Presentation on theme: "US Presidents Created by Mr. Steve Hauprich for acceleration and remediation of US History students."— Presentation transcript:
1US PresidentsCreated by Mr. Steve Hauprich for acceleration and remediation of US History students
2George Washington…was a heroic model for future US Presidents…a very highstandard…many just don’t measure up
3Washington’s Accomplishments Led the USA to Independence Led the Constitutional ConventionImportant precedents as 1st Presidentnon-alliance / neutrality foreign policyeffectively suppressed the Whiskey Rebellionnegotiated treaty w/ Spain for access to New Orleansbrilliant 1st Cabinet w/ Hamilton and Jeffersoneffective US financial planserved only two terms and retired
4Correct Answer Number: 1 The speakers below are discussing foreign policies that the United States has followed at various times. Base your answers on their statements and on your knowledge of social studies. Speaker A: Steer clear of permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world. Speaker B: The United States will give economic aid to needy countries anywhere in the world, but will not provide military aid. Speaker C: The United States must prevent the growth of communism. Speaker D: The United States can take over other countries to help them become more like us. Which speaker states a policy most similar to the foreign policy advice given by President George Washington in his Farewell Address?1) A2) B3) C4) DCorrect Answer Number: 1Explanation: In his farewell address George Washington warned the fledgling America to stay clear of “entangling alliances” with the Europeans, but to continue economic ties with the continent. He also sent warnings about the dangers of political parties and the factions they could create, dividing the American people
5Thomas Jeffersonfit the heroic modelof US President……although not amilitary hero……authoring thepolitical theory ofThe Declaration ofIndependence…exalted hisreputation.
6Jefferson’s Accomplishments Declaration of Independence and Ambassador to France1st US Secretary of Stateunder George WashingtonSignificant Actions as 3rd US Presidentpeaceful transition to power after election of 1800does not renew Adams’ controversial Sedition ActLouisiana Purchase Treaty … “Loose Construction”Lewis & Clark Expedition = scientific discoveryUS War with Barbary PiratesUS Neutrality w/ Britain & France…Embargo Act
7The legal basis for the United States purchase of the Louisiana Territory was the power granted to the President to make treatiesPresident’s power as Commander in Chiefauthority of Congress to declare warSenate’s duty to approve the appointment of ambassadorsCorrect Answer Number: 1Explanation: Thomas Jefferson used the presidential power of treaty making to make the Louisiana Purchase from France. This action was considered a loose interpretation of the Constitution, which does not provide for the presidential acquisition of territory. While Jefferson was ideologically for a strict interpretation of the Constitution, the excellent opportunity offered by the Louisiana Purchase was too good to pass up.
8Andrew Jacksonfit the heroic modelof US President……Old Hickory wasa military hero……leading the USAallied forces tovictory over theBritish in the War of 1812’sBattle of New Orleans
9Jackson’s accomplishments General Jackson is the Hero of the Battle of New OrleansBattle of Horseshoe BendSignificant Actions as 7th Presidentinitiates Spoils System…era of the Common ManVeto of the 2nd Bank of the United Statessuppresses South Carolina’s nullification of tariffsallows Indian Removal…in spite of Supreme Courtretires after two terms…Washington tradition
10At times, the United States Government has passed protective tariffs to encourage foreign tradehelp the nation’s manufacturersreduce the cost of consumer goodsimprove the quality of goodsCorrect Answer Number: 2Explanation: Tariffs are taxes placed upon goods being imported into a nation. The imported goods then have a higher total price (after the tax) then similar goods manufactured within the nation itself. This protects the domestic manufactures from having to compete with lower priced, foreign made products. This concept has been applied many time in US history (it was part of Hamilton’s economic plan; the Tariff of 1828 was highly unpopular; tariffs were also applied in the 1920’s and are seen as a contributing factor in the great depression.) President Jacksonthreatened South Carolina for their attempt to nullify US tariff laws.
11Abraham Lincoln did not fit the heroic model… was best known …the Rail Splitterwas best knownas a Trial Lawyer……he was hailed asHonest Abe……believer in Banks,Tariffs, Railroads,and Free Labor.
