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UL and the UL logo are trademarks of UL LLC © 2013 UN 38.3 Lithium Transport Tests and Large Cell/Battery Standards Comparison Laurie Florence UL LLC

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Presentation on theme: "UL and the UL logo are trademarks of UL LLC © 2013 UN 38.3 Lithium Transport Tests and Large Cell/Battery Standards Comparison Laurie Florence UL LLC"— Presentation transcript:

1 UL and the UL logo are trademarks of UL LLC © 2013 UN 38.3 Lithium Transport Tests and Large Cell/Battery Standards Comparison Laurie Florence UL LLC

2 UN Manual of Tests and Criteria, Section For dangerous goods classification of lithium metal and lithium ion cells and batteries IEC Safety requirements for large format secondary lithium cells and batteries for use in industrial applications IEC Secondary lithium-ion cells for the propulsion of electric road vehicles - Part 3: Safety requirements of cells and modules SAE J Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Propulsion Battery System Safety Standard - Lithium- based Rechargeable Cells UL Batteries for Use in Electric Vehicles ISO Electrically propelled road vehicles - Test specification for Lithium-ion traction battery packs and systems -- Part 3: Safety performance requirements RTCA DO Minimum Operational Performance Standards for rechargeable lithium battery systems to be used as permanently installed power sources on aircraft. RTCA DO-160 – Environmental Conditions and Test Procedures for Airbone equipments 2 UN T Tests Comparisons: General Info for Tables

3 Comparison of UN Battery Tests UNIEC UL 2580 SAE J2929 RTCA DO-311 DO-160 ISO IEC AltitudeY ThermalYYYYY VibrationYYYYY ShockYYYYY Sh. CircuitYYYYY O-ChargeYYYYYY 3

4 UN T Tests Comparisons: General Info for Tables Results Key: NL – no leakage, NF – no fire, NC – no combustible mixtures, NV – no venting, NE – no explosion, ND – no disassembly (same as NE), NR – no rupture of case/enclosure, ≥ 100  /V – minimum isolation resistance value,  OCV ≤ 10% - change in open circuit voltage IEC and IEC are draft standards and may be subject to change before publication. Information represents current draft status. 4

5 UN T1 Test: Altitude Simulation StandardClTest NameDevice Tested ParametersRequire- ments Comments UN T.1 Altitude Simulation Cells or Batteries Fully charged 11.6 kPa or less for 6 hours NL, NV, ND,NR, NF,  OCV ≤ 10% 10 fresh cells, 2 fresh bat & 2 cycled bat (25 cycl) UL Low Pressure (Altitude Simulation) CellsFully charged 11.6 kPa or less for 6 hours NL, NV, ND,NR, NF 5 fresh 5 cycled (new designs) RTCA DO Steady state altitude BatteriesFully charged (according to manufacturer design), then discharged and charged during the test Temperature: ambiant 9,12 kPa (reached in 14 min) then maintained for 3 hours 2 times (6 hours in total) NL, NF, NV, ND, NR No  OCV 1 sample There are other types of altitude tests in D0311 and D0160 not reported here 5

6 UN T 2 Test: Thermal Stan- dard CLTest Name Device Tested ParametersRequirementsComments UN T2 Thermal test Cells and Batteries 72 ± 2 °C for 12 h, -40  2  C for 12 h 30 min interval between temps 10 cycles, 10 h at ambient NL, NV, ND,NR, NF,  OCV ≤ 10% Same 100% SOC samples from T1 UL Temper- ature cycling Cells 70 ±3°C for 4 h, 20  3  C for 2 h, -40 ±3°C for 4 h 30 min interval between temps 9 temp cycles, 24 h at ambient NF, NE, NL, NR, NV100%SOC, 5 fresh, 5 cycled samples IEC CD Temper- ature Cycling Cells -40  C or Tmin for 1.5 h 85  C or Tmax for 1.5 h Transition to 25  C between extreme temps 1 h transition time between 25  C and extreme temps 30 cycles from NF, NE1 sample 100% SOC BEV 80% SOC HEV UL Thermal cycling Batteries 85  2  C, -40  2C 15 min interval between temps 5 temp cycles, C/D cycle at end NV, NF, NE, NL, NR, ≥100  /V. protectors functional 1 sample MOSOC Cells: 1642 SAE J Thermal Shock Cycling BatteriesUN T2 or 70  5  C for ≥ 6 h, -40  5  C for ≥ 6 h 15 min interval between temps 5 temp cycles, C/D cycle at end NV, NF, NE, ≥100  /V  OCV ≤ 10%, No damage to HV conduct. 1 sample MOSOC ISO Thermal cycling Batteries 60  2  C for 6 h, -40  2C for 6 h 30 min interval between temps 5 temp cycles NV, NF, NE, NL, NR, ≥100  /V. 1 sample 80% SOC RTCA DO Temper- ature shock Batteries85°C ± 2°C for 4.25 h ± 0.25 h; -55°C ±2°C h +/ h. 85°C ±2°C h +/ h. 5min interval between temps 3 temp cycles. C/D at end NL, NF, NV, ND, NR No  OCV Min value insulation resistance 10M  1 sample 6

