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Presentation on theme: "Www.ineoquest.com IneoQuest Technologies, Inc. IP Video Basics session Video over IP – Get the Picture! IneoQuest Technologies, Inc. Presenter: Rico E."— Presentation transcript:

1 IneoQuest Technologies, Inc. IP Video Basics session Video over IP – Get the Picture! IneoQuest Technologies, Inc. Presenter: Rico E. Vitale (603)

2 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING Video over IP Training Agenda – Video over IP Basics IneoQuest Overview Principles of Video over IP Compression Overview MPEG Data Streams Networking Fundamentals Video over IP Unicasting / Multicasting Video over IP – Monitoring & Measurements IneoQuest Solutions References & Contact Information

3 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING Founded in 2001, based in Mansfield, MA Fast and steady growth –Greater than 670% - three-year growth rate –Recognized as one of the top ten fastest growing companies (Boston Business Journal) IP Video Measurement and Quality/Service Assurance Solutions Over 300+ unique customers, worldwide –Telecom Tier 1/2/3, MSO Cable, Broadcast/Satellite, Equipment Manufacturer Markets Direct sales and support in North America, Europe and Asia Committed to helping service providers improve video quality and control OPEX Pioneering open streaming IP Video Standards –Co-author with Cisco of the Media Delivery Index (RFC #4445) Video over IP Training Company Overview

4 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING Dropping 1 IP Packet in every 400 Packets (1/second) Video over IP Training Does this annoy you?

5 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING Video over IP Training Why monitor video at all? “So quiet you can hear a pin drop!” – US Sprint 1986 –Voice customer are LESS demanding Consumers are less forgiving when it comes to poor video quality compared to voice calls or data connections –More demanding since HD Very little loss can have a detrimental effect on video and the viewers Quality of Experience (QoE)

6 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING Given good quality source video, Packet Loss is the only thing an IP transport network can do to affect video quality. MDI = DF : MLR Make sure to check the Quality BEFORE making millions of copies Video over IP Training Principles of Video over IP

7 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING Jitter on a single flow can and will lead to changes in behavior on other flows. Cumulative Jitter does not directly affect video quality, but it is an indicator of impending loss. Video over IP Training Principles of Video over IP MDI = DF : MLR

8 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING Channels Channels Monitor All Live IPTV flows, What you don’t watch your customer does! All programs should be inspected continuously to effectively monitor IPTV throughout a network. Video over IP Training Principles of Video over IP MDI = DF : MLR

9 IneoQuest Technologies, Inc. VIDEO & AUDIO COMPRESSION

10 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING Video over IP Training Video and Audio Compression Compression Overview Video Compression Key to Compression: Remove Redundancy Video Compression Formats MPEG Compression Technologies MPEG Video Compression MPEG Audio Compression

11 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING Video over IP Training The Need for Compression Storage Requirements –Digital storage costs are decreasing significantly –Still be very expensive to store uncompressed TV data –A two-hour SD television program ≈ 200GB Bandwidth Requirements –Transmitting uncompressed data significant distance is extremely difficult Uncompressed Standard Definition (SD) digital video requires > 200 Mb/s Uncompressed High Definition (HD) digital video requires > 1Gb/s Processing Power / Hardware Requirements –Processing large amounts of video data (storage) in real-time (bandwidth)

12 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING The goal of video compression is to reduce the quantity of data used to represent video content without substantially reducing the quality of the picture. DigitizationCompression Decode Encode / Transport Compressed Digital Bitstream Uncompressed Digital Bitstream Analog Video Sequence Film or Video Camera Analog TV Digital TV The generalized process of compressing digital video for delivery over transport networks where they are decoded back into digital or analog video Video over IP Training Video Compression

13 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING Video compression algorithms take advantage of several Types of Redundancy to reduce the size of the Video Stream. Spatial Redundancy –Pixels can be encoded in groups (macro blocks) –Color and Brightness of neighboring pixels often have similar values Temporal Redundancy –Changes in an objects location and motion are normally very small from video frame to frame Coding Redundancy –Patterns and common motions often form in video Perceptual Coding Redundancy –The human eye cannot perceive minute differences in color and brightness Video over IP Training Key to Compression: Remove Redundancy Fewer Bits (storage) & Fewer Bits/second (bandwidth)

14 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING MPEG generally takes analog or digital video signals and converts them to packets of digital data that are more efficiently transported over a network The MPEG system consists of two layers : –System Layer (timing information to synchronize video and audio) –Compression Layer (includes audio and video streams). General MPEG Decoding System Video over IP Training MPEG Compression

15 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING Relative amounts of data for each frame type in a typical MPEG GOP IBBPBBPBBPBBI A frame is a single image from a video sequence. An I frame (initial, intra) is a frame that is compressed solely based in the information contained in the frame. A P frame (predicted) is a frame that has been compressed using the data contained in the frame itself and data from the closest preceding I or P frame. A B frame (bi-directional predicted) is a frame that has been compressed using the data from the closest preceding I or P frame and the closest following I or P frame. A Group of Pictures or GOP is a series of frames consisting of a single I frame and zero or more P and B frames. Video over IP Training MPEG Compression: I, P, B Frames & Group of Pictures ~ 64k Bytes

16 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING Predictive – Minimal

17 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING Predictive – Maximum

18 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING The order video frames are transmitted can be different than the order they are displayed A typical GOP in display order is: B 1 B 2 I 3 B 4 B 5 P 6 B 7 B 8 P 9 B 10 B 11 P 12 The corresponding bitstream order is: I 3 B 1 B 2 P 6 B 4 B 5 P 9 B 7 B 8 P 12 B 10 B 11 MPEG can also use a variable GOP to better deal with complex video (not shown). This concentrates I frames together during complex scenes Video over IP Training MPEG Compression: I, P, B Frames & Group of Pictures

