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The History of Mental Illness in America: A Journey From Despair to Hope & Recovery Ms. Manzo.

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Presentation on theme: "The History of Mental Illness in America: A Journey From Despair to Hope & Recovery Ms. Manzo."— Presentation transcript:

1 The History of Mental Illness in America: A Journey From Despair to Hope & Recovery Ms. Manzo

2 Former First Lady Rosalynn Carter Former First Lady Rosalynn Carter “We have been given many gifts as a nation; we are rich beyond measure. We Americans think of ourselves as decent, generous, and compassionate people, & for the most part we are; yet we treat a large proportion of our own population as though they are second class citizens undeserving of our help, our resources, & our understanding.” “We have been given many gifts as a nation; we are rich beyond measure. We Americans think of ourselves as decent, generous, and compassionate people, & for the most part we are; yet we treat a large proportion of our own population as though they are second class citizens undeserving of our help, our resources, & our understanding.”2010

3 Colonial America Society believed insanity was caused by a full moon at the time of a baby’s birth Society believed insanity was caused by a full moon at the time of a baby’s birth These “lunatics”- (lunar) were thought to be possessed by the devil These “lunatics”- (lunar) were thought to be possessed by the devil Treatments: ice baths, bloodletting Treatments: ice baths, bloodletting

4 Colonial Treatment Barbaric Demon-possessed Senseless animals “It was believed that patients chose to behave irrationally, and doctors tried to help them adopt a more normal manner.”

5 Care????? Family Parish Church Those without family- – – placed in prisons- chained to walls, unclothed – – poorhouses

6 1770s First hospitals First hospitals 1773- Williamsburg, Virginia 1773- Williamsburg, Virginia Designed to keep those with mental illness away from society- not treat them. Designed to keep those with mental illness away from society- not treat them.

7 The Public Hospital, Va.

8 17 th -18 th Centuries

9 Dorothea Dix

10 Schoolteacher Discovered many people with mental illness were in jails. Crusaded for the establishment or enlargement of 32 mental hospitals, & transfer of those with mental illness from almshouses and jails.

11 1840 US Census US Census – Includes its 1 st question on “insanity”

12 Thomas Kirkbride Designer of Asylums

13 Athens Asylum for the Insane-1874 544 rooms- self-sufficient with dairy barns, greenhouses, transportation system, recreational activities But others soon went there for food & shelter Populations skyrocketed – patient care suffered. Now old ways returned…ice baths- shock machines…..

14 An Asylum For Every State

15 The Civil War Many servicemen- postwar trauma Many servicemen- postwar trauma State hospitals and asylums overcrowded State hospitals and asylums overcrowded Restraints, shock therapy, opium Restraints, shock therapy, opium

16 Soldier’s Heart- or “PTSD”

17 Post Civil War Asylums – now underfunded – overcrowded Asylums – now underfunded – overcrowded Quality of care deteriorates Quality of care deteriorates Newspapers expose inhumane conditions Newspapers expose inhumane conditions

18 1900- Clifford Beers

19 “A Mind That Found Itself” 1908- changed mental health care 1908- changed mental health care Beers’ autobiography –chronicles his struggle with mental illness and healthcare Beers’ autobiography –chronicles his struggle with mental illness and healthcare

20 Mental Health Screening Begins Ellis Island Ellis Island Dr. Thomas Salmon in 1905: “Justice to the immigrant requires a carefully considered diagnosis; while on the other hand, the interests of this country demand an unremitting search for the insane persons among the hundreds of thousands of immigrants who present themselves annually at our ports of entry.”

21 The National Committee For Mental Hygiene Founded in 1909- in NY by psychiatrists and Beers Founded in 1909- in NY by psychiatrists and Beers Goals Goals – To improve attitudes toward mental illness and those with mental illness – To improve services – To work for the prevention of mental illness & promote mental mental illness & promote mental health health

22 1930s- The Lobotomy Mental Health’s Darkest Hour Surgically separated the neural passages from the back of the brain Surgically separated the neural passages from the back of the brain Over 20,000 performed Over 20,000 performed Abuse and neglect soared Abuse and neglect soared

23 Asylums Renamed Mental Hospitals Psychiatric units opened in general hospitals Psychiatric units opened in general hospitals Treatments ineffective Treatments ineffective Hospitals provided humane custodial care at best Hospitals provided humane custodial care at best – At worst- neglect or abuse Great Depression=overcrowding……. Great Depression=overcrowding…….

