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What IS intelligence?.

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Presentation on theme: "What IS intelligence?."— Presentation transcript:

1 What IS intelligence?

2 Does language indicate intelligence?
Language isn’t only about communication Language allows the accumulation and transmission of knowledge and culture thanks to language, we know things we have never personally experienced!

3 Language spoken, written or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning

4 Do animals use language?
Animals show intelligence, including communication, but is it language…? Some researchers say “no” – Washoe was only “aping” copying what she had seen earlier – or perhaps repeating behaviors that earned her an earlier reward. (operant conditioning) Some researchers say “Yes” - Washoe learned American Sign Language and could link words together to form meaning: “Water” “Bird” upon seeing a swan

5 The debate continues….

6 Building Blocks of Language
One of the strongest arguments against animal language, is that they fail to use proper syntax - rules we use to order the words in our sentences “you tickle” and “tickle you” mean two very different things but might be used interchangeably by ape-signers

7 More Building Blocks of Language
Phonemes – the smallest distinctive sound unit (not letter) (/s/ /a/ /t/ = sat) ….changes in phonemes make different meanings (/f/ /a/ /t/ = fat) Morphemes – the smallest unit of language that carries meaning (a, me, pre-, -ed,) Unladylike un- 'not' lady '(well behaved) female adult human' -like 'having the characteristics of'

8 How many phonemes (sounds) are in these words?
Habits thing Three psychology 5 3 8

9 How many morphemes in the following words?
People Redevelopment Swimming Language Grandmother 1 3 2

10 How do we learn these building blocks?
Nature vs Nurture Remember Skinner? Its Nurture – we are learn language through experience. Children imitate sounds that get rewarded and are thus repeated.

11 How do we learn these building blocks?
Nature vs Nurture Remember Chomsky? Its Nature – we are born with a “language acquisition device” – we absorb new words an astounding pace and we are pre-wired to utilize grammatical building blocks (such as syntax)

12 Conclusion – language is a result of biology and experience combined
Critical Period The window for learning language is wide open in our early years (our grammar “switches” are flipped on) but after the age of 7, that window gradually closes Conclusion – language is a result of biology and experience combined

13 Intelligence.

14 1918 Army Intelligence Test
Write your answers down to the following. No instructions will be given (that’s part of the test) Absolutely no talking (don’t worry, its pretty short) You get 9 seconds per question only….

15 What is “Intelligence”?
Intelligence – mental quality consisting of the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations

16 g After finding that schoolchildren's grades across seemingly unrelated subjects were positively correlated, Charles Spearman proposed that these correlations reflected the influence of a dominant factor, which he termed g for "general" intelligence 16

17 What is “Intelligence”?
Is a talented artist who can’t do math “unintelligent”? Is a brilliant scientist who can’t follow a road map “unintelligent”?

18 Is intelligence one general ability, or several specific abilities?
Different cultures deem “intelligent” as whatever attributes enable success in those cultures Different cultures deem “intelligent” as whatever attributes enable success in those cultures Is intelligence one general ability, or several specific abilities?

19 Theory of Multiple Intelligences
Howard Gardner Linguistic Logical-Mathematical Body-Kinesthetic Spatial Musical Interpersonal Intrapersonal Naturalist Existential

20 Linguistic – words and language
A person's ability to construct and comprehend language Journalists, poets, novelists, storyteller

21 Logical-Mathematical – numbers and logic
ability to mentally process logical problems and equations, the type most often found on multiple choice standardized tests Scientists, accountants, navigator, surveyor

22 Spatial – pictures Our ability to comprehend shapes and images in three dimensions. perceive and interpret that which we may or may not physically see (assemble puzzle, mold a sculpture, etc) Artists, cab drivers, architects, chess player

23 Musical – music The ability to perform and compose music
Pianist, Composers, singers

24 Intrapersonal – self-awareness and reflection
allows us to tap into our being - who we are, what feelings we have, and why we are this way. Self-help and motivational speakers, philosophers, therapists

25 Body-Kinesthetic - physical
Each person possesses a certain control of his or her movements, balance, agility and grace. Athletes, dancers, craftsperson

26 Interpersonal – social skills
ability to interact with others, understand them, and interpret their behavior Politicians, clergy, salesperson, teacher

27 Naturalistic – experience in the natural world
People who are sensitive to changes in weather patterns, love the outdoors or are adept at distinguishing nuances between large numbers of similar objects may be expressing naturalist intelligence abilities. Rangers, Guides, Environmentalists, Zoologist

28 Existential Intelligence
Individuals who exhibit the proclivity to pose (and ponder) questions about life death, and ultimate realities Philosophers and Thinkers - Aristotle, Confucius, Einstein, Plato, Socrates

29 Triarchic Theory of Multiple Intelligences
Robert Sternberg -Analytical -Creative -Practical

30 Analytical – tests, which present well-defined problems having single right answers; academic intelligence. Problem-solving strategies and their correct applications to real-life issues. Commonly referred to as “book smarts”.

31 Creative Intelligence
– the ability to effectively deal with novel situations by drawing on existing skills and knowledge.