19 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING Every packet counts –Video and Audio CODECs remove large amounts of redundancy –Highly compressed data streams are created –Very small interruptions in the data stream can significantly reduce video quality 1 st Principle.: Given good quality source video, Packet Loss is the only thing an IP transport network can do to affect video quality. Video over IP Training Every Packet Counts

20 IneoQuest Technologies, Inc. Building an MPEG Bitstream Formatting MPEG Video for Transmission

21 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING Video over IP Training Building an MPEG Bitstream System Layer Overview Elementary Streams (ES) Packetized Elementary Stream (PES) Program Stream (PS) Transport Stream (TS) Program Clock Reference (PCR)

22 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING MPEG Stream Types: Elementary Streams, Packetized Elementary Streams, Program Streams, Transport Streams Reference Page #(s): 187 Video ES Video PES Audio PES Multiple Program Transport Stream Video PES Audio PES Audio ES Video Encoder Audio Encoder Packetizer Video Encoder Audio Encoder Packetizer PSIP Data Transport Stream MUX Video ES Audio ES Video over IP Training System Layer: MPEG Stream Types

23 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING A Program Stream (PS) carries a single program –In MPEG, a program is a combination of video, audio, and related data –All information in the program stream must have a common time-base. Typically one video is combined with one or more audio streams Reference Page #(s): 191 Video PES + Audio PES 1 + Audio PES 2 = Program Stream 1 Packet Packet Header Video over IP Training System Layer: Program Stream

24 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING Transport Streams (TS) contains one or more program streams along with additional information The Transport Stream breaks the Elementary Streams into fixed length packets A transport stream containing a single program is called a Single Program Transport Stream (SPTS) A transport stream with more than one program is called a Multi-program Transport Stream (MPTS) Reference Page #(s): 192 Program Stream Packet Header 1 Packet = 188 Bytes TS Packet Header 4 bytes = Transport Stream Program 3 Program 2 Program 1 Data Stream Video over IP Training System Layer: Transport Stream

25 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING Minimum 4-byte Header Sync Byte 8 Transport Error Indicator 1 Start Indicator 1 Transport Priority 1 PID 13 Scrambling Control 2 Adaptation Field Control 2 Continuity Counter 4 Adaptation Field Payload Header Payload Adaptation Field Length 8 Discontinuity Indicator 1 Random Access Indicator 1 ES Priority Indicator 1 5 Flags 5 Optional Fields Stuffing Bytes PCR 48 OPCR 48 Splice Countdown 8 Transport Private Data Adaptation Field Extension 1 TS MPEG Packet Reference Page #(s): 193 (188 bytes) Video over IP Training System Layer: Transport Stream MPEG Packet & Header

26 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING Constant and Variable Bit Rates –CBR Rate of CODEC’s data stream consumption is constant in the decoder Useful in streaming media when the transport media is a fixed resource Usually created by stuffing null packets into transport stream –VBR CODEC can vary the amount of output data per time segment More bits are allocated to more complex content Uses less overall bandwidth No stuffing Video over IP Training Transport Stream: Constant & Variable Bit Rates

27 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING Video over IP Training Program Specific Information & Packet Identifiers (PIDs) Each Program Stream (in MPEG TS) has unique 13-bit Packet Identifiers (PIDs) Standardized PIDs: –Program Association Table (PAT) –Program Map Table (PMT) –Stuffing Configurable PID’s –Video –Audio –Data

28 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING Assisting the decoder: Presenting programs on time At the right speed Audio synchronization Programs periodically provide a Program Clock Reference (PCR), on one of the PIDs in the program Encoder clock (reference, transmitted) Decoder clock (recovered, corrected) Video over IP Training Program Clock Reference (PCR)

29 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING Video over IP Training MPEG Encoding / Transmission / Decoding

30 IneoQuest Technologies, Inc. NETWORKING FUNDAMENTALS for VIDEO PROFESSIONALS Data Transmission over IP Networks

31 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING Video over IP Training IP Networking Fundamentals for Video Professionals Network Overview IP Protocol Layer Model & OSI Model IP Addresses, Datagrams and Packets Ethernet and IP Ethernet Addressing Ethernet Interfaces Video over IP MPEG Streams into IP Packets Packet Transport Multicasting Basic Concepts & Applications Multicasting System Architecture System Impact

32 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING Video over IP Training Network Overview A network is comprised of two fundamental parts, the Nodes and the Links –A Node is some type of network device, such as a computer. Nodes are able to communicate with other nodes through Links, like cables. IP-based networks forming the backbone and making convergence possible There are basically two different network techniques for establishing communication between nodes on a network: –circuit-switched networks (connection-oriented) –packet-switched network techniques Networks support large number of users for communication Partitions users for bandwidth efficiency Permits backup connections and sharing connections Network Switch User A User B

33 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING Connection-Oriented (Circuit-Switched) Dedicated, private connection (circuit) between two points - e.g. telephone call Dedicated bandwidth for duration of call Bandwidth is wasted if not constantly utilized Packet-Switched Data is transferred in small messages (packets) allowing many devices to share the bandwidth of a network connection Network devices divide data stream into packets for transmission and reassemble packets to reconstruct the data stream Too many devices active at once can oversubscribe a network forcing a device to wait to send Most data networks today are built with packet switched technology due to efficiency (cost) advantages Requires protocols to permit the efficient use of shared paths and to allow packet data to be directed through interconnected shared paths Video over IP Training Network Techniques

