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Laurie Florence UL LLC laurie.b.florence@ul.com UN 38.3 Lithium Transport Tests and Large Cell/Battery Standards Comparison Laurie Florence UL LLC laurie.b.florence@ul.com.

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Presentation on theme: "Laurie Florence UL LLC laurie.b.florence@ul.com UN 38.3 Lithium Transport Tests and Large Cell/Battery Standards Comparison Laurie Florence UL LLC laurie.b.florence@ul.com."— Presentation transcript:

1 Laurie Florence UL LLC laurie.b.florence@ul.com
UN 38.3 Lithium Transport Tests and Large Cell/Battery Standards Comparison Laurie Florence UL LLC

2 UN T Tests Comparisons: General Info for Tables
UN Manual of Tests and Criteria, Section For dangerous goods classification of lithium metal and lithium ion cells and batteries IEC Safety requirements for large format secondary lithium cells and batteries for use in industrial applications IEC Secondary lithium-ion cells for the propulsion of electric road vehicles - Part 3: Safety requirements of cells and modules SAE J Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Propulsion Battery System Safety Standard - Lithium-based Rechargeable Cells UL Batteries for Use in Electric Vehicles ISO Electrically propelled road vehicles - Test specification for Lithium-ion traction battery packs and systems -- Part 3: Safety performance requirements RTCA DO Minimum Operational Performance Standards for rechargeable lithium battery systems to be used as permanently installed power sources on aircraft. RTCA DO-160 – Environmental Conditions and Test Procedures for Airbone equipments

3 Comparison of UN Battery Tests
IEC 62660 UL 2580 SAE J2929 RTCA DO-311 DO-160 ISO IEC Altitude Y Thermal Vibration Shock Sh. Circuit O-Charge

4 UN T Tests Comparisons: General Info for Tables
Results Key: NL – no leakage, NF – no fire, NC – no combustible mixtures, NV – no venting, NE – no explosion, ND – no disassembly (same as NE), NR – no rupture of case/enclosure, ≥ 100/V – minimum isolation resistance value, OCV ≤ 10% - change in open circuit voltage IEC and IEC are draft standards and may be subject to change before publication. Information represents current draft status.

5 UN T1 Test: Altitude Simulation
Standard Cl Test Name Device Tested Parameters Require-ments Comments UN 38.3 T.1 Altitude Simulation Cells or Batteries Fully charged 11.6 kPa or less for 6 hours NL, NV, ND,NR, NF, OCV ≤ 10% 10 fresh cells, 2 fresh bat & 2 cycled bat (25 cycl) UL 1642 19 Low Pressure (Altitude Simulation) Cells NL, NV, ND,NR, NF 5 fresh 5 cycled (new designs) RTCA DO-311 3.4.1 Steady state altitude Batteries Fully charged (according to manufacturer design), then discharged and charged during the test Temperature: ambiant 9,12 kPa (reached in 14 min) then maintained for 3 hours 2 times (6 hours in total) NL, NF, NV, ND, NR No OCV 1 sample There are other types of altitude tests in D0311 and D0160 not reported here

6 UN T 2 Test: Thermal Stan-dard CL Test Name Device Tested Parameters
Requirements Comments UN 38.3 T2 Thermal test Cells and Batteries 72 ± 2 °C for 12 h, -40  2C for 12 h 30 min interval between temps 10 cycles, 10 h at ambient NL, NV, ND,NR, NF, OCV ≤ 10% Same 100% SOC samples from T1 UL 1642 18 Temper-ature cycling Cells 70 ±3°C for 4 h, 20  3C for 2 h, -40 ±3°C for 4 h 9 temp cycles, 24 h at ambient NF, NE, NL, NR, NV 100%SOC, 5 fresh, 5 cycled samples IEC CD 6.2.2 Temper- ature Cycling -40C or Tmin for 1.5 h 85C or Tmax for 1.5 h Transition to 25C between extreme temps 1 h transition time between 25C and extreme temps 30 cycles from NF, NE 1 sample 100% SOC BEV 80% SOC HEV UL 2580 27 Thermal cycling Batteries 85  2C, -40  2C 15 min interval between temps 5 temp cycles, C/D cycle at end NV, NF, NE, NL, NR, ≥100/V. protectors functional 1 sample MOSOC Cells: 1642 SAE J2929 4.2.3 Thermal Shock Cycling UN T2 or 70 5C for ≥ 6 h, -40 5C for ≥ 6 h 15 min interval between temps NV, NF, NE, ≥100/V OCV ≤ 10%, No damage to HV conduct. ISO 7.2 Thermal cycling 60  2C for 6 h, -40  2C for 6 h 5 temp cycles NV, NF, NE, NL, NR, ≥100 /V. 1 sample 80% SOC RTCA DO-311 3.5 ature shock 85°C ± 2°C for 4.25 h ± 0.25 h; -55°C ±2°C h +/ h. 85°C ±2°C h +/ h. 5min interval between temps 3 temp cycles. C/D at end NL, NF, NV, ND, NR No OCV Min value insulation resistance 10M

