1Virginia Henderson, RN, MSN Nursing Theorist Susan Felicia, RN
2Background Well known author, theorist and nurse educator Born in Kansas City, Missouri on November 30, 1897; Died March 19, 19961937 – with others, created nursing curriculum for the National League of Nursing“patient centered and organized around nursing problems rather than medical diagnoses” (Henderson, 1991, p.19)
3Definition of NursingHenderson is famous for a definition of nursing: "The unique function of the nurse is to assist the individual, sick or well, in the performance of those activities contributing to health or its recovery (or to peaceful death) that he would perform unaided if he had the necessary strength, will or knowledge" (Wills, 2007,p.139)
4Henderson’s 14 Activities for Client Assistance(Henderson,1991,p Breathe normallyEat and drink adequatelyEliminate body wasteMove and maintain desirable postureSleep and restSuitable clothes – dress and undressMaintain body temperatureKeep the body clean and well groomedAvoid dangers in the environmentExpress emotions, fears, needs and opinionsWorship one’s faithWork for client’s sense of accomplishmentParticipate in recreationLearn, satisfy, discover
5Concepts Metaparadigm Nursing, health, patient and environmentEducated under a medical model transformed into a nursing modelEmpirical vs. Esthetic Pattern of KnowingArt, Science and Teaching – cannot be divided and examined separately“living and an appreciation for human life are the sine qua non of the modem nurse” (Halloran, 1996,p.20)
6Nursing TheoryInuit means 'human beings' - phrase without bias associated related to race, nationality or sex (Halloran, 1996,p.18)Goal of nursing is to help people be free of nursing care as soon as possible returning the patient to a state of independence or the baseline of autonomy at the onset of his/her illness
7Research Testability of the practice and outcomes of nursing “Each of the 14 activities can be the basis for research” (Wills, 2007, p.140)Interpretation: quantitative and qualitative research has been beneficial in evaluating this theory due to the combination of actions (14 activities) and the assumed devotion of the nurse to his/her patients (affective evaluation)
8Application to Practice Current practice – cardiac step down unit specializing in heart failureGoal of nursing care is to return the patient to his/her optimal self care ability via education on diet, medications, daily weights and follow up appointments to the physicianChallenges – due to co morbidities associated with heart failure, some patients may not have the desire or capability to return to their pre-admission state, therefore, the nurse must accept the patient’s perspective and definition of “wellness”
9Question? How does the nurse accept indifference to recovery? Sometimes frustrationLabeling the patient “non compliant”Accepting the limitations of the patient’s ability to move beyond the diseaseReach out on the patient’s behalf for psychological and emotional support (consult a professional)What would you do?
10ReferencesHalloran, E.. Journal of Advanced Nursing. Virginia henderson and her timeless writings.23.(1996, p.17-24). Henderson, V. A.The Nature of Nursing Reflections after Twenty Five Years. New York. National League for Press. McEwen, M., Wills, E. Theoretical Basis for Nursing. Wills, E. Grand nursing theories based on human needs. Philadelphia. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.