34 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING Wide Area Network (WAN) Between campus, Metropolitan area, or cross country distances Usually operate at lower speeds: 56Kbps –155Mbps Delays range from milliseconds to 100s of milliseconds Local Area Network (LAN) Short haul, within a building or campus Usually higher speed than WAN: 10 Mbps – 1Gbps Delays range from tenths of a millisecond to 10s of milliseconds Personal Area Network (PAN) Very short range network, usually wireless, that allows devices to work together such as a PDA to Desktop. See IEEE : (ex: Bluetooth, Zigbee) Typical speeds: 20Kbps – 50Mbps Very short end-to-end delays Video over IP Training Network Types & Characteristics

35 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING Network Terms: A Protocol is a set of rules governing the interactions of two entities An Application is a user service such as or File Transfer that utilizes a network in providing its service A Packet is a small message with self-contained addressing information. Large blocks of data (e.g. files) or streaming data such as video may be forwarded as many small messages or “packets” Bandwidth is used to indicate the amount of information carrying capacity of a device (switch, router) or link (fiber, copper, RF) A Switch or Hub is a packet forwarding device that uses information in layer 2 only in its forwarding algorithms A Router or Gateway is a packet forwarding device that uses information in layer 3 only in its forwarding algorithms Video over IP Training Data Networks Overview

36 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING Application (7) Presentation (6) Session (5) Transport (4) Network (3) Data-Link (2) Physical (1) Provides services directly to user applications. Because of the potentially wide variety of applications, this layer Must provide a wealth of services. Among these services are establishing privacy mechanisms, authenticating the Intended communication partners, and determining if adequate resources are present. Performs data transformations to provide a common interface for user applications, including services such as reformatting, data compression, and encryption. Establishes, maintains, and ends user connections and manages the interaction between end systems. Services include such things as establishing communications as full or half duplex and group data. Insulates the 3 upper Layers 5-7 from having to deal with the complexities of Layers 1-3 by providing the functions necessary to guarantee a reliable network link. Among other functions, this Layer provides error recovery and flow control between the two end points of the network connection. Establishes, maintains, and terminates network connections. Among other functions, standards define how data routing and relaying are handled. Ensures the reliability of the physical link established at Layer 1. Standards define how data frames are recognized and provide necessary flow control and error handling at the frame level. Controls transmission of raw bitstream over the transmission medium. Standards for this layer define such parameters as the amount of signal voltage swing, the duration of voltages, etc. Video over IP Training Open System Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model

37 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING Copper: Twisted Pair, Coax Pros: Lowest cost, simple installation, Trained Support plentiful Cons: Shorter distances, ingress/egress interference, bandwidth limits Fiber Pros: Long haul, Low loss, High bandwidth, Interference Resistant Cons: Higher Cost, More Complex Installation, Optical component ageing RF Pros: Wireless, mobility Cons: Limited Shared Spectrum, Interference, Higher Cost, Lowest bandwidth, Distance limits MT-RJ SC ST LC Communication Video over IP Training Physical Layer 1

38 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING Ethernet Frame Format: Data-Link (2) Ensures the reliability of the physical link established at Layer 1. Standards define how data frames are recognized and provide necessary flow control and error handling at the frame level. Destination MAC Source MAC Type Data CRC 6 bytes4 bytes 6 bytes 4 bytes Video over IP Training Data-Link Layer 2

39 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING Data-Link Layer 2 Examples: Ethernet – Most prevalent data network type DOCSIS – Data network for cable systems Resilient Packet Ring (RPR) – Emerging data network with features for carrying multimedia traffic, fast fault recovery, easy interface to Ethernet networks, OAM carrier requirements DVB- SSI, ASI – common point-to-point protocol in use for linking video distribution devices Video over IP Training Data-Link Layer 2

40 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING Ethernet equipment uses Media Access Control (MAC) addresses for each piece of equipment. MAC address is represented as 6 fields two HEX characters each. Sample: 00:08:D4:01:03:03 MAC addresses are uniquely assigned to each piece of hardware by the manufacturer and do not change. First six digits can be used to identify the Manufacturer Frames are the format of data packets on the wire. Note that a frame viewed on the actual physical hardware would show start bits, sometimes called the preamble, and the trailing Frame Check Sequence. These are required by all physical hardware and is seen in all four following frame types. They are not displayed by packet sniffing software because these bits are removed by the Ethernet adapter before being passed on to the network protocol stack software. Video over IP Training Ethernet Addressing (Data-Link Layer 2)

41 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING Network (3) Establishes, maintains, and terminates network connections. Among other functions, standards define how data routing and relaying are handled. IP Packet Format: Ethernet Header IP Header Data CRC 16 bytes20 bytes4 bytes Video over IP Training Network Layer 3 – IP

42 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING IP works as a delivery service for “datagrams” also called “IP packets” A datagram is a single, logical block of data that is being sent over IP, augmented by IP header Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) of a standard Ethernet link is 1,500 bytes (RFC894) Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) used to correlate MAC address to IP address Video over IP Training IP Datagrams & Packets

43 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING IP header is 20 bytes in length (32-bits/byte) Contains Source and Destination IP Adresses DSCP / Type of Service (TOS) field can be set for network devices to use in configuring QoS Video over IP Training IP Protocol Header

