggregation easier ? Long, so written in 8 hex quads. Shortcuts permitted.

15 Irish IPv6 Task Force - Example Address 2001:0db8:0010:0300:0000:0000:0ae2:510b −Long version. 2001:db8:10:300:0:0:ae2:510b −Omit leading zeros. 2001:db8:10:300::ae2:510b −Replace run of zeros with :: 2001:db8:10:300:: −Can write end as IPv4 address.

16 Irish IPv6 Task Force - Structured Addressing 2001::/16 Chunk of production address space 2001:770::/32 = HEAnet (ISP prefix) 2001:770:10::/48 = TCD (organisation prefix) 2001:770:64:300::/56 = Maths (dept prefix) 2001:770:64:301::/64 = Wireless (subnet) This structure is dictated by policy at various levels, rather than being hardwired Into the protocol. This allows the policy to be adjusted to balance the needs of various stakeholders (users, network administrators, ISPs, governments, hardware/software vendors, …)

17 Irish IPv6 Task Force - Special Addresses :: the unspecified address. ::1 localhost/loopback. fe80::/10 link-local addresses. ff00::/8 multicast addresses. Multiple addresses on each network card on each machine now normal!

18 Irish IPv6 Task Force - How IPv6 interacts with other layers.

19 Irish IPv6 Task Force - Communication Modes Unicast: Destined to a single machine (normal). Broadcast: Destined to all machines (ARP). Multicast: Destined to all in a particular group (IP TV, ND). Anycast: Destined to any one of a particular group (DNS Root Servers, 6to4).

20 Irish IPv6 Task Force - Autoconfiguration Generate host-id and form link-local. Check link-local is unique. Now we can talk IPv6. Multicast router solicitation to get prefix(es). Global address(es) = prefix(es) + host-id. Do duplicate address detection. Doesn’t have to be used: manual, DHCPv6, PPP and privacy addressing also possible.

21 Irish IPv6 Task Force - Address Scope Might have same link-local address on each interface. How do we know which one? Addresses can have scope. E.g. two interfaces eth0 and eth1 fe80::2b0:d0ff:fef4:c6c5%eth0 fe80::2b0:d0ff:fef4:c6c5%eth1 No need for scope on global addresses.

22 Irish IPv6 Task Force - Header Differences Bigger addresses. Drop uncommonly used features (fragments, IP options). Drop fields that are redundant (header length, checksum). Rename some fields to better represent modern usage. 64 bit alignment to help hardware guys. Add a new flow label.

23 Irish IPv6 Task Force - Header Flexibility Main header is for forwarding packet. Minimum necessary fields included. New types of header may be chained together leading to TCP, UDP or ICMP. Used for mobility, security, tunnels, and other advanced features.

24 Irish IPv6 Task Force - Glue ICMP closely linked with IP, so new ICMPv6. ICMPv6 includes Neighbour Discovery to replace ARP. Most layer 2 glue is included in details of neighbour discovery. Changes to higher layers relatively small. TCP/UDP “pseudo-header” for checksums. Update protocols that embed IPv4 addresses.

25 Irish IPv6 Task Force - Transition Mechanisms

26 Irish IPv6 Task Force - Transition Mechanisms We have a large IPv4 network. We want a large IPv6 network. IPv4 only hardware, software and people. How to get IPv6 working around this? A lot of effort on Transition Mechanisms.

27 Irish IPv6 Task Force - Transition Mechanisms Several broad strategies. Dual stack: run both IPv4 and IPv6. Tunnelling: hide IPv6 inside IPv4/UDP/… Translation: convert IPv6 into IPv4. Proxies: Someone speaks IPv6 on your behalf. Too many to discuss all.

28 Irish IPv6 Task Force - Transition Examples Vista/OS X/Linux/BSD all run dual-stack. Point-to-point tunnels to get around legacy equipment. Automagic tunnelling (6to4, Teredo) for end users in IPv4 only networks. Proxies already common (web proxy, DNS server, SMTP server, …) Translation uncommon, maybe for legacy apps?

29 Irish IPv6 Task Force - The current state of IPv6.

30 Irish IPv6 Task Force - Potted Local History 1999-2001: Small scale academic experiments. 2002: Native gigabit IPv6 from HEAnet to TCD. 2003: IPv6 addresses zone. 2004: IPv6 server zone. 2005: National IPv6 centre established. 2006: 6bone retired in favour of full IPv6 net. 2007: ???

31 Irish IPv6 Task Force - IPv6 Today The basics are done. Deployment underway, not yet widespread. Core/edge ready, corporate/ISP waiting. Policy/standards continuing to evolve. Considering IPv6 in lifetime of current planning, projects & purchases considered prudent.

32 Irish IPv6 Task Force - Summary IPv6 just replaces IP layer in TCP/IP. Fixes problems, particularly addressing. Eases features such as mobility, security, … Transition mechanisms to help deployment. Standards, policy and network in place. Someway to go before full deployment. Continuing to evolve as living protocol.

33 Irish IPv6 Task Force - Acknowledgements This presentation includes some material originally developed for presentations at Doolin Tech Talks, RIPE, HEAnet and TCD.

34 Irish IPv6 Task Force - Contact Mícheál Ó Foghlú Research Director Telecommunications Software & Systems Group Waterford Institute of Technology Cork Road Waterford Ireland +353 51 302963 (w) (Personal Blog)

35 Irish IPv6 Task Force - Further Information Web Sites: National Irish IPv6 Centre http://www.ipv6-ireland.org Irish IPv6 Task Force http://www.ipv6.ie IPv6 ePrints Server (Public Documents) IPv6 Dissemination (Public Training) Individual Documents/Presentations: (Iljitsch van Beijnum, 7th March 2007) (Geoff Huston APNIC, 2006) 6.pdf (IPv6 Forum Roadmap & Vision, 2006) 6.pdf 06_Advancing_Information_Sharing_And_Data_Architecture/IPV6/NIST%20ipv6-doc-eai- v4%2012062005.ppt (Doug Montgomery NIST, 2005) 06_Advancing_Information_Sharing_And_Data_Architecture/IPV6/NIST%20ipv6-doc-eai- v4%2012062005.ppt

36 Irish IPv6 Task Force - Further Information Individual Documents/Presentations Contd: MIPv6 Linux Software ( MIPL ) − MIPv6 IETF charter −

37 Irish IPv6 Task Force - Thank you! Thank you! This presentation has been shared under the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 UK: England & Wales Licence ( by the Irish IPv6 Task Force ( Please acknowledge this source if you use it for free or for profit

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