12Lincoln’s Accomplishments Congressman Lincoln (one term / 2 years) US Senate Candidate (lost the election 1858)great campaign speech…”A House Divided”1st Republican Elected US Presidentwon in the North…not on ballots in the SouthSignificant Actions as 16th US Presidentgreat 1st Inaugural Address…keeps 4 Border Statessuccessful strategy for Preserving the Unionexecutive order Emancipation ProclamationGettysburg Address…speech defines the Civil Wargreat 2nd Inaugural Address…forgives 11 rebel statesopposes plans by Congress to punish the South
13Which argument did President Abraham Lincoln use against the secession of the Southern States? Slavery was not profitableThe government was a union of people and not of states.The Southern States did not permit their people to vote on secession.As the Commander in Chief, he had the duty to defend the United States against foreign invasion.Correct Answer Number: 2Explanation: Prior to the outbreak of the Civil War in 1861, Lincoln tried many persuasive arguments to preserve the Union. He contended that; “in view of the Constitution and the law, the union is unbroken”. Despite his efforts seven states had seceded by his inauguration in March 1861, and after the firing on Fort Sumter the Civil War was in progress.
14life and leading the USA to Victory. TheodoreRoosevelt fitthe heroic model……Colonel T.R.best known asbrave leader ofthe Rough Riders……risking hislife and leading the USA toVictory.
15T. Roosevelt’s Accomplishments NY City / NY State …Police Commissioner,Governor… Adirondack ParkUS Government…Asst. Secretary Navy,Colonel Rough Riders, Vice PresidentSignificant Actions as 26th US PresidentTrust Busting…breaks up Northern Securities Co.Conservation…protects national parklandsConsumer Protection…Meat Inspection Act, FDALabor Negotiations…helps Coal MinersForeign Policy…Panama Canal, Great White Fleet,Roosevelt Corollary
16Which statement best describes President Theodore Roosevelt’s foreign policy position toward Latin America in the early 1900’s?The United States should reduce its involvement in Latin AmericanaffairsThe Monroe Doctrine permits the United States to intervene actively inthe affairs of Latin American nations.Latin American nations should form an organization to help themachieve political and economic stability.The United States should give large amounts of financial aid to help thepoor of Latin America.Correct Answer Number: 2Explanation: The Roosevelt’ Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine (1904) further establishes the United State’s ability to intervene in the affairs of Latin American nations. He stated that the Monroe Doctrine (1823) required the US to act as “an international police power”. This was used to justify US actions in Cuba, Panama and other Latin American locales.
17A main purpose of President Theodore Roosevelt’s trust busting policies was to reduce corruption in governmentsave the nation’s banksencourage competition in businessend strikes by labor unionsCorrect Answer Number: 3Explanation: Theodore Roosevelt quickly gained a reputation as a “trustbuster” when he began to call for the break up of many monopolistic companies. In 1901 Roosevelt’s Justice Department brought a case against the Northern Securities Company (a railroad holding company) and won the breakup of the company. Another example came in 1905 against the so called “beef trust” in the Swift & Co. v. United States, when the group of meatpackers was found to be in violation of the 1890 Sherman Antitrust law.
18"In short, our aim should be, not to destroy, but effectively ... to regulate and control,in the public interest, the great instrumentalities [corporations] of modern business " -Theodore Roosevelt,1913__1. During the early 20th century, a supporter of this statement would most likely have favored1) a hands-off policy toward big business 2) a return to an agrarian economy 3) laws prohibiting unfair business practices 4) tax incentives for business mergers and consolidations
19__2. Which statement best summarizes President Theodore Roosevelt’s views about conservation? (1) Environmental issues are best decided by the private sector. (2) Unlimited access to natural resources is the key to business growth. (3) Wilderness areas and their resources should be protected for the public good. (4) Decisions about the use of natural resources should be left to the states.