44 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING TCP Header contains Source and Destination Ports TCP is “connection based” Receipt of each TCP packet is acknowledged and dropped or errored packets are retransmitted Video over IP Training TCP Protocol Header

45 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING UDP header contains Source and Destination Ports UDP is “connectionless” UDP Header is 8 bytes in length (32 bits/byte) Packets are not acknowledged and there is no retransmission of dropped or errored packets Video over IP Training UDP Protocol Header UDP is most common protocol for Video over IP (simpler, less overhead)

46 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING IP addresses special format “dotted decimal” is easy to recognize i.e Dotted decimal number represents a 32-bit number broken up into four 8-bit numbers = An IP address encodes the ID of a device’s network (Net ID) as well as a unique device (Host ID) on that network All devices on a network share a common network prefix Video over IP Training IP Addressing (Network Layer 3)

47 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING IP address ranges are broken down into classes: A, B, C, D, and E “Classful” addressing scheme –Different size networks and device types were assigned to a specific class of addresses –Helped in routing “Classless” addressing is used today –Any size network or type of device can be assigned a class A,B or C address The value of the first number of the IP address that determines the class Class Lowest AddressHighest Address A B C D E Multicast Address Range Video over IP Training IP Addressing Classes

48 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING A Subnet (short for Subnetwork) is a range of IP addresses within the overall address space assigned to an organization Created to allow Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) Subnet masks are also represented by the dotted decimal format and follow the IP address range classes Subnets are used to divide or combine groups of IP addresses Video over IP Training IP Addressing Classes

49 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING Ethernet hubs provide 3 main functions –Acts as a repeater, taking an incoming signal, amplifying it, and sending it out onto all other ports –Isolates the ports electrically (electrical termination) –Acts as a splitter/combiner No collision prevention Simply receive and retransmit signals Not used much today Reference Page #(s): 175 Video over IP Training Ethernet Hubs

50 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING A switch provides a separate logical and physical network on every one of its connections, or ports Common practice is to put a single device on each connection of the switch This practice provides 3 benefits: –Each device can transmit and receive data without worrying about collisions with other devices, so data transmission speeds can increase –A switch will send out packets only on a port that is destined for a device that is connected to that port which improves network security and reliability –Certain devices can operate in Full-Duplex mode which means that they can transmit and receive data at the same time Switches tend to have most of their ports configured as a single type of interface Works on MAC Addressing Reference Page #(s): Video over IP Training Ethernet Switches – Layer 2

51 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING Routers provide a crucial function for IP network by examining the headers and addresses of IP packets and then transmitting them onward to their destinations. Basic Functions of a Router –Accept IP packets from devices and forward them to recipient devices –Forward packets to another router when recipient device is not local to the router –Maintain “Routing Tables” for different destination networks –Bridging between different network technologies –Monitor status of connected networks to determine if they are vacant, busy, or disabled –Queuing packets of different priority levels so that high-priority packets have precedence –Informing other routers of network configurations –Performing many other administrative and security related functions Routers process IP Addresses whereas Switches process MAC Addresses Reference Page #(s): Video over IP Training Ethernet Router – Layer 3

52 IneoQuest Technologies, Inc. Video over IP Encapsulation of MPEG Transport Streams

53 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING Video over IP Training Video over IP or Networks Video into Packets Encapsulating Media Data Transport Protocols Ports & Sockets UDP / TCP / RTP Packet Transport Transport Methods Considerations

54 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING Video over IP Training IP Encapsulation IP Encapsulation is the process of taking a data stream, formatting it into packets, and adding the headers and other data required MPEG over IP Transport streams consist of a series of multiple MPEG TS packets packed inside UDP datagrams –A typical IP video packet will contain 7 TS packets (188 x 7 = 1316 bytes) –Add Ethernet, IP and UDP headers (46 bytes) –Ethernet Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) = 1,500 bytes IP Packet with MPEG2 TS Video Payload carried over Ethernet Ethernet IP/UDP MPEG2 TS Video Packet 188 bytes MPEG2 TS Video Packet 188 bytes MPEG2 TS Video Packet 188 bytes MPEG2 TS Video Packet 188 bytes MPEG2 TS Video Packet 188 bytes MPEG2 TS Video Packet 188 bytes MPEG2 TS Video Packet 188 bytes CRC 1,316 bytes + 46 bytes = 1,362 bytes

55 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING Standard vs. Jumbo Frame Standard IP PacketJumbo IP Packet Approximately 20% more efficient.

56 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING Video over IP Training Transport Protocols Transport Stream Protocols are used to control transmission of data packets 3 major protocols used to transport real-time video: UDP or User Datagram Protocol: This is one of the simplest and earliest of the IP Protocols. UDP is often used for video and other data that is very time sensitive TCP or Transmission Control Protocol: This is a well established Internet Protocol that is widely used for data transport RTP or Real-Time Transport Protocol: This protocol has been specifically developed to support real-time data transport, such as video streaming UDP is a connectionless transport protocol that is used for high-speed information flows (widely used for Video) TCP is a connection-oriented protocol that provides high reliability (retransmission) RTP is intended for real-time multimedia applications. RTP is not strictly a protocol like UDP or TCP. RTP was designed to use UDP as a packet transport mechanism Reference Page #(s):

57 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING Technologies used for packet transport Packet over SONET/SDH (Synchronous Optical Network and Synchronous Digital Hierarchy) Cable and DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) Optical Networks IP over ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) MPLS/GMPLS (Multi-Protocol Label Switching and General MPLS) RPR (Resilient Packet Ring) Wireless Ethernet is the most popular technology for IP packet transport in local areas. It is not intended for long distances, so the above technologies were developed to transport IP packets over long distances Reference Page #(s): Video over IP Training Transport Methods