32 Practical Intelligence
the ability to adapt to the environment, reflecting was is commonly called “street smarts”.

33 Cluster Intelligence Louis Thurstone
There are seven different primary mental abilities. The scores for each of the seven tests of intelligence is read separately in order to get a better understanding of strengths and weaknesses

34 Verbal comprehension (or Verbal Ability):
Found in such things as verbal reasoning, reasoning by analogy, and reading comprehension.

35 Word fluency: Facility with words in special contexts, such as anagrams, rhyming, etc.

36 Arithmetic computation
Number ability: Arithmetic computation

37 Spatial ability: The ability to mentally manipulate and visualize geometric relations; spatial and visual imagery. A

38 Associative memory: The ability to make random paired associations that require rote memory; memorizing skills.

39 Perceptual speed: Facility in finding or in recognizing particular items in a perceptual field. How good is your “insight”?

40 General reasoning ability (or Induction):
Facility in finding rules or principles, such as in a number series. 3, 6, 9, 18, _____ 36

41 Emotional Intelligence
Salovey and Mayer Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences PLUS: Emotional Intelligence – superb social skills, manages conflicts well, and has great empathy for others

42 Intelligence Anomalies
Savant Syndrome –a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill, such as in computation or drawing; some people are functionally retarded in almost every aspect except for one very specific ability.

43 Creative Intelligence – Aha!
Andrew Wiles: Creativity is the ability to produce ideas that are both novel and valuable There are five components of a creatively intelligent person: Expertise Imaginative Thinking Skills A Venturesome Personality Intrinsic Motivation A Creative Environment

44 Intelligence and the Brain
Correlational studies have suggested that brain size and intelligence are positively correlated Brain analyses have suggested that more intelligent people have more neural connections

45 Assessing Intelligence
How is intelligence determined? Testing

46 Two Types of Intelligence Tests
Aptitude Test – a test designed to predict a person’s future performance; aptitude is the capacity to learn Achievement Test – a test designed to assess what a person has already learned

47 One Example of an Achievement Test is an IQ Test
Intelligence Test – a written method for assessing an individual’s mental aptitudes and comparing them with those of others, using numerical scores Student A got a 1300 SAT score, while Student B got a 900 SAT score. Student A is “more intelligent”.

48 The 1st widely utilized intelligence Test
Alfred Binet The 1st widely utilized intelligence Test 1904 Developed a test to identify French school children in need of alternative education 48

49 The Stanford-Binet IQ Test
1916 Louis Terman, Stanford University Felt that IQ was inherited and that tests would be a great way to classify children Adjusted the test for English speaking students and utilized a colleague’s formula to derive a person’s “IQ” or “Intelligence Quotient” 49

50 How do you determine IQ? Step 1
Mental Age – a measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet; the chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance. A child who does as well as the average 8-year-old is said to have a mental age of 8.

51 How do you determine IQ? Step 2
Intelligence Quotient (IQ) – defined originally as the ratio of mental age (ma) to the chronological age (ca), multiplied by (MA / CA) X 100 An 8-year old student that takes an IQ Test scores as well the average 10-year old. 10/8 = 1.25 X 100 = 125 IQ

52 IQ Scale Over 140 - Genius or near genius
Very superior intelligence Superior intelligence Normal or average intelligence Dullness Borderline deficiency Under 70 - Definite feeble-mindedness

53 About .01% score below 55 or higher than 145.
Normal Curve – the symmetrical bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes. Most scores fall near the average, and fewer and fewer scores lie near the extremes About .01% score below 55 or higher than 145.

54 Mental Retardation – a condition of limited mental ability, indicated by an intelligence score below 70 and difficultly in adapting to the demands of life

55 IQ Tests - RECAP Stanford-Binet – the first widely used written intelligence test Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)– today’s most widely used intelligence test; contains verbal and performance (nonverbal) subtests

56 What kinds of things may affect IQ?
Gender? Race? Wealth? Genetics/Heritability? Health Issues?

57 Twins raised separately have scores that are roughly 70% similar
Genetic Influences The intelligence scores of identical twins, raised together, are as similar as the scores of a single person taking the test twice Twins raised separately have scores that are roughly 70% similar

58 Genetic Influences A gene on chromosome #6 has been identified as potentially being the “IQ” gene. It has been found in 1/3 of children with very high intelligence scores. By inserting an extra gene related to memory into fertilized mouse eggs, researchers have produced smarter mice

59 Environmental Influences
J. McVicker Hunt’s studies concluded that severe disadvantages, such as malnutrition, sensory deprivation, and social isolation reduce intellectual abilities Head-Start type programs may help children prepare better for school, but not necessarily increase intelligence

60 Ethnic Similarities and Differences
IQ scores show much greater difference within racial groups than between them… High scoring people and groups are more likely to attain high levels of education and income.

61 Gender Similarities and Differences
Girls are: More verbally fluent Better spellers More sensitive to touch, taste, and odor More capable of remembering words and the locations of objects Higher scoring in math computation tests Better at detecting emotions Higher scoring on tests of recognition

62 Gender Similarities and Differences
Boys: Outnumber girls in special education classes Talk later Read later Score higher on math problem solving tests Score higher on tests of spatial ability Score higher on tests related to the sciences Are less emotionally sensitive

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