7 UN T3 Test: Vibration Stan- dard CLCL Test Name Device Tested ParametersRequirementsCom- ments UN T3 Vibration Cells and Batteries Sinusoidal Waveform, Log sweep 7 Hz  200 Hz  7 Hz in 15 min., 12 times, 3  directions: 7  18 Hz., peak accel of 1 gn, 0.8 mm amp maint., 18  200 Hz, peak accel. of 2 gn NL, NV, ND,NR, NF,  OCV ≤ 10% Same 100% SOC samples from T2 UL VibrationCellsSimple harmonic vibration, 0.8 mm amp. Frequency varied at 1 Hz/min, From 10 – 55 Hz within min. 3  direction NF, NE, NL, NR, NV5 sample 100% SOC IEC VibrationCellsIEC random vibration, 8 h vibration for each plane of cell, rms accel. is 27.8 m/s 2, 10 Hz to 2000 Hz frequency, PSD range is 20 – 0.14 (m/s 2 ) 2 /Hz NF, NE1 sample 100%SOC BEV, 80% SOC HV UL Vibration Endur- ance BatteriesSAE J2380 Random vibration or Vehicle specific profile NV, NF, NE, NL, NR, ≥100  /V. protectors functional 1 sample at MOSOC SAE J VibrationBatteriesUN T3; or SAE J2380 Random Vibration; or Vehicle specific profile NV, NF, NE, ≥100  /V  OCV ≤ 10%, No damage to HV conduct. 1 sample at MOSOC ISO VibrationBatteriesRandom vibration of IEC and ISO or -2 with temperate variation; or Vehicle specific profile; or UNECE R NV, NF, NE, NL, NR, ≥100  /V. 1 sample at 50$ SOC RTCA DO VibrationBatteriesRandom vibration of D0-160 § to 2000Hz (specific power spectral density curve), 0.5gn scan before and after, 3  directions 1 hour duration each, NL, NF, NV, ND, NR No irregular  V Min value insulation resistance 10M  1 sample 7

8 UN T4 Test: Mechanical Shock Stan- dard CLTest Name Device Tested ParametersRequirementsComments UN T4 Shock Cells and Batteries Large cell and Batt: half-sine shock, peak accel. of 50 gn, pulse duration of 11 msecs 3 shocks in + and – direction, 3  direction for 18 total shocks NL, NV, ND,NR, NF,  OCV ≤ 10% Same 100% SOC samples from T3 UL ShockCells first 3 msec.  75 g ave. accel gn peak accel. 3 shocks in 3  direction for 18 total shocks NL, NV, NE, NR, NF5 sample fresh and 5 samples cycled 100% SOC IEC Mech- anical Shock CellsHalf-sine, 500 m/sec2, accel., 6 ms duration, 10 shocks/direction, 6 spatial directions applied NE, NF1 sample, 100% SOC BEV, 80% SOC HEV UL ShockBatteriesHalf-sine, 25 gn peak accel., 15 ms pulse dur., 3 shocks in 3  directions for 18 total NV, NF, NE, NL, NR, ≥100  /V. protectors functional 1 sample MOSOC SAE J Mechan- ical Shock BatteriesUN T4 shock test, or Half-sine, 25 gn peak accel., 15 ms pulse dur., 1 repetition in + and - directions of vehicle longit. and later. axes for total 4 separate shocks NV, NF, NE, ≥100  /V  OCV ≤ 10%, No damage to HV conduct. 1 sample MOSOC ISO Mechan- ical shock BatteriesHalf-sine, 500 m/sec2, accel., 6 ms duration, 10 shocks/direction, 6 spatial directions applied NV, NF, NE, NL, NR, ≥100  /V. 1 sample RTCA DO Opera- tional shock and crash safety BatteriesSaw tooth pulse, acceleration 6 and 20 gn, 11 ms pulse duration, 3 shocks in + and – direction, 3  direction No damage or leakage (NL, NF, NV, NE, ND, NR) 1 sample Other constant acceleration tests are not reported here 8

9 UN T5 Test: External Short Circuit Stan- dard CLTest Name Device Tested ParametersRequire -ments Comments UN T5,Exter- nal Short Circuit Cells & Batteries 55 ± 2 °C, ext. resist. 0.1 ohm, continue short until temp reaches 55C and 1 h elapse, 6 h observation NF, ND, case temp ≤ 170  C Cells: 10 Batts: 2 cycle & 2 w/o cycle) 100% SOC UL Short Circuit Cells 55 ± 2 °C and 20  5  C, Ext. resistance load of 80 ±20 m , apply short until cell at 0.2 V and case temp  10  C from test ambient NF, NE5 fresh & 5 cycle/ temp 100% SOC IEC External short circuit Cells Ext resistance of ≤ 5 m , ESC applied for 10 mins NE, NF1 sample 100% SOC IEC External short circuit CellsExt. resistance of 30+/-10 mΩ, 6 h or case temp declines by 20 % of max temp rise, NE, NF1 sample cell, 100% SOC UL 2580, ,Short Circuit Batteries Ext. resistance ≤ 20 m , single fault condition in discharge circuit, repeat at output 15% below protection operating current, 0 SOC and temps near ambient NC, NF, NE, NL, NR, NV ≥100  /V 1 sample MOSOC SAE J Electrical Short circuit BatteriesUN T5; or SAE J2464 (External resistance of ≤5 m  and <

