Presentation on theme: "George Neil and Gwyn Williams JSA Science Council January 7, 2011 UV FEL Status and Plans * This work was supported by U.S. DOE Contract No. DE-AC05-84-ER40150,"— Presentation transcript:
George Neil and Gwyn Williams JSA Science Council January 7, 2011 UV FEL Status and Plans * This work was supported by U.S. DOE Contract No. DE-AC05-84-ER40150, the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, DOE Basic Energy Sciences, the Office of Naval Research, and the Joint Technology Office.
Slide 2 Existing JLab IR/UV Light Source E = 135 MeV present limit Up to135 pC 75 MHz 20 μJ/pulse in (250)–700 nm UV-VIS 120 μJ/pulse in 1-10 μm IR 1 μJ/pulse in THz The first high current ERL 14 kW average power Ultra-fast (150 fs) Ultra-bright
Initial UV FEL Specifications Specification from UV Demo proposal (May, 1995). Average Power> 1000 W. Wavelength range1–0.25 m. Micropulse energy~25 J. Pulse length ~0.1-1 ps FWHM nominal. PRF 74.85, , 18.7, 9.36, 4.68 MHz. Bandwidth ~ 0.2–1.5 %. Timing jitter < 1 ps. Amplitude jitter < 2 % p-p. Wavelength jitter0.02% RMS. Polarization linear, > 100:1. Transverse mode quality< 2x diffraction limit. Beam diameter at lab2 - 3 cm
Initial UV FEL Performance IR FELUV FEL 3 rd Harmonic UV FEL 5 th Harmonic Photon energy range of fundamental 0.1 – 1.4 eV, ( microns) 1 – 3.4 eV ( nm) eV ( nm) 5-17 eV ( nm) Photon energy per pulse 100 microJoules20 microJoules20 nanoJoules0.2 nanoJoules Repetition rate4.678 – MHz4.678 MHz4.68 MHz Photon Pulse length (FWHM) 100 fs – 2 ps Nominal pulse bandwidth 1%.2% Electron Beam Energy80 – 140 MeV Charge per electron bunch 135 picoCoulombs60 picoCoulombs Projected
IR Demo Harmonic Power Measurements Third harmonic power is down by about a factor of We get about 50 W at 372 nm so we expect about 50 mW of VUV light.
Projected harmonic performance - water cooled mirrors
Working in the UV is challenging Short wavelengths require higher electron beam energies; the higher the better. IR Upgrade was fine with 110 MeV; we are limited to 135 MeV at present The transverse emittance and energy spread needs to be lower by ~ 2X compared to the IR Upgrade. Achieve this by operating at ½ the IR Upgrade FEL charge/bunch. The vacuum requirement is high and must be achieved to maintain a stable output and avoid mirror degradation. Manufacturing mirrors with /10 figure in the UV is a challenge. Must also have metrology capable of verifying specs. Must mount without inducing aberrations. UV coatings are more lossy than those in the visible, although exact numbers are hard to pin down. They may be only a few 100 ppm We use mirrors with hole outcoupling to let the VUV out. FELs with high gain don’t like this; the mode tries to avoid the hole. A careful match is required for optimal performance
Estimates of FEL performance Both pulse propagation and one-dimensional spreadsheet models are first used to estimate the gain and power. Gain is (photon power out of wiggler)/(power going in) measured at low power before saturation effects enter the picture Efficiency is [1- (ebeam power exiting wiggler)/(ebeam power entering wiggler)] measured at saturation or equivalently (photon power out)/(ebeam power in) if mirror losses are small
400nm 3D simulation results from Genesis/OPC Assumes 0.3% energy spread. Small-signal net gain = 139% Electronic gain = 165% Efficiency = 0.704%
Cornell Undulator A Prototype
UV Demo Commissioning Timeline January Install and commission Cornell wiggler with new gap mechanism. Spring and Summer 2009 – Install beamline components except for optical cavity and wiggler chamber. Fall 2009 – CW beam through UV beamline. Spring 2010 – Install new zone 3 module and commission. June 2010 – Lase at 630 nm, 67 pC in IR laser with 135 MeV beam. July 2010 – Recirculate laser quality 1 mA CW beam through wiggler sized aperture. August 17, 2010 – First electron beam through wiggler. August 19, 2010 – First lasing, 150 W CW at 700 nm. August 31, 2010 – First lasing in UV, 140 nm, 68 nm December 9, 2010 – First measurement of 124 nm light
FEL performance at 700nm Gain at low power is ~100%, detuning curve is 12.5 µm in length
Images while lasing at 100W Light scattered from HR mirror Light scattered from power probe Power meter Time dependent diagnostics
FEL performance at 400nm We had to run with the OC mirror de-centered, as the metallization technique created a damage spot at the mirror center.
Characterization of 10eV photons Bob Legg had built a chamber for the SRC at Univ. Wisconsin that we adapted for our purposes: 10eV viewer Ce:YAG viewer VUV photodiode VUV Chamber Viewport Just measure diode photoelectric current. No filter required; only responsive to photons > 10 eV. Calibration is traceable to NIST.
Code Comparison with Experiment Besides the aforementioned spreadsheet and 1-D pulse propagation codes, we have 3D & 4D codes that better model the FEL interaction. These codes are: a code developed at NPS, as well as Genesis and Medusa. In conjunction with a resonator simulation code we can also model the effects of aberrations (from thermal absorption, off-axis tilts, etc) and the mode shape within or outside the optical cavity. This is the Optical Propagation Code (OPC). Performance of the UVFEL has greatly exceeded the predictions of simulations. ParameterSimulationsExperiment Turn-on time8.6 µsec. 5 µsec. Gain~100%~180% Detuning curve4.5 µm>7 µm Efficiency %0.8%
Very High Gain Seen at 400 nm
from the announcement: “ 5 nanoJoules of fully coherent light was measured in each 10eV micropulse, which represents approximately 0.1% of the energy in the fundamental, as expected. These numbers allow us to anticipate being able to deliver mW by operating CW at up to MHz with more optimized water-cooled optics, and several 100's of mW with cryogenically-cooled optics. Optics upgrades, and installation of an optical transport beamline to a user laboratory for full characterization, including bandwidth, are in progress. We note that for many applications the anticipated narrow bandwidth eliminates the need for a spectrometer. This allows substantially higher flux to be delivered to user experiments than is possible at storage rings. “
What happens next on the UV FEL? Present mirror is lossy and hole size is somewhat mismatched for proper outcoupling at these high gains. As a result we cannot lase stably at as high a power as may be possible even with water cooled mirrors. We are obtaining a better water cooled mirror set and will have ROC control. We are presently installing Optical Transport to Lab 1 and will test it in February We are returning UV wiggler to Cornell and adapting an APS Undulator A at the manufacturer (STI Optronics). A high power test in the IR for the ONR will follow in April and early May followed by a shutdown till mid July during which time the cooled mirrors and new undulator will be installed. We will recommission and perform User runs. (Gwyn’s talk) We also intend to install a new R100 cryomodule and get higher beam energy for shorter wavelength lasing. Perhaps in June if assembly /installation schedule permits. Lasing in fundamental down to 250 nm may be achievable depending on energy. If not June then October.