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US Presidents Created by Mr. Steve Hauprich for acceleration and remediation of US History students.

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1 US Presidents Created by Mr. Steve Hauprich for acceleration and remediation of US History students

2 George Washington…was a heroic model for future US Presidents…a very high standard…many just don’t measure up

3 Washington’s Accomplishments Led the USA to Independence Led the Constitutional Convention Important precedents as 1 st President non-alliance / neutrality foreign policy effectively suppressed the Whiskey Rebellion negotiated treaty w/ Spain for access to New Orleans brilliant 1 st Cabinet w/ Hamilton and Jefferson effective US financial plan served only two terms and retired

4 The speakers below are discussing foreign policies that the United States has followed at various times. Base your answers on their statements and on your knowledge of social studies. Speaker A: Steer clear of permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world. Speaker B: The United States will give economic aid to needy countries anywhere in the world, but will not provide military aid. Speaker C: The United States must prevent the growth of communism. Speaker D: The United States can take over other countries to help them become more like us. Which speaker states a policy most similar to the foreign policy advice given by President George Washington in his Farewell Address? 1) A 2) B 3) C 4) D Correct Answer Number: 1 Explanation: In his farewell address George Washington warned the fledgling America to stay clear of “entangling alliances” with the Europeans, but to continue economic ties with the continent. He also sent warnings about the dangers of political parties and the factions they could create, dividing the American people

5 Thomas Jefferson fit the heroic model of US President… …although not a military hero… …authoring the political theory of The Declaration of Independence… exalted his reputation.

6 Jefferson’s Accomplishments Declaration of Independence and Ambassador to France 1 st US Secretary of State under George Washington Significant Actions as 3 rd US President peaceful transition to power after election of 1800 does not renew Adams’ controversial Sedition Act Louisiana Purchase Treaty … “Loose Construction” Lewis & Clark Expedition = scientific discovery US War with Barbary Pirates US Neutrality w/ Britain & France…Embargo Act

7 The legal basis for the United States purchase of the Louisiana Territory was the 1.power granted to the President to make treaties 2.President’s power as Commander in Chief 3.authority of Congress to declare war 4.Senate’s duty to approve the appointment of ambassadors Correct Answer Number: 1 Explanation: Thomas Jefferson used the presidential power of treaty making to make the Louisiana Purchase from France. This action was considered a loose interpretation of the Constitution, which does not provide for the presidential acquisition of territory. While Jefferson was ideologically for a strict interpretation of the Constitution, the excellent opportunity offered by the Louisiana Purchase was too good to pass up.

8 Andrew Jackson fit the heroic model of US President… …Old Hickory was a military hero… …leading the USA allied forces to victory over the British in the War of 1812’s Battle of New Orleans

9 Jackson’s accomplishments General Jackson is the Hero of the Battle of New Orleans General Jackson is the Hero of the Battle of Horseshoe Bend Significant Actions as 7 th President initiates Spoils System…era of the Common Man Veto of the 2 nd Bank of the United States suppresses South Carolina’s nullification of tariffs allows Indian Removal…in spite of Supreme Court retires after two terms…Washington tradition

10 At times, the United States Government has passed protective tariffs to 1.encourage foreign trade 2.help the nation’s manufacturers 3.reduce the cost of consumer goods 4.improve the quality of goods Correct Answer Number: 2 Explanation: Tariffs are taxes placed upon goods being imported into a nation. The imported goods then have a higher total price (after the tax) then similar goods manufactured within the nation itself. This protects the domestic manufactures from having to compete with lower priced, foreign made products. This concept has been applied many time in US history (it was part of Hamilton’s economic plan; the Tariff of 1828 was highly unpopular; tariffs were also applied in the 1920’s and are seen as a contributing factor in the great depression.) President Jackson threatened South Carolina for their attempt to nullify US tariff laws.

11 Abraham Lincoln did not fit the heroic model… … the Rail Splitter was best known as a Trial Lawyer … …he was hailed as Honest Abe… …believer in Banks, Tariffs, Railroads, and Free Labor.

12 Lincoln’s Accomplishments Congressman Lincoln (one term / 2 years) US Senate Candidate (lost the election 1858) great campaign speech…”A House Divided” 1 st Republican Elected US President won in the North…not on ballots in the South Significant Actions as 16 th US President great 1 st Inaugural Address…keeps 4 Border States successful strategy for Preserving the Union executive order Emancipation Proclamation Gettysburg Address…speech defines the Civil War great 2 nd Inaugural Address… forgives 11 rebel states opposes plans by Congress to punish the South

13 Which argument did President Abraham Lincoln use against the secession of the Southern States? 1.Slavery was not profitable 2.The government was a union of people and not of states. 3.The Southern States did not permit their people to vote on secession. 4.As the Commander in Chief, he had the duty to defend the United States against foreign invasion. Correct Answer Number: 2 Explanation: Prior to the outbreak of the Civil War in 1861, Lincoln tried many persuasive arguments to preserve the Union. He contended that; “in view of the Constitution and the law, the union is unbroken”. Despite his efforts seven states had seceded by his inauguration in March 1861, and after the firing on Fort Sumter the Civil War was in progress.