7 UN T3 Test: Vibration Stan-dard CL Test Name Device Tested Parameters
Requirements Com-ments UN 38.3 T3 Vibration Cells and Batteries Sinusoidal Waveform , Log sweep 7 Hz  200 Hz 7 Hz in 15 min., 12 times, 3  directions: 7 18 Hz., peak accel of 1 gn, 0.8 mm amp maint. , 18 200 Hz, peak accel. of 2 gn NL, NV, ND,NR, NF, OCV ≤ 10% Same 100% SOC samples from T2 UL 1642 16 Vibration Cells Simple harmonic vibration, 0.8 mm amp. Frequency varied at 1 Hz/min, From 10 – 55 Hz within min. 3  direction NF, NE, NL, NR, NV 5 sample 100% SOC IEC 6.1.1 IEC random vibration, 8 h vibration for each plane of cell, rms accel. is 27.8 m/s2, 10 Hz to 2000 Hz frequency, PSD range is 20 – 0.14 (m/s2)2/Hz NF, NE 1 sample 100%SOC BEV, 80% SOC HV UL 2580 23 Vibration Endur-ance Batteries SAE J2380 Random vibration or Vehicle specific profile NV, NF, NE, NL, NR, ≥100/V. protectors functional 1 sample at MOSOC SAE J2929 4.2.2 UN T3; or SAE J2380 Random Vibration; or NV, NF, NE, ≥100/V OCV ≤ 10%, No damage to HV conduct. ISO 6.1 Random vibration of IEC and ISO or -2 with temperate variation; or Vehicle specific profile; or UNECE R100-02 NV, NF, NE, NL, NR, ≥100/V. 1 sample at 50$ SOC RTCA DO-311 3.1 Random vibration of D0-160 §8.5.2 10 to 2000Hz (specific power spectral density curve), 0.5gn scan before and after, 3  directions 1 hour duration each, NL, NF, NV, ND, NR No irregular V Min value insulation resistance 10M

8 UN T4 Test: Mechanical Shock
Stan-dard CL Test Name Device Tested Parameters Requirements Comments UN 38.3 T4 Shock Cells and Batteries Large cell and Batt: half-sine shock, peak accel. of 50 gn, pulse duration of 11 msecs 3 shocks in + and – direction, 3  direction for 18 total shocks NL, NV, ND,NR, NF, OCV ≤ 10% Same 100% SOC samples from T3 UL 1642 15 Shock Cells first 3 msec . 75 g ave. accel. gn peak accel. 3 shocks in 3  direction for 18 total shocks NL, NV, NE, NR, NF 5 sample fresh and 5 samples cycled 100% SOC IEC 6.1.2 Mech-anical Shock Half-sine, 500 m/sec2, accel., 6 ms duration, 10 shocks/direction, 6 spatial directions applied NE, NF 1 sample, 100% SOC BEV, 80% SOC HEV UL 2580 24 Batteries Half-sine, 25 gn peak accel., 15 ms pulse dur., 3 shocks in 3  directions for 18 total NV, NF, NE, NL, NR, ≥100/V. protectors functional 1 sample MOSOC SAE J2929 4.5 Mechan- ical Shock UN T4 shock test, or Half-sine, 25 gn peak accel., 15 ms pulse dur., 1 repetition in + and - directions of vehicle longit. and later. axes for total 4 separate shocks NV, NF, NE, ≥100/V OCV ≤ 10%, No damage to HV conduct. ISO 6.2 Mechan-ical shock NV, NF, NE, NL, NR, ≥100/V. 1 sample RTCA DO-311 3.3 Opera-tional shock and crash safety Saw tooth pulse, acceleration 6 and 20 gn, 11 ms pulse duration, 3 shocks in + and – direction, 3  direction No damage or leakage (NL, NF, NV, NE, ND, NR) Other constant acceleration tests are not reported here

9 UN T5 Test: External Short Circuit
Stan-dard CL Test Name Device Tested Parameters Require-ments Comments UN 38.3 T5,Exter-nal Short Circuit Cells & Batteries 55 ± 2 °C, ext. resist. 0.1 ohm, continue short until temp reaches 55C and 1 h elapse, 6 h observation NF, ND, case temp ≤ 170C Cells: 10 Batts: 2 cycle & 2 w/o cycle) 100% SOC UL 1642 10 Short Circuit Cells 55 ± 2 °C and 20  5C, Ext. resistance load of 80 ±20 m, apply short until cell at 0.2 V and case temp  10C from test ambient NF, NE 5 fresh & 5 cycle/ temp 100% SOC IEC 6.3.1 External short circuit Ext resistance of ≤ 5 m, ESC applied for 10 mins NE, NF 1 sample IEC 62619 8.2.1 Ext. resistance of 30+/-10 mΩ, 6 h or case temp declines by 20 % of max temp rise, 1 sample cell, 100% SOC UL 2580, 1973 14, Batteries Ext. resistance ≤ 20 m, single fault condition in discharge circuit, repeat at output 15% below protection operating current, 0 SOC and temps near ambient NC, NF, NE, NL, NR, NV ≥100/V 1 sample MOSOC SAE J2929 4.8 Electrical Short circuit UN T5; or SAE J2464 (External resistance of ≤5 m and <<DUT DC impedance within 1 min and hold for 60 min. 1 h observation).; or ISO , -2 (same as ISO ) NF, NE, NR, NC ISO Ext Resistance of 20 +0/-10 mΩ applied < 1 min and held for 10 min, 2 h observation NE, NF, NL, NR, ≥100 Ω/V, RTCA DO-311 2.3.11 Short Circuit Enabled Protection Ext Resistance 2mΩ, 1 hour, room temperature Observation within 3 hours after test termination NL, NF, NE, no fumes or smokes 1 sample fully charged