58 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING When video is being transported over an IP network, users need to consider a other factors that can significantly affect the users’ viewing experience Multiplexing is a process of combining video streams from different sources into 1 IP flow. Two forms of Multiplexing commonly used today: Time Division and Statistical Traffic Shaping consists of various techniques that are used to make video traffic easier to handle on a network. Overall goal is to make an IP flow less prone to sudden peaks in bit rate Buffering is basically a collection of memory that is used to temporarily store information prior to taking some action. Buffers can have a major impact of video network performance Firewalls are used to control the flow of information between two networks. Need to be aware of the constraints that firewalls impose on video services Reference Page #(s): Video over IP Training Transport Considerations

59 IneoQuest Technologies, Inc. Multicasting IGMP – Internet Group Management Protocol

60 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING Video over IP Training Multicasting Basic Concepts Unicasting Multicasting Joining and Leaving Multicast

61 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING High Bandwidth required between the video source and a number of end-users Video source make separate video streams for each recipient Reduced Bandwidth requirements between video source and multiple end-users Network devices (routers) makes copies of video stream for every recipient Unicast = one to one Multicast = one to many Video over IP Training Unicast vs. Multicast

62 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING Video over IP Training Unicasting Unicasting is the traditional way that packets are sent from a source to a single destination Each user who wants to view the video must make a request to the video source. The source needs to know the destination IP address of each user and must create IP packets addressed to each user. As the # of viewers increase, the load on the network increases Each viewer gets a custom tailored video stream which allows the video source to offer specialized features such as pause, rewind and fast-forward of video. Unicasting VOD Server

63 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING Multicasting unlike Unicasting, puts the burden of creating streams for each user on that network rather than on the video source IP packets are given special IP addresses to be recognized by the network as Mutlicast. IP Address range is Class D: through IP Multicast uses UDP packets IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol) Protocol controls access to Multicast streams User must request to Join and Leave a Multicast program Multicasting Video over IP Training Multicasting

64 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING Video over IP Training Joining and Leaving a Multicast IGMP Messages –Membership Query Used by multicast enabled routers running IGMP to discover which hosts on attached networks are members of which multicast groups –Membership Report Sent by a host when it wants to join a multicast group or when responding to membership query’s –Leave Group Sent by a host when it wants to leave a multicast group Multicasting

65 IneoQuest Technologies, Inc. Video over IP Monitoring & Measurements

66 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING Video over IP Training Video over IP Monitoring & Measurements Network Impairments Flow Behavior Video over IP Measurements MDI – Media Delivery Index Distributed Continuous Program ( DCP) Monitoring Determining Packet Loss (MLR) on a UDP flow Delay Factor (DF) & the effects of a high Delay Factor

67 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING Packet Loss is when an IP packet does not arrive at its intended destination. This can be caused by any number of circumstances: Network Saturation, Network hardware failure, Queuing misconfiguration, etc. Packet Reordering occurs in a network when packets arrive in a different order than how they were sent. Since MPEG has a very precisely defined structure and sequence, out of order packets can cause problems Delay is going to happen in any network. Two types of delay: Propagation delay and Switching. Propagation is the amount of time to travel from one location to another. Switching delay occurs at any point in the network where a signal needs to be switched or routed. Jitter is a measurement of variation in the arrival time of the data packets. Receivers must be built to tolerate jitter and networks should be designed not to create a lot of jitter. Video over IP Training Video Network Impairments

68 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING The Media Delivery Index (MDI) is a metric that captures the amount of Cumulative Packet Jitter and the amount of Packet Loss of an IP stream. These are the only types of impairments that can be caused by an IP transport network. MDI consists of two components: Delay Factor : Media Loss Rate Delay Factor (DF) is the size of buffer required to transport jittered packets in the network without loss divided by the rate of the media stream – it is proportional to the delay introduced in the system due to the network buffering. The buffer value is expressed in the time (milliseconds) it takes to transmit (drain) the maximum buffer size at outflow rate. Media Loss Rate (MLR) is the total Media Packets Lost (per second) See RFC 4445 for complete details on how to calculate MDI –http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc4445.txt?number=4445http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc4445.txt?number=4445 See Application Notes at: Video over IP Training Media Delivery Index MDI = DF : MLR

69 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING Ethernet Inter-Packet Gap Decoder Monitor, TV, etc Buffer (Removes Ethernet frame and buffers MPEG) MPEG Inter-Packet Gap Rate is determined by the MPEG Example 4.5Mb/s Each Ethernet packet contains up to 7 MPEG packets Rate is determined by the MPEG Example 4.5Mb/s Ethernet Packets MPEG Packets Payload is extracted Payload is buffered Payload is clocked out 188-bytes MPEG2 TS packet encapsulated within an IP Ethernet Frame. Rate of IP delivery is the same as the rate of drain of the video (MPEG2 TS). The packet arrival rate of each IP packet is exactly to the rate used to clock the contents of one IP packet from the receiver buffer. Video over IP Training Flow Behavior

70 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING Video over IP Training Simple IP Switch (example) Basic MDI Theory