20__3. Which world region was the focus of the foreign policy "Chronic wrongdoing may ultimately require intervention by some civilized nation, and adherence ... to the Monroe Doctrine may force the United States . , . to the exercise of an international police power - Theodore Roosevelt,1904__3. Which world region was the focus of the foreign policyexpressed in this statement?1) Middle East 3) Soviet Union 2) Southeast Asia 4) Latin America__4. This statement helped provide justification for President Theodore Roosevelt's use of the1) policy of Dollar Diplomacy 2) Big Stick policy 3) conservation policy 4) Peace Corps
21__5. The chief reason the United States built the Panama Canal was to (1) close the Western Hemisphere to new European colonization (2) reduce travel time for commercial and military shipping (3) promote an isolationist foreign policy (4) prevent the spread of communism__6. The main reason President Theodore Roosevelt supporteda Panamanian rebellion against Colombia in 1903 was to1) increase the number of democratic nations in Latin America 2) gain the right to complete a canal linking the Atlantic andPacific Oceans 3) reduce European colonialism in the Western Hemisphere 4) prevent a foreign power from seizing land in Central America
25__7. As a result of the establishment of the Monroe Doctrine (1823), the United States was able to 1 acquire parts of South America as land for settlement 2 expand its influence in the Western Hemisphere 3 increase its trade with Asia 4 form military alliances with European nations“. . . the American continents, by the free and independent condition which they have assumed and maintain, are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European powers ” - President James Monroe, __8. Which President later built on the idea expressed in this quotation?(1) Abraham Lincoln (3) Harry Truman (2) Theodore Roosevelt (4) Richard Nixon
30__9. An important result of the Spanish-American War of 1898 was that the United Statesacquired Germany(2) became a world power with an overseas empire(3) improved its relations with(4) lost interest in Latin American affairs territories in Africa__10. The main purpose of the Open Door policy, announcedby the United States in 1899, was to1 encourage the introduction of modern government into China 2 establish United States domination of Asian affairs 3 increase United States trade with China 4 provide China with military weapons
31WoodrowWilson…did he fit theHeroic model?…a collegePresident…and a StateGovernor…
32Wilson’ s accomplishments President of Princeton University, N.J. Governor of New JerseySignificant Actions as 28th PresidentProgressive economic reforms including:Federal Reserve System, Income Tax,Tariff Reductions, Child Labor Laws,Federal Trade Commission (FTC) to enforceAnti-trust LawsSuccessfully led USA to victory in WWI…idealism“make the world safe for democracy”Unable to gain Senate approval of Versailles Treaty…due to concerns about the League of Nations
33__11. A graduated (progressive) income tax is based on the idea that tax rates should 1) be the same for all individuals and businesses 2) be adjusted to achieve a balanced Federal budget 3) rise as individual or business incomes rise 4) increase more rapidly for business profits than for personal incomes
34__13. The Clayton Antitrust Act was passed to __12. The Federal Reserve System was created to(1) maintain a national petroleum supply (2) provide military support for the armed forces (3) protect consumers from fraud (4) manage the nation’s supply of currency and interest rates__13. The Clayton Antitrust Act was passed to(1) restore business competition (2) end stock market speculation (3) prosecute corrupt labor unions (4) break up city political party machines
35__14. President Woodrow Wilson’s statement “The world must be made safe for democracy” was made to justify his decision toend United States imperialism in Latin America(2) support tariff reform (3) send troops into Mexico to capture Pancho Villa (4) ask Congress to declare war against Germany__15. President Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Pointswere based on the belief that(1) military strength is a nation’s best path to world peace (2) isolationism should guide international relations (3) the principle of self-determination should be applied to people of all nations (4) industrial nations should have equal access to colonial possessions
36__16. The Espionage Act (1917) and the Sedition Act (1918) were used by President Woodrow Wilson's administration during World War I to1) discourage congressional support for the war effort 2) place German Americans in internment camps 3) remove Communists from government positions 4) silence critics of the war effort
37__18. Why did the Senate reject the Versailles Treaty (1919)? __17. One goal for a lasting peace that President Woodrow Wilson included in his Fourteen Points was(1) establishing a League of Nations (2) maintaining a permanent military force in Europe (3) returning the United States to a policy of isolationism (4) blaming Germany for causing World War I__18. Why did the Senate reject the Versailles Treaty (1919)?(1) to keep the United States free from foreign entanglements (2) to express opposition to the harsh sanctions imposed on Germany (3) to avoid the dues for membership in the League of Nations (4) to reduce United States military forces in Europe
38earned him credibility. Franklin Rooseveltdid not fit theheroic model……he was best knownas the losing candidatefor Vice President in 1920…his leadership asNY York Governor inthe early years of theGreat Depression…earned him credibility.
