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Anaerobic infections PART 3: Infection with Gram-negative obligate anaerobes (Bacteroides spp. and other abscess-forming bacteria) Prof. Cary Engleberg,

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Presentation on theme: "Anaerobic infections PART 3: Infection with Gram-negative obligate anaerobes (Bacteroides spp. and other abscess-forming bacteria) Prof. Cary Engleberg,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Anaerobic infections PART 3: Infection with Gram-negative obligate anaerobes (Bacteroides spp. and other abscess-forming bacteria) Prof. Cary Engleberg, M.D. Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine Unless otherwise noted, this material is made available under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License:

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4 What are these lectures about? Clostridium spp. – Gas gangrene/myonecrosis – Tetanus – Botulism – Antibiotic-associated colitis Bacteroides spp. – Abscesses Other obligate anaerobes C. perfringens, C. septicum, C. histolyticum, C. novyi, etc. C. tetani C. botulinum C. difficile B. fragilis, B. distasonis, B. thetaiotamicron Fusobacterium, Prevotella, Porphyromonas spp.

5 Bacterial species in the colon present in >90% of fecal specimens Data Source: Mandell et al. Principles & Practice of infectious Diseases Bacterial Category Log organisms/gm (dry weight) Range of log organisms/gm (dry weight) Bacteroides – 13.8 Eubacterium – 13.6 Anaerobic cocci – 13.6 Clostridium – 13.2 Streptococcus – 12.8 Gram-negative facultative – 12.5 Other facultative organisms – 12.5

6 Composition of Feces Undigested debris Bacteria Gram− obligate anaerobes Gram+ obligate anaerobes All facultative bacteria (Gram + and Gram -)

7 Gram Stain of Feces Gram-negative obligate anaerobes Gram-negative facultative bacteria

8 Case: appendicitis An 18-year-old college freshman comes to the hospital with diffuse abdominal pain, diarrhea, and nausea without vomiting. Pain is localized to the right side of the abdomen. P.E.: tenderness with rebound tenderness over the right lower quadrant. She is treated with a 1 st generation cephalosporin She is taken to surgery where a perforated appendix is removed. The surrounding peritoneum is irrigated. Cultures of the peritoneum grow a mixture of bacteria, typical of those found in stool.

9 Case (continued) On post-op day #2, her temp spikes to 38.6°C. Blood cultures obtained preoperatively grow E. coli. She completes a 7-day course of cefazolin and improves. Since she has no further symptoms and follow-up blood cultures are negative, the antibiotic is stopped. 36 hours later, her temperature is 38.8°C and she feels diffuse pain over the site of the appendectomy. A CT scan of her abdomen reveals a retroperitoneal abscess.

10 CT scan: Ruptured Appendix Yu J et al. Am J Roentgenol. 2005;184(4):

11 Case (continued) The abscess is drained, and cultures of pus from the drainage grow Bacteroides fragilis. She is treated with ampicillin-sulbactam for 14 more days. Her drain is pulled after 7 days, and she has an uneventful recovery.

12 Gram stain of drainage Source undetermined

13 B. fragilis in pure culture CDC/Public Health Image Library, Dr. V.R. Dowell Jr., #3084

14 Questions to consider How did the two episodes of her disease differ with regard to pathogenesis and to the kind of bacteria involved? Why did B. fragilis survive the first course of antibiotic treatment? Was she treated properly? What could have been done to lessen the likelihood of abscess formation? How does B. fragilis facilitate intra-abdominal abscess formation?

15 Gorbach’s experiment E. coli & B. fragilis injected i.p. RX GIVEN None Clindamicin Gentamicin Clindamycin & gentamicin

16 Bacteroides spp. Obligate anaerobes 25% of all colonic bacteria Usually involved in infections resulting from perforation of an abdominal viscus – ruptured appendix – diverticulitis – post-op after bowel surgery and/or dehiscence of a surgical anastamosis Any Bacteroides spp. may be involved in a polymicrobial infection, but most abscesses contain B. fragilis

17 Survival features of Bacteroides Bacterial enzymes digest complex polysaccharides – Nutritional advantage – May improve human nutrition by digesting complex plant polysaccharides in food (symbiosis with the host) – Can digest and consume human glycans, (e.g., mucin, hyaluronate, chondroitin SO 4 ) – Neuraminidase: exposes sialylated polysaccharides to enzyme digestion (required for abscess formation) Bacteroides spp. are relatively aerotolerant – Human peritoneum and tissues are less anaerobic than the colon

18 What’s special about B. fragilis ? 1. More aerotolerant than other species and more resistant to reactive oxygen species Possesses a superoxide dismutase (SOD) Possesses catalase (CAT) 2H 2 O 2 2H 2 O + O 2 CAT O 2 + 2H 2 O 2H 2 O 2 SOD.