71 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING Ethernet Inter-Packet Gap Decoder Monitor, TV, etc Buffer (Removes Ethernet frame and buffers MPEG) MPEG Inter-Packet Gap Ethernet Packets MPEG Packets DecoderBuffer (Buffer start to drain at MPEG rate 3.75 Mbps) For example: 3.50 Mbps rateFor example: 3.75 Mbps rate Monitor, TV, etc DecoderBuffer (Buffer is empty waiting for more IP packets) For example: 3.50 Mbps rate For example: 3.75 Mbps rate Monitor, TV, etc Under Run: Avg. Ethernet inter-packet gap timing at the delivery rate is less than MPEG video rate hence buffer runs empty Nothing to Decode; Poor Video Video over IP Training Flow Behavior: IP Flow with Jitter & Under Run Rate

72 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING Video over IP Training Flow Behavior: IP Flow with Jitter & Over Run Rate Ethernet Inter-Packet Gap Decoder Monitor, TV, etc Buffer (Removes Ethernet frame and buffers MPEG) MPEG Inter-Packet Gap Ethernet Packets MPEG Packets DecoderBuffer (Buffer starts to fill up) For example: 4.90 Mbps rate For example: 3.75 Mbps rate Monitor, TV, etc DecoderBuffer (Buffer Overflows) For example: 3.75 Mbps rate Monitor, TV, etc Shorter Ethernet Inter-Packet Gap For example: 4.90 Mbps rate Ethernet packets are dropped at the network device Impaired Video Over Run: Avg. Ethernet inter-packet gap timing at the delivery rate is more than buffer can handle hence the buffer drops packets

73 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING Switch with High MDI Video over IP Training Simple IP Switch with High MDI

74 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING Video over IP Training Flow Behavior: IP Flow with IP Packet Loss Ethernet Inter-Packet Gap Decoder Monitor, TV, etc Buffer (Removes Ethernet frame and buffers MPEG) MPEG Inter-Packet Gap Ethernet Packets MPEG Packets DecoderBuffer (Buffer starts to fill up) For example: 3.75 Mbps rate Monitor, TV, etc IP Packet Loss: Ethernet inter-packet gap is enlarged due to IP packet loss, causing bursty IP Video delivery (Jitter) 1 2 DecoderBuffer (Buffer could Under Run) For example: 3.75 Mbps rate Monitor, TV, etc 3 Impaired Video For example: 3.75 Mbps rate Ethernet packets are dropped in the network Loss adds Jitter

75 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING Video over IP Training Program Clock Reference (PCR) PCR Jitter vs. IP Jitter PCR Jitter (recovered clock inaccuracy) Serial transport media use a common clock between transmitter and receiver and can guarantee high accuracy of packet arrival times Jitter is classified into two categories: PCR accuracy errors (PCR_AC) and network jitter. These two are then combined into PCR overall jitter (PCR_OJ) Ethernet / IP Jitter (variation in expected packet arrival times) No clock reference for transmission of packets Because transport can include multiple devices (all with different buffer cues), there is no guarantee that packets transmitted with a given inter- packet spacing will arrive with the same spacing IP jitter is categorized and measured by the Media Delivery Index (MDI) Delay Factor (DF)

76 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING Constant Bit Rate example –An encoder ideally transmits IP packets at the rate matching the MPEG encoded bit rate as shown here. –PCR time stamp updates occur every 40 ms in a stream continuously informing a decoder of the MPEG encoded bit rate. –Constant Bit Rate (CBR) encoding shown here. “Stuffing” bits maintain a constant bit rate even though picture complexity is dynamic. Video over IP Training Constant Bit Rate (CBR)

77 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING Variable Bit Rate (VBR) example –This example has high DF The instantaneous, per packet IP bit rate is bursty and does not track the dynamic encoded PCR bit rate. –PCR bit rate varies dynamically with picture complexity with VBR since there is no stuffing PID. The instantaneous peak PCR rate may be peak limited (“capped”) by configuration. Video over IP Training Variable Bit Rate (VBR)

78 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING DF continuously tracks the cumulative difference between MPEG bit rate and IP bit rate capturing the stream’s burstiness If an IP stream is bursty, its instantaneous bit rate may significantly stress network transport device queues. Video over IP Training Delay Factor (DF)

79 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING Video over IP Training IneoQuest Software Application: IQ MediaAnalyzer Pro

80 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING PID 481 CC PID 482 CC MLT = 0 MLT = 6 Video over IP Training MLR: Determining Loss on UDP Flows

81 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING Video over IP Training Video over IP Measurements Properties that must be Measured and Monitored simultaneously to ensure Quality of Video over IP. IP packet arrival times where jitter causes delay (Under Runs) IP packet arrival times where jitter causes bursts (Over Runs) IP packet bit rate average drift/deviation from the Video bit rate IP packet loss Video packet loss / CC errors

82 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING HeadEnd Encoder Edge MDI PAYLOAD MDI Dropped IP Packets Video over IP Training IneoQuest Software Application: IQ MediaAnalyzer Pro

83 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING MPEG2 Transport Stream HD/SD H.264 (MPEG-4 part 10) MPEG-4 part 2 ISMA VC1.01 / VC1.1 Supported Technologies Flow Type Bitrate Eth2/IP/UDP Eth2/IP/UDP/RTP Eth2/VLAN/IP/UDP Eth2/VLAN/IP/UDP/RTP Eth2/PPPoE/IP/UDP Eth2/PPPoE/IP/UDP/RTP Eth2/PPPoE/VLAN/IP/UDP/RTP Standard / High Definition SPTS – Single Program Transport Stream MPTS – Multi-Program Transport Stream VOD Broadcast FEC Flow Detection Encapsulation Supported Video over IP Training Monitored Flow Types