39F.D.R.’ s Accomplishments Assistant Secretary of the Navy WWI NY State Governor …little “New Deal”Significant Actions as 32nd President1st Days…16 New Deal programs/actionsEconomic Reforms…NLRB, Social Security,FDIC, SEC, FHA, TVA, etc…Good Neighbor foreign policy w/ Latin AmericaWW II …successful strategy to defeat Axis PowersManhattan Project produces A-BombAtlantic Charter…United Nations…idealism
40__20. The creation of the Tennessee Valley Authority __19. The New Deal tried to solve many problems of the Great Depression by(1) providing federal aid to many sectors of the economy (2) reducing taxes on big business to stimulate job creation (3) lowering federal spending to maintain a balanced budget (4) decreasing foreign competition by raising tariffs__20. The creation of the Tennessee Valley Authorityis an example of(1) federal intervention to meet regional needs (2) state-funded regional transportation (3) free-market capitalism (4) laissez-faire economics
41Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) was to __21. A major goal of the Government in creating the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) and theFederal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) was to1) increase the government's tax revenue 2) provide jobs for the unemployed 3) restore the public's faith in financial institutions 4) stimulate economic growth
42__22. Which statement best illustrates a basic idea of President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New Deal?(1) Communism provides the only real solution to economic problems. (2) Unemployed workers should rely on the states rather than on the federal government for help. (3) The United States reached its economic peak in the 1920s and is now a declining industrial power. (4) The economy sometimes needs public money to encourage business activity.__23. President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s response to Supreme Court decisions that declared several New Deal laws unconstitutional was to(1) ask Congress to limit the Court’s jurisdiction (2) propose legislation to increase the size of the court (3) demand the resignation of several justices (4) ignore the Court’s rulings
43__24. In 1933, President Franklin D __24. In 1933, President Franklin D. Roosevelt announced the Good Neighbor policy primarily to1) increase immigration from Latin America 2) grant diplomatic recognition to the Soviet Union 3) promote free trade with the nations of Europe 4) improve relations with Latin American nations
44__25. A primary objective of United States foreign policy during the 1930s was to(1) avoid involvement in Asian and European conflicts (2) protect business interests in Africa through direct intervention (3) strengthen international peacekeeping organizations (4) acquire overseas land as colonies__26. During World War II, many Japanese Americans living on the West Coast were relocated to detention centersprimarily because they(1) were known spies for Japan (2) were seen as a security threat (3) refused to serve in the United States military (4) expressed their support for Italy and Germany
45__27. President Franklin D __27. President Franklin D. Roosevelt's election to an unprecedented third term was most strongly influenced by1) his policy on immigration 2) his popularity among business executives 3) the beginning of the Great Depression 4) the advent of World War II in Europe__28. In 1944, Franklin D. Roosevelt was elected to a fourth term as President. Which action was taken to prevent future Presidents from breaking the two-term tradition?1) Both major political parties agreed to nominate a new candidate for President after an incumbent's second term. 2) A constitutional amendment was adopted, placing term limits on the Presidency. 3) The Supreme Court ruled that a President could serve for only eight years. 4) An unwritten agreement was made by Presidential candidates that they would serve for no more than two terms.
46Harry Trumanbecame President afterFDR died inoffice in…he had servedin the US ArmedForces in WWI…and had served the USAin the Houseand Senate.
47Truman’ s Accomplishments Significant Actions as 33rd President Defeated Japan in WWII using Atomic WeaponsMarshall Plan to help Western Europe rebuildBerlin Airlift to keep West Berlin free from USSRTruman Doctrine to help Greece & Turkey rebuildKorean War against Communist Aggression in AsiaIntegrated US Armed forces in Korean WarVetoed Taft-Hartley Act to limit labor unions…but was overridden by CongressUnable to prevent 2nd Red Scare…McCarthyism
48__29. A reason that President Harry Truman decided to use atomic weapons against Japan was to 1) end the war while limiting the loss of American lives 2) punish the Japanese people by destroying their country 3) increase Japan's potential as a future aggressor 4) divert forces to fight Germany
49__31. President Harry Truman supported a containment policy __30. After World War II, the Marshall Plan was proposed as a way to(1) improve diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union (2) help European nations recover economically (3) remove nuclear weapons from Western Europe (4) bring Nazi war criminals to justice__31. President Harry Truman supported a containment policyafter World War II in an attempt to(1) limit the use of atomic bombs and other nuclear weapons (2) end colonialism in Africa and Asia (3) bring German and Japanese war criminals to justice (4) reduce the influence of the Soviet Union in Europeancountries__32. Which action occurred for the first time in the early 1950sduring the Korean War?(1) United States and Soviet troops fought on the same side. (2) The United Nations used military force against anaggressor nation (3) A president was impeached for abusing his power ascommander in chief. (4) United States troops fought in Asia.
