2 Does language indicate intelligence? Language isn’t only about communicationLanguage allows the accumulation and transmission of knowledge and culturethanks to language, we know things we have never personally experienced!
3 Languagespoken, written or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning
4 Do animals use language? Animals show intelligence, including communication, but is it language…?Some researchers say “no” – Washoe was only “aping” copying what she had seen earlier – or perhaps repeating behaviors that earned her an earlier reward.(operant conditioning)Some researchers say “Yes” - Washoe learned American Sign Language and could link words together to form meaning: “Water” “Bird” upon seeing a swan
6 Building Blocks of Language One of the strongest arguments against animal language, is that they fail to use proper syntax - rules we use to order the words in our sentences “you tickle” and “tickle you” mean two very different things but might be used interchangeably by ape-signers
7 More Building Blocks of Language Phonemes – the smallest distinctive sound unit (not letter) (/s/ /a/ /t/ = sat) ….changes in phonemes make different meanings (/f/ /a/ /t/ = fat)Morphemes – the smallest unit of language that carries meaning (a, me, pre-, -ed,)Unladylikeun- 'not'lady '(well behaved) female adult human'-like 'having the characteristics of'
8 How many phonemes (sounds) are in these words? HabitsthingThreepsychology538
9 How many morphemes in the following words? PeopleRedevelopmentSwimmingLanguageGrandmother132
10 How do we learn these building blocks? Nature vs NurtureRemember Skinner?Its Nurture – we are learn language through experience. Children imitate sounds that get rewarded and are thus repeated.
11 How do we learn these building blocks? Nature vs NurtureRemember Chomsky?Its Nature – we are born with a “language acquisition device” – we absorb new words an astounding pace and we are pre-wired to utilize grammatical building blocks (such as syntax)
12 Conclusion – language is a result of biology and experience combined Critical PeriodThe window for learning language is wide open in our early years (our grammar “switches” are flipped on) but after the age of 7, that window gradually closesConclusion – language is a result of biology and experience combined
14 1918 Army Intelligence Test Write your answers down to the following.No instructions will be given (that’s part of the test)Absolutely no talking (don’t worry, its pretty short)You get 9 seconds per question only….
15 What is “Intelligence”? Intelligence – mental quality consisting of the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations
16 gAfter finding that schoolchildren's grades across seemingly unrelated subjects were positively correlated, Charles Spearman proposed that these correlations reflected the influence of a dominant factor, which he termed g for "general" intelligence16
17 What is “Intelligence”? Is a talented artist who can’t do math “unintelligent”?Is a brilliant scientist who can’t follow a road map “unintelligent”?
18 Is intelligence one general ability, or several specific abilities? Different cultures deem “intelligent” as whatever attributes enable success in those culturesDifferent cultures deem “intelligent” as whatever attributes enable success in those culturesIs intelligence one general ability, or several specific abilities?
19 Theory of Multiple Intelligences Howard GardnerLinguisticLogical-MathematicalBody-KinestheticSpatialMusicalInterpersonalIntrapersonalNaturalistExistential
20 Linguistic – words and language A person's ability to construct and comprehend languageJournalists, poets, novelists, storyteller
21 Logical-Mathematical – numbers and logic ability to mentally process logical problems and equations, the type most often found on multiple choice standardized testsScientists, accountants, navigator, surveyor
22 Spatial – picturesOur ability to comprehend shapes and images in three dimensions.perceive and interpret that which we may or may not physically see (assemble puzzle, mold a sculpture, etc)Artists, cab drivers, architects, chess player
23 Musical – music The ability to perform and compose music Pianist, Composers, singers
24 Intrapersonal – self-awareness and reflection allows us to tap into our being - who we are, what feelings we have, and why we are this way.Self-help and motivational speakers, philosophers, therapists
25 Body-Kinesthetic - physical Each person possesses a certain control of his or her movements, balance, agility and grace.Athletes, dancers, craftsperson
26 Interpersonal – social skills ability to interact with others, understand them, and interpret their behaviorPoliticians, clergy, salesperson, teacher
27 Naturalistic – experience in the natural world People who are sensitive to changes in weather patterns, love the outdoors or are adept at distinguishing nuances between large numbers of similar objects may be expressing naturalist intelligence abilities.Rangers, Guides, Environmentalists, Zoologist
28 Existential Intelligence Individuals who exhibit the proclivity to pose (and ponder)questions about life death, and ultimate realitiesPhilosophers and Thinkers - Aristotle, Confucius, Einstein, Plato, Socrates
29 Triarchic Theory of Multiple Intelligences Robert Sternberg-Analytical-Creative-Practical
30 Analytical –tests, which present well-defined problems having single right answers; academic intelligence. Problem-solving strategies and their correct applications to real-life issues. Commonly referred to as “book smarts”.
31 Creative Intelligence – the ability to effectively deal with novel situations bydrawing on existing skills and knowledge.
32 Practical Intelligence the ability to adapt to the environment, reflecting was is commonly called “street smarts”.
33 Cluster Intelligence Louis Thurstone There are seven different primary mental abilities.The scores for each of the seven tests of intelligence is read separately in order to get a better understanding of strengths and weaknesses
34 Verbal comprehension (or Verbal Ability): Found in such things as verbal reasoning, reasoning by analogy, and reading comprehension.