84 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING Alarms & WarningsPossible Causes MDI-DF : Delay Factor (max value exceeded) NTWK-UTL : Network Utilization (max value exceeded) IP Flow Media Bit Rate Deviation (%) MDI-MLR : Media Loss Rate (max value exceeded) RTP-LDE : Loss Distance Error (min value exceeded) RTP-LPE : Loss Period Error (max value exceeded) MLT-15 : 15min. Media Loss Total (max value exceeded) MLT-24 : 24hr. Media Loss Total (max value exceeded) MLS-15 : 15min. Media loss Seconds Total (max value exceeded) MLS-24 : 24hr. Media Loss Seconds Total (max value exceeded) RTP-SE : RTP-Total Sequence Errors (max value exceeded) TS-PID : Transport Stream PID Bit Rate (lower limit exceeded) TS-SYNC : Transport Stream Sync Byte Error V-TSB : VIDEO-TS PCR Bit Rate (lower limit exceeded) IP-SBRMX : IP-Stream Bit Rate (upper limit exceeded) IP-SBRMN : IP-Stream Bit Rate (lower limit exceeded) VIDO-LOS : Video Flow Outage Over Subscription Encoder Behavior Bursty Traffic VOD Server Configuration WARNING LOSS PAYLOAD Outage Noise Bad Connectors Pinched Cables QoS Configuration Equipment Configuration Transient Power Encoder Issues (config, fault equipment) Loss Video/Voice feeds Faulty Equipment Loss of Power Nature IGMPv2 / IGMPv3 support Join & Leave (min/max/average) IGMP Zap time AutoScan / Manual IGMP Faulty Equipment Configuration Over Subscription Video over IP Training Alarms & Warnings

85 IneoQuest Technologies, Inc. IneoQuest Monitoring and Troubleshooting Solutions

86 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING The biggest problem facing IP Video service providers is unbounded operational expenses (OPEX) –The inability to sustain quality across a distributed service area no matter how much is spent in OPEX – loosing business model OPEX Drivers –Increased call volume – $5.00-$15.00 per call –Increased truck rolls – $ plus per roll –Chronic problems – Problems “come and go” –Lingering problems – No definitive problem resolution; “voodoo” troubleshooting –No visibility – The customer becomes the monitoring and analysis system –Lack of education – New technology presents new problems Summary –IP Video distribution presents a new set of problems Unique issues that traditional monitoring systems are ill-equipped to handle or detect –IP Video is very different than voice and data Requires an evolved multi-dimensional approach to quality and service assurance Video over IP Training How IP Video is Challenging Service Providers

87 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING Encoder Headend Network Video Servers Video HeadendIP Transport Core Network Hub/VHO Edge Network End User Subscriber 1000s of Video Flows Last Mile Network Premise Network Last Mile Networks Decoder Video over IP Training Video Across Multiple Systems (end-to-end program flow)

88 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING Encoder Headend Network Video Servers Core Network Hub/VHO Edge Network Last Mile Network Premise Network End User HeadendIP TransportLast Mile TechnologySubscriber 1000s of Video Flows Results in increased call volume ($) and truck rolls ($) Operational dollars get spent and problem is often not found or fixed….system never improves No matter where the issue is across any subsystem, the effect is seen at the end of the system at the subscriber Decoder Video over IP Training Complexities of IP Video

89 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING Encoder Headend Network Video Servers Core Network Hub/VHO Edge Network Last Mile Network Premise Network End User Decoder MPEG Monitoring Subsystem Network Monitoring Subsystem DSL/RF Monitoring Subsystem Coverage Area Traditional MPEG Monitoring System Coverage Traditional Core Network Monitoring System Coverage Traditional DSL/RF Component Monitoring System Coverage Video over IP Training Coverage Areas

90 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING Encoder Headend Network Video Servers Core Network Hub/VHO Edge Network Last Mile Network Premise Network Decoder Video HeadendIP TransportLast Mile Technology 1000s of Video Flows The first time it is realized there is an issue is at the customers TV, so customer calls and trucks roll. End User Subscriber MPEG Monitoring Subsystem System Reports Good Network Monitoring Subsystem System Reports Good DSL/RF Monitoring Subsystem System Reports Good Single Video Program Problem Origination Video over IP Training Traditional Monitoring – Blind to Video Issues

91 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING Encoder Headend Network Video Servers Core Network Hub/VHO Edge Network Last Mile Network Premise Network End User Decoder 1000s of Video Flows Coverage Area IneoQuest IQPinPoint Multi-Dimensional Video Quality Management System Coverage Video HeadendIP TransportLast Mile Network With Analysis, Monitoring, and Remote Troubleshooting all in one Video over IP Training Multi-Dimensional: All Flows, All Locations, All the Time

92 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING Encoder Headend Network Video Servers Core Network Hub/VHO Edge Network Last Mile Network Premise Network Decoder Video HeadendIP TransportLast Mile Network 1000s of Video Flows Using Multi-Dimensional Video Quality Management, Operations now can detect a Video issue. Trouble ticket to specific sub system and use remote troubleshooting to solve issue. If the customer calls, no need to roll truck since the issue is not at the premise. End User Subscriber Reports Good Video Reports Bad Video Single Video Program Problem Origination Video over IP Training Multi-Dimensional Management: Detect, Isolate, Resolve

93 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING Video over IP Solutions IneoQuest Hardware Platform: Singulus G1-T Generate network traffic up to 2 GbE Monitor & Analyze IP Video up to 1 GbE 80 MB Capture & Record Packet Morph (add Impairments) 1 GbE Copper & Fiber Connections 10/100 Management port ASI Output port 256 IP Flows