24 1946- National Mental Health Act President Truman - National Mental Health Act Creates for the first time in US history a significant amount of funding for psychiatric education and research Led to the creation in 1949 of the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH).

25 1947-1951 1 st community based health treatment for patients in state institutions 1 st community based health treatment for patients in state institutions

26 1949- Lithium New hope New hope

27 1954 Antipsychotic drugs introduced Antipsychotic drugs introduced Thorazine- improves hallucinations and delusions Thorazine- improves hallucinations and delusions Other medications now become available Other medications now become available

28 1956 Congress allocates- $12 million for psychopharmacology Congress allocates- $12 million for psychopharmacology Number of consumers decline in mental institutions Number of consumers decline in mental institutions

29 1961- Action for Mental Health Report to Congress based on 5 years of research Report to Congress based on 5 years of research – Task- arrive at a national program to meet the needs of those with mental illness – Recommends improved research, training and treatment in the field of mental health. – Attempts to answer: “Why has care of the mentally ill lagged?” “Why has care of the mentally ill lagged?” “How can we catch up?” “How can we catch up?”

30 1960s Community health movement Community health movement – Outpatient services – More research – Less state mental hospitals – More general hospitals with psychiatric wings – More community health centers

31 1980s President Jimmy Carter President Jimmy Carter Mental Health Systems Act Mental Health Systems Act – Grant program – Involves consumer input – Offers education and support – Strengthens the links between Federal and state services Federal and state services

32 1981-1985 Carter’s work halted Carter’s work halted Mental Health Systems Act repealed Mental Health Systems Act repealed Funding drops Funding drops

33 Behavioral Health Managed Care 1988 1988 States now “carved out” mental care from physical care States now “carved out” mental care from physical care Purpose: increase efficiency Purpose: increase efficiency Results: led to erosion of health care Results: led to erosion of health care

34 1990s- The Decade of the Brain President George Bush designates the 1990s as the Decade of the Brain: "to enhance public awareness of the benefits to be derived from brain research" through "appropriate programs, ceremonies, and activities." President George Bush designates the 1990s as the Decade of the Brain: "to enhance public awareness of the benefits to be derived from brain research" through "appropriate programs, ceremonies, and activities."

35 1994 Behavioral Brain Imaging Behavioral Brain Imaging – Helps scientists learn more about the development of major mental illnesses.

36 1996 HIPPA-regulation of forms, privacy and security HIPPA-regulation of forms, privacy and security Significant impact on caregivers of those with mental illness Significant impact on caregivers of those with mental illness

37 1999- The Voice of the Supreme Court Olmstead v. LC Olmstead v. LC – It is a violation to keep a patient in a restricted setting when outpatient services are available

38 The Clinton Administration Bans the use of restraints in Bans the use of restraints in federally funded hospitals federally funded hospitals Report on co-occurring disorders ordered Report on co-occurring disorders ordered

39 The Bush Administration Increased funding for community health centers Increased funding for community health centers New Freedom Commission on Mental Health New Freedom Commission on Mental Health

40 The Obama Administration Mental health parity states that psychological conditions must be treated equivalently to physical illnesses. Mental health parity states that psychological conditions must be treated equivalently to physical illnesses.ental health parityental health parity

41 So why does the suffering continue?

42 Funding for research & services is scarce Funding for research & services is scarce Screening for childhood disorders does not exist in most schools Screening for childhood disorders does not exist in most schools Veterans are returning with few services Veterans are returning with few services Few jobs and places to live Few jobs and places to live

43 And…..STIGMA And…..STIGMA

44 But…… We have come so far… Mental Health is our last Civil Rights Movement…. Mental Health is our last Civil Rights Movement…. New advances in science are leading to better lives New advances in science are leading to better lives Recovery is possible. Recovery is possible.

45 The Value of Hope & Hard Work “Having some hope is crucial to recovery; none of us would strive if we believed it a futile effort.” Leete ‘89 “Having some hope is crucial to recovery; none of us would strive if we believed it a futile effort.” Leete ‘89

46 And America is changing because we are “saying what we need to say”!


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