50or agency of the Executive Branch of the Federal Government.“ "There shall be a loyalty investigation of every person entering the civilian employment of any departmentor agency of the Executive Branch of the Federal Government.“- The Truman Loyalty Order, March 22, 1947__33. President Harry Truman issued this Executive order in response to the1) fear of Communist Party influence in government 2) election of Socialist Party representatives to Congress 3) discovery of spies in defense industries 4) arrest and trial of high-ranking government employees for terrorism
51__34. One way in which the Red Scare of the 1920's and McCarthyism of the 1950's were similar is that both(1) jeopardized the rights of individuals suspected of un-American activity (2) occurred during times of economic depression (3) addressed the issue of increased government bureaucracy after a world war (4) led to the imprisonment of ethnic minorities during wartime__35. President Harry Truman advanced the cause of civil rightsfor African Americans by1) ordering the desegregation of the Armed Forces 2) appointing the first African American to the Supreme Court 3) supporting the ratification of the 14th and 15th amendments 4) establishing affirmative action policies for industry
52Dwight Eisenhower was one of America’s greatest Army Generals during WWII……hisleadershipduringthe 1950’swould bemarked bygrowingCold WarFEARs
53Eisenhower’ s Accomplishments Significant Actions as 34th President Negotiates truce in Korean War …DMZ = 38th parallelEisenhower Doctrine to help Middle East nationsstop the spread of communismUS advisors sent to Vietnam to stop the spreadof communism in AsiaUS Troops sent to Arkansas HS to enforce …School Integration…backed Supreme CourtEisenhower Interstate Highway System builtEisenhower’s farewell address warns Americansto beware of the “military-industrial complex”
54appeasement (3) peaceful coexistence (2) detente (4) domino theory __36. One similarity between the Truman Doctrine and the Eisenhower Doctrine is that both were designed to(1) limit the spread of communism (2) help develop the space program (3) restrict United States foreign aid (4) assist rebellions against the Soviet Union__37. Which foreign policy concept influenced the decision of the United States to become militarily involvedin Southeast Asiain the 1950s and 196Os?appeasement (3) peaceful coexistence(2) detente (4) domino theory
55__38.What does this photograph indicate about the United States in the 1950’s?(1) Extraordinary steps were taken to hide atomic weapons. (2) The nation had become the only nuclear superpower. (3) Much fear was created by the Cold War. (4) Only government officials would be safe in a nuclear attack.
56__39. Which statement is a valid conclusion based on President Dwight D. Eisenhower’s approach to applying theBrown v. Board of Education ruling to the desegregation of Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas?1) State governors do not have to obey Supreme Court rulings. 2) Presidents refuse to allow military intervention in local disputes. 3) Some Supreme Court decisions are not effective unless the President enforces them. 4) Presidents have been unwilling to enforce laws pertaining to minorities.
57John F. Kennedy fit the heroic model… …he was a Naval Hero during WWII…he wouldbecometheyoungestelectedPresidentinUS Historyin 1960.
58J.f.k.’ s accomplishments WW II PT Boat Officer…rescued crewmates Won Pulitzer Prize in LiteratureUS Senator from MassachusettsSignificant Actions as 35th US PresidentInspiring Inaugural Address…”new generation”TV address inspiring Americans for civil rightsEstablished US Space Program goal…man on moonStarted Peace Corps and VISTA volunteer programsFailed Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba to oust CastroPrevailed in Cuban Missile showdown w/ USSR
59“. . . Let every nation know, whether it wishes us well or ill, that we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe to assure the survival and the success of liberty ”—40. President John F. Kennedy, Inaugural Address, 1961This statement by President Kennedy suggests a continued commitment to the foreign policy of(1) isolationism (3) containment (2) appeasement (4) imperialism
61__41. President John F. Kennedy attempted to deal with the situation shown on the map by(1) bombing all the missile sites simultaneously (2) imposing a naval blockade to isolate Cuba from the Soviet Union (3) allowing the Soviet Union to keep some missiles in Cuba if the remainder were removed (4) landing an invasion force on the Cuban mainland__42. What was the main reason for President Kennedy’s action towardCuba?(1) Cuba is located close to the United States. (2) The United States needed to protect business investments in Cuba. (3) The cost of building missile defense bases in Florida was high. (4) Cuba threatened to seize United States merchant ships in the Caribbean.