94 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING Video over IP Solutions IneoQuest Hardware Platform: Singulus Lite “Cricket” Interactive Subscriber “Visual Impairment” Feedback In-band IP Video/IPTV control and stats Subscriber Behavior Tracking Emulates an end point Monitor & Analyze IP Video up to 10 IP Flows 80 MB Capture & Record 10 / 100 MbE Copper Connections USB Management port Available Versions: Ethernet QAM ASI

95 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING Video over IP Solutions IneoQuest Software Application: IQMediaStimulus Traffic Generation Software Application Used with Geminus, Singulus G10, Singulus G1-T Generate Video, Voice, or Data flows TS files, LIBpcap files (TS with encapsulation), Data files, voice files (.au,.wav, etc) Live Stream Replication Can cause Impairments Drop IP Packets, add Jitter, change IP Bitrate, change PCR rate, drop PIDs Supports Multiple STIM targets Test Set-ups Ability to Auto Run Tests

96 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING Video over IP Solutions IneoQuest Software Application: IQMediaAnalyzer Pro Monitoring & Analysis Software Application New Dashboard Impairments window Enhanced Trigger & Capture Capabilities Commercial Insertion Support Microsoft IPTV support Software Included with Hardware

97 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING Video over IP Solutions IneoQuest Software Application: IQTsX Pro Post Analysis Software Application Search and Explore the capture Display the packet data Decode media packet headers IP & Media Packet Explorer Packet arrival time reports PCR comparison reports & charts PID list reports GOP Structure reports Individual Channel analysis on MPTS CC error detection Packet Modification 3 rd party tool support Play the capture with VLC Media Player View Packets with Ethereal Microsoft IPTV support Licensed Software MPEG Deep Packet Analysis

98 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING Video HeadendIP Transport Beginning of Last Mile End of Last Mile (Subscriber) iVMS End-to-End Deep MPEG Analysis, IP Video Monitoring, & Remote Troubleshooting Simultaneous IP Video Monitoring & Remote Troubleshooting Last Mile Technologies IP, QAM, HPNA, ADSL2+, VDSL, ASI, Wireless Last Mile Technologies IP, QAM, HPNA, ADSL2+, VDSL, ASI, Wireless Video over IP Solutions IneoQuest End-to-End Solution Overview

99 IneoQuest Technologies, Inc. Video over IP Solutions IneoQuest iVMS IP Video Management System

100 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING Video over IP Solutions iVMS – IQ Map View

101 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING Video over IP Solutions iVMS – IQ Topology View

102 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING Video over IP Solutions iVMS – Real-Time Monitoring

103 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING Program Monitoring Across Multiple Points Select the metric to monitor Video over IP Solutions iVMS – Real-Time Monitoring

104 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING Video over IP Solutions iVMS – Reporting & Trending

105 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING Video over IP Solutions iVMS – Reporting & Trending

106 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING Video over IP Solutions iVMS – Reporting & Trending (Drill Down to PID level)

107 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING PID Details Video over IP Solutions iVMS – Reporting & Trending (PID Details)

108 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING Video over IP Solutions iVMS – Daily Reports (IQ Watch Services)

109 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING Display Active Users Define Menus Per-User Video over IP Solutions iVMS – Configuration & Security

110 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING Video over IP Solutions iVMS – Configuration

111 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING Video over IP Solutions iVMS – Configuration (Firmware Downloads)

112 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING Video over IP Solutions iVMS – Notifications

113 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING IQFastLink Embedded URL in Message Video over IP Solutions iVMS – Northbound to NMS/OSS

114 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING Video over IP Solutions iVMS – Customized Skins to NMS/OSS

115 IneoQuest Technologies, Inc. References Resources for Video over IP

116 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING Video over IP Training References & Resources Video over IP: A Practical Guide to technology and Applications by Wes Simpson, Focal Press IPTV Crash Course by Joseph Weber and Tom Newberry, McGraw Hill TCP/IP Illustrated, Volume 1, The Protocols by W. Richard Stevens, Addison Wesley Internetworking with TCP/IP, Volume 1, Principles, Protocols, and Architecture by Douglas E. Comer, Prentice-Hall, Inc. A Guide to MPEG Fundamentals and Protocol Analysis, Tektronix A Transport Protocol for Real-Time Applications, RFC3550 Requirements for Internet Hosts - Communications Layers, RFC1122 Internet Protocol, RFC791 Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP), RFC792 Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP), RFC 2236 Host Extensions for IP Multicast, RFC 1112 Media Delivery Index (MDI), RFC 4445

117 IneoQuest Technologies IneoQuest IP VIDEOTRAINING Copyright © 2006 IneoQuest Technologies, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the USA. IneoQuest, IQClearView, IQWatch, Singulus G1-T, IQMediaMonitor, and the IneoQuest logo are trademarks of IneoQuest Technologies, Inc. in the U.S. and certain other countries. All other trademarks mentioned in this document are the property of their respective owners. The use of the word partner does not imply a partnership relationship between IneoQuest and any of its resellers. CORPORATE HEADQUARTERS IneoQuest Technologies, Inc. 170 Forbes Boulevard Mansfield, MA USA TEL: (508) FAX: (508) IQ PROFESSIONAL SERVICES IneoQuest Technologies, Inc. 170 Forbes Boulevard Mansfield, MA USA TEL: (508) IQ TECHNICAL SUPPORT IneoQuest Technologies, Inc. 170 Forbes Boulevard Mansfield, MA USA TEL: (866) Video over IP Training Contact Information


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