Presentation on theme: "The History of Mental Illness in America: A Journey From Despair to Hope & Recovery Ms. Manzo."— Presentation transcript:
1 The History of Mental Illness in America: A Journey From Despair to Hope & Recovery Ms. Manzo
2 Former First Lady Rosalynn Carter “We have been given many gifts as a nation; we are rich beyond measure. We Americans think of ourselves as decent, generous, and compassionate people, & for the most part we are; yet we treat a large proportion of our own population as though they are second class citizens undeserving of our help, our resources, & our understanding.”2010
3 Colonial AmericaSociety believed insanity was caused by a full moon at the time of a baby’s birthThese “lunatics”- (lunar) were thought to be possessed by the devilTreatments: ice baths, bloodletting
4 Colonial Treatment Barbaric Demon-possessed Senseless animals “It was believed that patients chose to behave irrationally, and doctors tried to help them adopt a more normal manner.”
5 Care????? Family Parish Church Those without family- placed in prisons- chained to walls, unclothedpoorhouses
6 1770s First hospitals 1773- Williamsburg, Virginia Designed to keep those with mental illness away from society- not treat them.
7 The Public Hospital, Va.When it first opened, a “keeper,” or jailor with no medical training, ran the hospital. Patients were kept isolated, usually alone in a room or cell with just a mattress and shackles. Treatments included use of leeches (called “bloodletting,” a common medical practice) and use of a restraining chair prescribed by the visiting physician. The hospital had only eight beds. Patients stayed for a few weeks or sometimes months and then were released back to their families, depending upon when the doctor and board of directors determined they were ready to return to society. “The idea was that they could be cured, that [their condition] wasn’t a lifetime illness,” says Gilliam. At the time, it was believed that patients chose to behave irrationally, and doctors tried to help them adopt a more normal manner.
10 Dorothea Dix Schoolteacher Discovered many people with mental illness were in jails.Crusaded for the establishment or enlargement of 32 mental hospitals, & transfer of those with mental illness from almshouses and jails.14 men freezing- no clothing- asked warden and found out they had a mental illness
11 1840US CensusIncludes its 1stquestion on “insanity”
12 Thomas Kirkbride Designer of Asylums Dix and Horace Mann – believed that mental illness could be treated by removing the person to an asylum to receive a mix of somatic and psychosocial treatments in a controlled environment.
13 Athens Asylum for the Insane-1874 Restraints returned when patient population grew from 200 to 1800Limited staffingCommunity realized these institutions were a great place for unwanted people in the community544 rooms- self-sufficient with dairy barns, greenhouses, transportation system, recreational activitiesBut others soon went there for food & shelterPopulations skyrocketed – patient care suffered.Now old ways returned…ice baths- shock machines…..
14 An Asylum For Every State Buffalo, New York1871
15 The Civil War Many servicemen- postwar trauma State hospitals and asylums overcrowdedRestraints, shock therapy, opium
17 Post Civil War Asylums – now underfunded – overcrowded Quality of care deterioratesNewspapers expose inhumane conditions
18 1900- Clifford Beers Yale graduate Young Businessman- suffers acute breakdown brought on by the illness & death of his brotherHospitalized in a private Connecticut mental institution after suicide attemptHis attendants- untrained, incompetent- suffer mental & physical abusesWrites his autobiography- A Mind That Found Itself- which changed the way people viewed those with mental illness
19 “A Mind That Found Itself” 1908- changed mental health careBeers’ autobiography –chronicles his struggle with mental illness and healthcare
20 Mental Health Screening Begins Ellis IslandDr. Thomas Salmon in 1905: “Justice to the immigrant requires a carefully considered diagnosis; while on the other hand, the interests of this country demand an unremitting search for the insane persons among the hundreds of thousands of immigrants who present themselves annually at our ports of entry.”
21 The National Committee For Mental Hygiene Founded in in NY by psychiatrists and BeersGoalsTo improve attitudes toward mental illness and those with mental illnessTo improve servicesTo work for the prevention ofmental illness & promote mentalhealth
22 1930s- The Lobotomy Mental Health’s Darkest Hour Surgically separated the neural passages from the back of the brainOver 20,000 performedAbuse and neglect soared
23 Asylums Renamed Mental Hospitals Psychiatric units opened in general hospitalsTreatments ineffectiveHospitals provided humane custodial care at bestAt worst- neglect or abuseGreat Depression=overcrowding…….
24 1946- National Mental Health Act President Truman - National Mental Health ActCreates for the first time in US history a significant amount of funding for psychiatric education and researchLed to the creation in 1949 of the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH).
25 1st community based health treatment for patients in state institutions
27 1954 Antipsychotic drugs introduced Thorazine- improves hallucinations and delusionsOther medications now become available
28 1956 Congress allocates- $12 million for psychopharmacology Number of consumers decline in mental institutions
29 1961- Action for Mental Health Report to Congress based on 5 years of researchTask- arrive at a national program to meet the needs of those with mental illnessRecommends improved research, training and treatment in the field of mental health.Attempts to answer:“Why has care of the mentally ill lagged?”“How can we catch up?”
30 1960s Community health movement Outpatient services More research Less state mental hospitalsMore general hospitals with psychiatric wingsMore community health centers
31 1980s President Jimmy Carter Mental Health Systems Act Grant program Involves consumer inputOffers education and supportStrengthens the links betweenFederal and state services
32 1981-1985 Carter’s work halted Mental Health Systems Act repealed Funding drops
33 Behavioral Health Managed Care 1988States now “carved out” mental care from physical carePurpose: increase efficiencyResults: led to erosion of health care
34 1990s- The Decade of the Brain President George Bush designates the 1990s as the Decade of the Brain: "to enhance public awareness of the benefits to be derived from brain research" through "appropriate programs, ceremonies, and activities."
35 1994 Behavioral Brain Imaging Helps scientists learn more about the development of major mental illnesses.
36 1996 HIPPA-regulation of forms, privacy and security Significant impact on caregivers of those with mental illness
37 1999- The Voice of the Supreme Court Olmstead v. LCIt is a violation to keep a patient in a restricted setting when outpatient services are available
38 The Clinton Administration Bans the use of restraints infederally funded hospitalsReport on co-occurring disorders orderedBetween 1995 and 2001, the proportion of substance abuse treatment admissions with co-occurring substance abuse and psychiatric disorders increased from 12 to 16 percentIn 2001, admissions with co-occurring disorders were more likely to report alcohol as a primary substance of abuse (45 vs. 38 percent) compared with all other admissionsFemales constituted a larger proportion of admissions with co-occurring disorders (44 percent) than of all other admissions (30 percent)
39 The Bush Administration Increased funding for community health centersNew Freedom Commission on Mental Health
40 The Obama Administration Mental health parity states that psychological conditions must be treated equivalently to physical illnesses.