624) expanding the United States space program __43. President John F. Kennedy's New Frontier program was most successful in1) establishing social welfare programs to end poverty 2) passing civil rights legislation assuring fair housing and equal employment opportunities 3) removing restrictions on the number of immigrants entering the United States 4) expanding the United States space program
63Lyndon Johnson replaced the popular President Kennedy …in a very uncertain time…he was bestknown as acareerpolitician…a deal makerin the nation’sCapital……how wouldhe lead ?
64Johnson’ s accomplishments Significant Actions as 36th President Great Society program launched to end povertyin America…provide greater opportunity for allCivil Rights actions to support Martin Luther KingVietnam War escalation…Gulf of Tonkin ResolutionDid not seek reelection in 1968 in an attempt toheal and unite the country
65__45. A major goal of President Lyndon B. Johnson’s __ 44. Which initiative was part of President Lyndon Johnson’sGreat Society program?(1) providing medical care to the poor and elderly (2) reducing federal aid to education (3) increasing foreign aid to the Soviet Union (4) opposing civil rights legislation__45. A major goal of President Lyndon B. Johnson’sGreat Society was to(1) provide government aid to business (2) end poverty in the United States (3) conserve natural resources (4) stop emigration from Latin America
66__47. The passage of this resolution led to __46. One similarity between the actions of Presidents Franklin D. Roosevelt and Lyndon B. Johnson is that both1) led the United States to victory in war 2) expanded the role of government in citizens' lives 3) vetoed legislation on the issue of rights for minorities 4) achieved a balanced Federal budget during their terms in office"The Congress approves and supports the determination of the President, as Commander in Chief, to take all necessary measures to repel any armed attack against the forces of the United States and to prevent further aggression." - Tonkin Gulf Resolution August 7, 1964__47. The passage of this resolution led to1) the building of the Berlin Wall 2) settlement of the Cuban missile crisis 3) increased United States involvement in the Vietnam War 4) the seizure of American hostages by Iran
67Richard Nixon won a wild election in 1968 … a “law and order” candidate in a 3-wayrace against VP Hubert Humphrey andsegregationist George Wallace.Elvis wasnot on theticket……but hedid get abadge anda decoderring to use.
68Nixon’ s Accomplishments Significant Actions as 37th President Signed Title IX Civil Rights Law which guaranteesnon-discrimination for womenNegotiates nuclear arms limitation treaty w/USSRDétente foreign policy w/ USSR = fewer threatsOpens diplomatic relations w/ Communist ChinaWithdraws US Troops from Vietnam…after furtherescalating the conflictLost two US Supreme Court Cases to keep militarysecrets and keep Whitehouse secretsResigned from Presidency to avoid Impeachment
69spread of nuclear weapons during the Cold War __48. President Richard Nixon’s policy of détente is best characterized by hisdecision to dismantle the nuclear weapons arsenal of the United States (2) attempt to reduce tensions with the Soviet Union (3) order to bomb Cambodia (4) support for membership in the United Nations for communist countries__49. The War Powers Act of 1973 was passed by Congress as a response to thespread of nuclear weapons during the Cold War(2) invasion of Kuwait by Iraq (3) threat of communism in the Middle East (4) United States involvement in the Vietnam
70__50. Protests against United States involvement in Vietnam grew in the late 1960's and early 1970's mainly because many Americans1) believed that the war was unjust 2) objected to the drafting of college students 3) feared nuclear war with the Soviet Union 4) opposed participation in conflicts involving the United Nations__51. The Supreme Court decisions in New York Times Co. v. United States (1971) and United States v. Nixon (1974) reinforced the principle that the president of the United States(1) has unlimited use of the veto power (2) is protected from unfair media criticism (3) may not be convicted of a crime (4) is not above the law
71the Nixon administration President Gerald FordVP Nelson Rockefeller…due to scandals inthe Nixon administration…the resignation ofVP Spiro Agnew…Ford was appointed VPPresident Nixon…Ford became President…Rocky was chosen VP
72Ford’ s accomplishments Significant Actions as 38th President Restored confidence and dignity to the office ofUS President after a “national nightmare” of scandalUnable to prevent the fall of Saigon and the loss ofSouth Vietnam to communist North VietnamUnable to shape policies to stop economic woesof rising inflation and a stagnant economyRefused to bail out NY City after the “Big Apple”declared bankruptcy
73Jimmy Carter was elected President in 1976 …he campaigned for peace and human rights…and he promised never to lie to the people.The firstArab-Israelipeace treatywas Carter’scareerhighlight…...other events wereoften trouble.