10 UN T6 Test: Impact/Crush Stan- dard CLTest Name Device Tested ParametersRequire- ments Comments UN T6: Impact/ Crush CellsImpact test same as UL 1642 Crush test same as UL 1642 except crush stopped: 13 kN ± 0.78 kN reached; or ≥100 mV OCV drop; or ≥ 50% deformation from original Crush in 1 direction for all formats Crush rate 1.5 cm/s 6 h observation period ND, NF, cell case ≤ 170  C 5 cells at 50% rated Capaciity Impact: applies to cycl. cells > 20 mm dia. Crush: applies to rest of cells UL ImpactCellsA 9.1 ±0.46-kg weight is dropped from a height of 610 ±25 mm onto a 15.8 mm diameter steel bar laying across center cell, Prismatic impacted in 2 directions, other formats only impacted 1 direction NF, NE100% SOC 5 fresh and 5 cycled cells UL CrushCellsFlat plate crush, Crush stopped when 13 ±1 kN reached, Crush all formats in one direction only NF, NE100% SOC 5 fresh and 5 cycled cells IEC ImpactCellsSame as UL 1642NF, NE1 sample (2 for prismatic) IEC CrushCellsCrushing mechanism 150 mm diameter: Bar: for cylindrical Sphere: for prismatic shaped NF, NE1 sample 100% SOC for BEV, 80% SOC for HEV RTCA DO- 311 N/ANot applicable at cell level 10

11 UN T7 Test: Overcharge Stan- dard CLTest Name Device Tested ParametersRequire- ments Comments UN T7: Overcharge Batteries (with protec- tion) CC max with supply volt: 2 x max charge voltage of battery or 22V 1.2 x max charge voltage of battery 24 h charge, 7 d observation NF, ND for 7 d 2 fresh sample and 2 cycled 25x, 100% SOC IEC DRAFT OverchargeCellsContinue charging the cell beyond the 100 % SOC with 1 It for BEV application and 5 It for HEV.The voltage of cell reaches 120% of the maximum voltage, or the cell reaches 130 % SOC equivalent. NF, NE IEC Overcharge control of voltage Batteriescharged at the maximum current of the recommended charger with voltage of supply set to exceed upper limit charging voltage by 10% for each cell in battery. NF, NE, BMU control auto dis. to prevent hazard 1 sample discharged IEC Overcharge control of current Batteriescharged at a current exceeding the maximum charging current by 20%. NF, NE, BMU prevent Ich > Imax charge 1 sample discharged UL 2580, OverchargeBatteriesCharge at max rate with single fault condition in charging circuit, push charging to 110% max charge voltage. NE, NF, NR, NC, NV, NL ≥100  /V 1 sample discharged SAE J Single Point Overcharge Protection System Failure BatteriesCharge at max rate, continue charging until the charge device voltage is reached or the connection interface disconnects battery from charge device, active charge control disabled during test NE, NF, NR, NC 1 sample discharged 11

12 UN T7 Test: Overcharge (continued) Stan- dard CLTest Name Device Tested ParametersRequire- ments Comments ISO Overcharge protection BatteriesCharge at 2C or 5C, power supply 20% above VCmax, continue charging until: Interrupt by auto disconnect, or 130% SOC reached or cell temps reach 55  C disconnect active controls NE, NF, NL, NR, ≥100 Ω/V, Overcharge protection works 100% SOC 1 sample RTCA DO Overcharge Protection Enabled BatteriesConstant voltage, 1.5 maximum battery voltage, current 8 times nominal current, 1 hour maintain of power source + 3 hours of observation NL, NF, NE, no fumes or smokes 1 sample fully charged 12

13 UN T8 Test: Forced Discharge Stan- dard CLTest Name Device Tested ParametersRequire- ments Comments UN T8: Forced discharge Cellsdischarge at 1 It A for a test period of 90minNF, ND10 fresh cells 10 cycled cells 50X discharged IEC Forced discharge CellsSame as UN 38.3 T8NF, NE1 sample, discharged IEC Forced discharge Cellsdiscontinued when voltage of cell ≤ 25 % of nominal voltage specified by the mfg, or cell is discharged for 30 min. NF, NE1 sample discharged RTCA DO-311 N/ANot applicable at cell level 13


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