19 What’s special about B. fragilis ? 2. The outer membrane LPS (lipid A) is modified to be less toxic than that of E. coli Allows for host tolerance of large numbers of organisms without toxicity

20 What’s special about B. fragilis ? 3. It has a complex capsular polysaccharide that is essential for abscess formation Composed of at least 8 polysaccharides Each is capable of transcriptional phase variation (synthesis genes preceded by an invertable region containing a promotor) Polysaccharide A is essential for abscesses in animal models and is zwitterionic

21 Special features of B. fragilis CPC Polysaccharide A Activation of CD4 + T-lymphocytes abscess formation P P Gene transcribed Gene silent Phase variation of CPC synthesis genes

22 Antibiotic resistance in Bacteroides Most carry a beta-lactamase gene (resistant to penicillin, ampicillin, 1 st gen. ceph.) Harbors conjugative transposons – Can exchange genes with other Bacteroides and with other species – ex. clindamycin resistance (only ~60% sensitive now)

23 Abscess formation Infectious inoculum is high Spillage of intestinal contents into the peritoneum  most are killed by the immediate inflammatory response Containment by the omentum Facultative bacteria establish first Aerotolerant anaerobes survive Microbial synergy is usually required

24 Microbial synergy in abscess formation  Bacteroides spp.  E. coli and other facultative bacteria Carbohydrate digestion = more free sugars Consumption of O 2 + decreased blood flow = more anaerobiasis

25 Response to bacteria in the peritoneum Role of the omentum Inflammatory mediators increase vascular permeability  plasma and fibrin influx – fibrous collagenous capsule forms around site – central area features acidic pH, live and dead PMNs, and mixed bacterial flora – may include other Bacteroides, Clostridia, or Peptostreptococcus spp.)

26 Treatment of peritonitis and peritoneal abscesses Abscesses must be drained surgically or by percutaneous catheters (+ repair any leak) Antibiotic therapy effective against colonic flora, including facultative and obligate anaerobic organisms –  -lactams or cephalosporins + metronidazole –  -lactam-  -lactamase inhibitor combinations – Carbepenems – Clindamycin is becoming less useful

27 Questions to consider How did the two episodes of her disease differ with regard to pathogenesis and to the kind of bacteria involved? Why did B. fragilis survive the first course of antibiotic treatment? Was she treated properly? What could have been done to lessen the likelihood of abscess formation? How does B. fragilis facilitate intra-abdominal abscess formation?

28 Other Bacteroides-associated diseases and other obligate anaerobes of interest

29 Case: Fever, cough, chest pain, and really bad breath A 53 year old man comes to the ED for fever and chest pain. He is coughing spasmodically with minimal sputum production. The patient is a heavy alcohol user and has had “blackouts” and seizures P.E. T=38.4. carious teeth noted, many fractured. Crackles over the left lung noted.

30 Case (continued) He is admitted and started on ceftriaxone for probably pneumonia Later the same night, the patient starts coughing copious amounts of grayish, putrid sputum that can be detected on the next ward. A chest xray is taken, and treatment with metronidazole is added.

31 Lung abscess Abhijit Datir, radiopaedia.org

32 Aspiration pneumonia Source undetermined

33 Gram stain of mixed oral flora Source undetermined

34 Oral, Gram-negative anaerobes Common pathogens in dental infections, chronic sinusitis, aspiration pneumonia, lung abscesses – Porphyromonas asaccharolytica, gingivalis, forsythus – Prevotella melaninogenicus (named for brown pigment production) These species are usually (not always) sensitive to clindamycin. PCN+metronidazole usually works well. Infections are polymicrobial and usually include oral (viridans) streptococci, anaerobic strep, and other oral bacteria.

35 Case: pelvic inflammatory disease A 24 year old woman presents with pelvic pain and vaginal discharge. She has been treated for gonorrhea in the past and has had two prior episodes of the current illness in the past year. P.E. Temp=38C. There is lower abdominal tenderness in the RLQ and exquisite tenderness of the cervix and enlargement of the right Fallopian tube on pelvic exam

36 Case (continued) A pregnancy test is negative Because she has been unable to eat without vomiting, she is admitted and treated with IV ceftriaxone, oral doxycycline, and oral metronidazole No cultures are obtained; an HIV test is negative Why is metronidazole used?

37 PID microbiology Primary pathogens: gonococcus, chlamydia Secondary pathogens: – Facultative enteric organisms (e.g., E. coli) – GI and vaginal anaerobes Prevotella bivius and Prevotella disiens Peptostreptococcus spp. – Haemophilus

38 Case: neck and chest pain A 22 year old male who recently had an prolonged episode of pharyngitis now presents with high fever, and exquisite pain, tenderness and swelling of his left neck for 2 days. This morning, he developed sharp pain in the left lower chest with deep breathing A blood culture is positive for an anaerobe

39 Lin D, Suwanantarat Nm Young RS. Hawaii Med J 2010; 69(7):161-3

40

41 Fusobacterium Source undetermined

42 Lemierre’s syndrome Or “post-anginal sepsis” (very rare) Occurs after prolonged or severe pharyngitis Septic thrombophlebitis with Fusobacterium necrophorum (probably from the mouth) associated with septic pulmonary emboli to the lungs

43 What have you learned about Gram- negative, obligate anaerobes Bacteroides participate in intra-abdominal abscesses when intestinal contents spill into the peritoneum Formation of abscesses is a synergistic process involving anaerobes & facultative bacteria B. fragilis has special capacity to tolerate oxygen and to induce abscess formation via its CPC Other Bacteroides-like anaerobes are involved in polymicrobial dental, lung, or pelvic infections

44 Additional Source Information for more information see: Slide 10: Yu J, Fulcher AS, Turner MA, Halvorsen RA. Helical CT Evaluation of Acute Right Lower Quadrant Pain: Part I, Common Mimics of Appendicitis Am J Roentgenol. 2005;184(4): Resource: medscape.com Slide 12: Source undetermined Slide 13: CDC: Public Health Image Library/Dr. V.R. Dowell, Jr.,1972, Slide 31: Abhijit Datir, Lung Abscess, Radiopaeidia.org, Slide 32: Source undetermined Slide 33: Source undetermined Slide 39 & 40: Lin D, Suwantarat N, Young RS. Lemierre’s Syndrome mimicking leptospirosis. Hawaii Med J. 2010; 69(7): Slide 41: Source undetermined


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