74Carter’ s accomplishments Significant Actions as 39th President Camp David Peace Accords Middle East Peace PactIran Hostage Crisis…444 Days of terror / humiliationUS President unable to free American HostagesUSA Olympic Boycott…Moscow games in USSRnot attended by USA to protest USSR invasionof Afghanistan in 1979Energy Crisis…2nd OPEC Oil Embargo = oil shock(Nixon-Ford-Carter) = inflationHuman Rights foreign policy shows USA aschampions of freedom in the Cold War
75__52. Which foreign policy agreement had the most direct influence on the Middle East? (1) Kellogg-Briand Pact (2) Yalta Conference declaration (3) SALT I Treaty (4) Camp David Accords__53. One similarity between the presidencies of Woodrow Wilson and Jimmy Carter is that both leaders1) emphasized moral principles in foreign policy 2) supported imperialism throughout the world 3) rejected human rights initiatives in Congress 4) sought to end the nuclear arms race
76“. . . Our decision about energy will test the character of the American people and the ability of the Presidentand the Congress to govern.This difficult effort will be the ‘moral equivalent of war’— except that we will be uniting our efforts to build and not destroy ”— President Jimmy Carter Address to the Nation, April 18, __54. President Carter put these ideas into practice by(1) halting construction of nuclear power plants (2) increasing imports of foreign oil (3) urging the development of alternative fuel sources (4) imposing a price freeze on all petroleum products
77Ronald Reagan was elected 40th President after serving as governor of California andwas committed to “winning” the Cold War.VP Bush,PresidentReagan,and USSR’sGorbachevend theCold War.
78Reagan’ s Accomplishments Significant Actions as 40th President 1st day in office Iran-Hostage Crisis ended……suspicions about timing lead to later investigationSurvives near fatal assassination attempt!Convinces Congress to pass the largest Tax-Cutin US History…part of “supply-side economics”US budget deficits grow, defense spending rises…Lobbied unsuccessfully for NAFTA…”free trade”Withdrew US Marines from Lebanon after terror attackSuccessfully invaded Grenada…stop communismIran-Contra Scandal…administration chargedw/ lying to Congress and Secret weapons dealsSuccessful nuclear arms reduction treaty w/ USSR
79It increased government spending on social programs. "In this present crisis, government is not the solution to our problems....It is my intention to curb the size and influence of the Federal establishment and to demand recognition of the distinction between the powers granted to the Federal Government and those reserved to the States or to the people.All of us need to be reminded that the Federal Government did not create the States; the States created the Federal Government." - President Ronald Reagan First Inaugural Address January 20, 1981__55. Which action did the Reagan administration take based on the belief expressed in these statements?It increased government spending on social programs.2) It reduced defense spending. 3) It increased corporate and personal income taxes. 4) It reduced government regulation of business.
80__56. One way in which the Teapot Dome scandal, the Watergate affair, and the Iran-Contra affair are similar is that each of these political scandals resulted in(1) a loss of faith in elected government leaders (2) an attempt to abolish the electoral college (3) a movement to impeach the president (4) an effort to regulate the banking industry__57. The "trickle down" economic theory of President Herbert Hoover and the "supply side" economic policies under President Ronald Reagan werebased on the idea that1) balanced budgets are essential to economic success 2) the Federal Government needs to assume more responsibility for solving economic problems 3) economic growth depends on making increased amounts of capital available to business 4) economic stability is the responsibility of Federal monetary agencies
81George Bush was elected 41st US President after a very distinguished career in service tohis country… WWII pilot / hero, Congressman,UN Ambassador, Ambassador to China, CIA Chief,Vice-President8 years
82Significant Actions as 41st US President George H. Bush’ s AccomplishmentsSignificant Actions as 41st US PresidentSuccessful invasion of Panama to rid their countryof notorious dictator Manuel NoriegaPersian Gulf WarSuccessful Operation Desert Shield to defendSaudi Arabia from Iraq / Saddam HusseinSuccessful Operation Desert Storm to defeatIraqi forces and liberate Kuwait…Disruptions to US economy caused by the war…lead to higher fuel prices and unemploymentBush agrees to small income tax increase forupper-middle class = broken tax pledge promiseSigned “Americans w/ Disabilities Act” into law
83__58. Which event led directly to the end of the cold war? (1) reunification of Germany (2) formation of the European Union (3) breakup of the Soviet Union (4) creation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)__59. One way in which the Korean War, the Vietnam War,and the Persian Gulf War are similar is that in all three wars(1) the goal was to defeat the Soviet Union (2) the United States was primarily interested in protecting oil supplies (3) the United States was fighting without allies (4) no formal declaration of war was made by Congress
84__60. One recent accomplishment in the struggle for equal rights for all Americans has been the1) prohibition of discrimination against Americans with disabilities 2) passage of "English-only" laws in the workplace by many states 3) guarantee of the right to vote for all women 4) establishment of drug and alcohol testing by employers__61. In 1991, one of the reasons President George H. W. Bush committed United States troops to thePersian Gulf War was to(1) maintain the flow of trade through the Suez Canal (2) fulfill military obligations as a member of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) (3) contain the spread of communism in the Middle East (4) assure the flow of Middle East oil to the United States and its allies
85Bill Clinton…Elected inwith less than 50%of the popular voteboth times…his Presidency wasone of record economic growth……tarnished by animpeachment trialand political turmoil.
