Presentation on theme: "U.S. History Spring Semester FINAL EXAM. Key Terms Neutrality : decision not to take sides in a war Faction : party or group that is split because of."— Presentation transcript:
U.S. History Spring Semester FINAL EXAM
Key Terms Neutrality : decision not to take sides in a war Faction : party or group that is split because of differences National Debt : total amount of money that a government owes
Key Terms Suffrage: right to vote Frigate: ship that sails fast and has many guns
Key Terms Spoils System: practice of rewarding supporters with government jobs “To the victor belong the spoils.” Means that a new President can reward his supporters with jobs “Spoils” are earned benefits
Key Terms Kitchen cabinet: group of unofficial presidential advisers Cabinet: group of department leaders who serve the President
Key Terms Nullification: act of canceling a law Majority: number equal to more than 1/2 Caucus: private meeting during which powerful party members pick candidates
Key Terms Nominating Convention : meeting of delegates from all states to choose a party’s candidates Mudslinging : use of insults to attack an opponent’s reputation
Political Rallies New politics in the 1840s led to both parties competing for votes by holding rallies
Key Terms Depression: period of declining business profits and lost jobs National Debt: total amount of money that a government owes
Key Terms Amnesty Act: restored the vote to most white southerners. Amnesty: government pardon Poll Tax: fee paid to vote Right to Strike: victory won by organized factory workers
Key Terms Siege: attack in which enemy forces surround and try to capture a city or fort Refuge: place where one is safe from persecution Rendezvous: place where people meet
Key People Nativist : group that wanted laws to limit immigration Artisan : skilled worker Trade Union : organization of workers
Key Terms and People Freedman : former slave Black Code : law severely limiting rights of freedmen Segregation : legal separation of races
Key Terms and People Carpetbagger: term for northerner who went to the South after the Civil War Scalawag: term for a white southern Republican Sharecropper: person who rented and farmed a piece of land
Lewis and Clark Their expedition mapped the Louisiana Purchase and increased knowledge about plant and animal life in the West
John Adams President John Adams was a Federalist, elected in 1796 by Pro- British voters in the North
Thomas Jefferson He cut the federal budget to reduce the size and power of government. He also believed the violence of the French Revolution was justified.
Andrew Jackson He accused Henry Clay and John Quincy Adams of making a “corrupt bargain” when Clay persuaded House members to vote for Adams.
John Quincy Adams The supporters of John Quincy Adams were the Whigs.
American System Fails Henry Clay’s American System failed because Congress would not fund new roads, bridges and canals.
Andrew Jackson A new political party, the Democrats, attracted Andrew Jackson supporters.
Andrew Jackson President Jackson believed the Bank of the United States was unconstitutional because he thought that states should charter banks.
Oregon Territory The U.S. and Britain settled their dispute over Oregon by agreeing to divide the land.
Whiskey Rebellion The Whiskey Rebellion was a protest against taxes called by backcountry farmers.
Whiskey Rebellion Whiskey Rebellion resulted in people realizing that the new government would not tolerate violent protests.
Judicial Review Judicial Review: The Supreme Court rules that a new law violates the Constitution. Marbury v. Madison: established judicial review Judiciary Act: called for 1 chief Justice and 5 Associate Justices on the Supreme Court
Latin America Spanish colonies had to win independence through revolution. Creole: someone born in Latin America to Spanish parents
Monroe Doctrine President Monroe announced the Monroe Doctrine to protect Latin American republics from European attack.
Industrial Revolution Industrial Revolution depended on the development of the factory system
Industrial Revolution: Key Terms Capitalist: invests to make a profit Lowell girl: worked in mills; returned home to marry
Canal System Steamboats allowed farmers to ship goods more quickly and cheaply.
Canal System Canal investors worried that the railroad competition would cause them to lose money.
American Painters Before 1800, the central influence on American painters was the European painting tradition.
War of 1812 War Hawk: Member of Congress in favor of going to war Henry Clay agreed with Grundy that war would have its advantages.
War of 1812: Key Terms Nonintercourse Act: allowed trade with all EXCEPT Britain and France Pinckney Treaty: Allowed shipment of goods on the Mississippi
War of 1812 Key Terms Neutrality Proclamation: declared that the U.S. would not support either side in the war in Europe Jay’s Treaty: called for Britain to pay damages for seized American ships
Naval Escort Protects Trade Barbary pirates were hurt by a law requiring Yankee traders to be escorted through the Mediterranean Sea by Navy ships.
War of 1812 Battles Battle of Tippecanoe: celebrated as a major victory for settlers Battle of Lake Erie: resulted in victory despite poor preparation Battle of New Orleans: fought after the War of 1812 ended
War of 1812: Key Terms Treaty of Greenville: allowed Americans’ land claims in part of present-day Ohio Treaty of Ghent: Allowed restoration of pre-War of 1812 conditions
TEXAS Texans defeated Santa Anna and won independence at San Jacinto.
TEXAS Texas was admitted to the Union when Congress passed a joint resolution accepting the annexation treaty.
Popular Sovereignty EX: In 1849, California voters approved a state constitution banning slavery
Conflict Between States Southern states were dependent on the North because southern planters borrowed money from northern banks to buy farm tools.
Conflict Between States Fugitive: runaway person Martyr: sacrifices life for beliefs Border Ruffian: proslavery person who battled antislavery forces
Conflict Between States When Abraham Lincoln was elected in 1860, several southern states seceded in protest.
Civil War The Civil War began when Confederate troops attacked Fort Sumter, South Carolina.
Civil War Both the North and the South experienced inflation during the war Both had their economy disrupted
Civil War African Americans contributed to the war effort on the Union side. They fought in major battles.
Civil War Combat was deadly, but infection and disease were greater threats.
Civil War Battles Except for Gettysburg, most of the fighting was in the South Battle of Shiloh: bloodiest battle of war Battle of Fredericksburg: worst Union defeat Battle of Chancellorsville: Gen. Jackson’s last battle
Women in the Civil War Civil War nurses helped change employment for women by opening up new employment opportunities for them. Sally Tompkins served as a Confederate nurse
Abraham Lincoln U.S. President during the Civil War Was forgiving in his goals for a peaceful reconciliation of the country
Reconstruction During Reconstruction, corruption among state officials angered white southerners.
Reconstruction States limited the rights of free African Americans; they were not permitted to go to school Southern Conservatives resisted Reconstruction by resorting to violence against African Americans.
Reform Temperance groups viewed alcohol abuse as the most serious social problem of the 1800s.
Reform Temperance movement led to eight states passing “Maine Laws.”
Reform Thomas Galludet led reform for people with disabilities