35 Word fluency:Facility with words in special contexts, such as anagrams, rhyming, etc.
36 Arithmetic computation Number ability:Arithmetic computation
37 Spatial ability:The ability to mentally manipulate and visualize geometric relations; spatial and visual imagery.A
38 Associative memory:The ability to make random paired associations that require rote memory; memorizing skills.
39 Perceptual speed:Facility in finding or in recognizing particular items in a perceptual field.How good is your “insight”?
40 General reasoning ability (or Induction): Facility in finding rules or principles, such as in a number series.3, 6, 9, 18, _____36
41 Emotional Intelligence Salovey and MayerGardner’s Multiple Intelligences PLUS:Emotional Intelligence – superb social skills, manages conflicts well, and has great empathy for others
42 Intelligence Anomalies Savant Syndrome –a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill, such as in computation or drawing; some people are functionally retarded in almost every aspect except for one very specific ability.
43 Creative Intelligence – Aha! Andrew Wiles:Creativity is the ability to produce ideas that are both novel and valuableThere are five components of a creatively intelligent person:ExpertiseImaginative Thinking SkillsA Venturesome PersonalityIntrinsic MotivationA Creative Environment
44 Intelligence and the Brain Correlational studies have suggested that brain size and intelligence are positively correlatedBrain analyses have suggested that more intelligent people have more neural connections
45 Assessing Intelligence How is intelligence determined?Testing
46 Two Types of Intelligence Tests Aptitude Test – a test designed to predict a person’s future performance; aptitude is the capacity to learnAchievement Test – a test designed to assess what a person has already learned
47 One Example of an Achievement Test is an IQ Test Intelligence Test – a written method for assessing an individual’s mental aptitudes and comparing them with those of others, using numerical scoresStudent A got a 1300 SAT score, while Student B got a 900 SAT score. Student A is “more intelligent”.
48 The 1st widely utilized intelligence Test Alfred BinetThe 1st widely utilized intelligence Test1904Developed a test to identify French school children in need of alternative education48
49 The Stanford-Binet IQ Test 1916 Louis Terman, Stanford UniversityFelt that IQ was inherited and that tests would be a great way to classify childrenAdjusted the test for English speaking students and utilized a colleague’s formula to derive a person’s “IQ” or “Intelligence Quotient”49
50 How do you determine IQ? Step 1 Mental Age – a measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet; the chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance.A child who does as well as the average 8-year-old is said to have a mental age of 8.
51 How do you determine IQ? Step 2 Intelligence Quotient (IQ) – defined originally as the ratio of mental age (ma) to the chronological age (ca), multiplied by (MA / CA) X 100An 8-year old student that takes an IQ Test scores as well the average 10-year old.10/8 = 1.25 X 100 = 125 IQ
52 IQ Scale Over 140 - Genius or near genius Very superior intelligenceSuperior intelligenceNormal or average intelligenceDullnessBorderline deficiencyUnder 70 - Definite feeble-mindedness
53 About .01% score below 55 or higher than 145. Normal Curve – the symmetrical bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes. Most scores fall near the average, and fewer and fewer scores lie near the extremesAbout .01% score below 55 or higher than 145.
54 Mental Retardation– a condition of limited mental ability, indicated by an intelligence score below 70 and difficultly in adapting to the demands of life
55 IQ Tests - RECAPStanford-Binet – the first widely used written intelligence testWechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)– today’s most widely used intelligence test; contains verbal and performance (nonverbal) subtests
56 What kinds of things may affect IQ? Gender?Race?Wealth?Genetics/Heritability?Health Issues?
57 Twins raised separately have scores that are roughly 70% similar Genetic InfluencesThe intelligence scores of identical twins, raised together, are as similar as the scores of a single person taking the test twiceTwins raised separately have scores that are roughly 70% similar
58 Genetic InfluencesA gene on chromosome #6 has been identified as potentially being the “IQ” gene. It has been found in 1/3 of children with very high intelligence scores.By inserting an extra gene related to memory into fertilized mouse eggs, researchers have produced smarter mice
59 Environmental Influences J. McVicker Hunt’s studies concluded that severe disadvantages, such as malnutrition, sensory deprivation, and social isolation reduce intellectual abilitiesHead-Start type programs may help children prepare better for school, but not necessarily increase intelligence
60 Ethnic Similarities and Differences IQ scores show much greater difference within racial groups than between them…High scoring people and groups are more likely to attain high levels of education and income.
61 Gender Similarities and Differences Girls are:More verbally fluentBetter spellersMore sensitive to touch, taste, and odorMore capable of remembering words and the locations of objectsHigher scoring in math computation testsBetter at detecting emotionsHigher scoring on tests of recognition
62 Gender Similarities and Differences Boys:Outnumber girls in special education classesTalk laterRead laterScore higher on math problem solving testsScore higher on tests of spatial abilityScore higher on tests related to the sciencesAre less emotionally sensitive