10 UN T6 Test: Impact/Crush
Stan-dard CL Test Name Device Tested Parameters Require-ments Comments UN 38.3 T6: Impact/ Crush Cells Impact test same as UL 1642 Crush test same as UL 1642 except crush stopped: 13 kN ± 0.78 kN reached; or ≥100 mV OCV drop; or ≥ 50% deformation from original Crush in 1 direction for all formats Crush rate 1.5 cm/s 6 h observation period ND, NF, cell case ≤ 170C 5 cells at 50% rated Capaciity Impact: applies to cycl. cells > 20 mm dia. Crush: applies to rest of cells UL 1642 14 Impact A 9.1 ±0.46-kg weight is dropped from a height of 610 ±25 mm onto a mm diameter steel bar laying across center cell, Prismatic impacted in 2 directions, other formats only impacted 1 direction NF, NE 100% SOC 5 fresh and 5 cycled cells 15 Crush Flat plate crush, Crush stopped when 13 ±1 kN reached, Crush all formats in one direction only 5 fresh and 5 cycled cells IEC 62619 6.2.2 Same as UL 1642 1 sample (2 for prismatic) IEC 6.1.3 Crushing mechanism 150 mm diameter: Bar: for cylindrical Sphere: for prismatic shaped 1 sample 100% SOC for BEV, 80% SOC for HEV RTCA DO-311 N/A Not applicable at cell level

11 UN T7 Test: Overcharge Stan-dard CL Test Name Device Tested Parameters
Require-ments Comments UN 38.3 T7: Overcharge Batteries (with protec-tion) CC max with supply volt: 2 x max charge voltage of battery or 22V 1.2 x max charge voltage of battery 24 h charge, 7 d observation NF, ND for 7 d 2 fresh sample and 2 cycled 25x, 100% SOC IEC DRAFT 6.3.2 Overcharge Cells Continue charging the cell beyond the 100 % SOC with 1 It for BEV application and 5 It for HEV.The voltage of cell reaches 120% of the maximum voltage, or the cell reaches 130 % SOC equivalent. NF, NE IEC 62619 9.2.2 Overcharge control of voltage Batteries charged at the maximum current of the recommended charger with voltage of supply set to exceed upper limit charging voltage by 10% for each cell in battery. NF, NE, BMU control auto dis. to prevent hazard 1 sample discharged 9.2.3 Overcharge control of current charged at a current exceeding the maximum charging current by 20%. NF, NE, BMU prevent Ich > Imax charge UL 2580, 1973 13 Charge at max rate with single fault condition in charging circuit, push charging to 110% max charge voltage. NE, NF, NR, NC, NV, NL ≥100/V 1 sample discharged SAE J2929 4.9 Single Point Overcharge Protection System Failure Charge at max rate, continue charging until the charge device voltage is reached or the connection interface disconnects battery from charge device, active charge control disabled during test NE, NF, NR, NC

12 UN T7 Test: Overcharge (continued)
Stan-dard CL Test Name Device Tested Parameters Require-ments Comments ISO 10.1 Overcharge protection Batteries Charge at 2C or 5C, power supply 20% above VCmax, continue charging until: Interrupt by auto disconnect, or 130% SOC reached or cell temps reach 55C disconnect active controls NE, NF, NL, NR, ≥100 Ω/V, Overcharge protection works 100% SOC 1 sample RTCA DO-311 2.3.18 Overcharge Protection Enabled Constant voltage, 1.5 maximum battery voltage, current 8 times nominal current, 1 hour maintain of power source + 3 hours of observation NL, NF, NE, no fumes or smokes 1 sample fully charged

13 UN T8 Test: Forced Discharge
Stan-dard CL Test Name Device Tested Parameters Require-ments Comments UN 38.3 T8: Forced discharge Cells discharge at 1 It A for a test period of 90min NF, ND 10 fresh cells 10 cycled cells 50X discharged IEC 62619 8.2.6 Forced discharge Same as UN 38.3 T8 NF, NE 1 sample, IEC discontinued when voltage of cell ≤ 25 % of nominal voltage specified by the mfg, or cell is discharged for 30 min. 1 sample discharged RTCA DO-311 N/A Not applicable at cell level


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