86Clinton’ s accomplishments Significant Actions as 42nd PresidentSuccessfully raised income tax rates on wealthiestAmericans without stopping US economic growthSigned minimum-wage increases to help workersSigned “Family Leave” legislation to protect jobsecurity for working class families w/ childrenSuccessfully lobbied to pass NAFTA TreatyUnsuccessfully tried to create National HealthcareUnsuccessfully tried to integrate gays into militaryWhitewater Scandal = Congressional investigation…perjury charges / impeachment + trial in SenateUS Peacekeeping troops sent to Bosnia
87“Clinton Offers Economic Aid to Russia” “U. S “Clinton Offers Economic Aid to Russia” “U.S. Sends Peacekeeping Troops to Bosnia” “U.S. Airlifts Food and Medicine to Somalia”__62. These headlines illustrate that United States foreign policy during the 1990s stressed(1) containment (2) collective security (3) global involvement (4) neutrality
88__63. The main reason President Bill Clinton sent United States military forces into Haiti and Bosnia was to1) remove communist threats in these nations 2) stop illegal immigration to the United States from these nations 3) help secure peace in these nations 4) establish permanent military bases in these nations
89President George W. Bush won a very close Election in 2000…and is more often seen inhis role as “commander-in-chief” than hisimmediate predecessor Bill Clinton.
90Significant Actions as 43rd US President George W Bush’ s AccomplishmentsSignificant Actions as 43rd US PresidentSuccessfully assumed power after very controversial2000 election…decided by Supreme Court DecisionTerror Attack 911… President successfullyunited the country to pursue Al-Qaida terroristsSigned Patriot Act into law to help law enforcementEstablished new cabinet post…Homeland SecuritySuccessfully lobbied for income tax cuts toprevent economic recession due to “911” attacksWaged war in Afghanistan + Iraq in pursuit ofterror threats on the US…controversy involvedSurvived bitter re-election campaign to win in 2004…US treatment of POW’s and detainees = concern
91__64. What has been the most frequent criticism of the electoral college system? 1) An excessive number of third-party candidates have been encouraged to run for office. 2) Electors frequently ignore the vote of the people. 3) The person who wins the popular vote has not always been chosen as President. 4) The electors are not chosen by political parties.__65. The dispute over counting Florida voter ballots in thepresidential election of 2000 was settled by(1) an order of the governor of Florida (2) an agreement between the candidates (3) a vote of the United States Senate (4) a United States Supreme Court decision
92The Clinton and Bush Presidencies… … more similar or different ? Post WWII Baby boomer generation PresidentsSuccesses ? Failures ? Problems unresolved ?
93__66. Which heading would be most appropriate for the partial outline below?_____________________________ A. Wages lagging behind the cost of living B. Overproduction of consumer goodsC. Excessive buying on credit(1) Mercantilist Economic Theory (2) Features of a Bull Stock Market (3) Monopolistic Business Practices (4) Causes of the Great Depression
100For each pair selected: The President of the United States fulfills many roles. Actions taken by Presidents to fulfill these roles have increased the power of the Presidency.Presidents - RolesAbraham Lincoln - Chief executive Woodrow Wilson - Chief diplomat Franklin D. Roosevelt- Chief economist Harry Truman - Commander in Chief Lyndon B. Johnson - Chief legislator Ronald Reagan - Political party leaderSelect three of the Presidents and the roles with which they are paired.For each pair selected:Discuss one specific action taken by the President to fulfill that roleShow the extent to which the power of the Presidency was increased as a result of that Presidential action