14 Theodore Roosevelt fit the heroic model… …Colonel T.R. best known as brave leader of the Rough Riders… …risking his life and leading the USA to Victory.

15 T. Roosevelt’s Accomplishments NY City / NY State … Police Commissioner, Governor… Adirondack Park US Government…Asst. Secretary Navy, Colonel Rough Riders, Vice President Significant Actions as 26 th US President Trust Busting…breaks up Northern Securities Co. Conservation…protects national parklands Consumer Protection…Meat Inspection Act, FDA Labor Negotiations…helps Coal Miners Foreign Policy…Panama Canal, Great White Fleet, Roosevelt Corollary

16 Which statement best describes President Theodore Roosevelt’s foreign policy position toward Latin America in the early 1900’s? 1.The United States should reduce its involvement in Latin American affairs 2.The Monroe Doctrine permits the United States to intervene actively in the affairs of Latin American nations. 3.Latin American nations should form an organization to help them achieve political and economic stability. 4.The United States should give large amounts of financial aid to help the poor of Latin America. Correct Answer Number: 2 Explanation: The Roosevelt’ Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine (1904) further establishes the United State’s ability to intervene in the affairs of Latin American nations. He stated that the Monroe Doctrine (1823) required the US to act as “an international police power”. This was used to justify US actions in Cuba, Panama and other Latin American locales.

17 A main purpose of President Theodore Roosevelt’s trust busting policies was to 1.reduce corruption in government 2.save the nation’s banks 3.encourage competition in business 4.end strikes by labor unions Correct Answer Number: 3 Explanation: Theodore Roosevelt quickly gained a reputation as a “trustbuster” when he began to call for the break up of many monopolistic companies. In 1901 Roosevelt’s Justice Department brought a case against the Northern Securities Company (a railroad holding company) and won the breakup of the company. Another example came in 1905 against the so called “beef trust” in the Swift & Co. v. United States, when the group of meatpackers was found to be in violation of the 1890 Sherman Antitrust law.

18 "In short, our aim should be, not to destroy, but effectively... to regulate and control, in the public interest, the great instrumentalities [corporations] of modern business...." -Theodore Roosevelt,1913 __1. During the early 20th century, a supporter of this statement would most likely have favored 1) a hands-off policy toward big business 2) a return to an agrarian economy 3) laws prohibiting unfair business practices 4) tax incentives for business mergers and consolidations

19 __2. Which statement best summarizes President Theodore Roosevelt’s views about conservation? (1) Environmental issues are best decided by the private sector. (2) Unlimited access to natural resources is the key to business growth. (3) Wilderness areas and their resources should be protected for the public good. (4) Decisions about the use of natural resources should be left to the states.

20 "Chronic wrongdoing... may... ultimately require intervention by some civilized nation, and... adherence... to the Monroe Doctrine may force the United States.,. to the exercise of an international police power - Theodore Roosevelt,1904 __3. Which world region was the focus of the foreign policy expressed in this statement? 1) Middle East 3) Soviet Union 2) Southeast Asia 4) Latin America __4. This statement helped provide justification for President Theodore Roosevelt's use of the 1) policy of Dollar Diplomacy 2) Big Stick policy 3) conservation policy 4) Peace Corps

21 __5. The chief reason the United States built the Panama Canal was to (1) close the Western Hemisphere to new European colonization (2) reduce travel time for commercial and military shipping (3) promote an isolationist foreign policy (4) prevent the spread of communism __6. The main reason President Theodore Roosevelt supported a Panamanian rebellion against Colombia in 1903 was to 1) increase the number of democratic nations in Latin America 2) gain the right to complete a canal linking the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans 3) reduce European colonialism in the Western Hemisphere 4) prevent a foreign power from seizing land in Central America

22 Whose face didn’t make the monument ?

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25 __7. As a result of the establishment of the Monroe Doctrine (1823), the United States was able to 1 acquire parts of South America as land for settlement 2 expand its influence in the Western Hemisphere 3 increase its trade with Asia 4 form military alliances with European nations “... the American continents, by the free and independent condition which they have assumed and maintain, are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European powers....” - President James Monroe, 1823 __8. Which President later built on the idea expressed in this quotation? (1) Abraham Lincoln (3) Harry Truman (2) Theodore Roosevelt (4) Richard Nixon

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30 __10. The main purpose of the Open Door policy, announced by the United States in 1899, was to 1 encourage the introduction of modern government into China 2 establish United States domination of Asian affairs 3 increase United States trade with China 4 provide China with military weapons __9. An important result of the Spanish-American War of 1898 was that the United States (1) acquired Germany (2) became a world power with an overseas empire (3) improved its relations with (4) lost interest in Latin American affairs territories in Africa

31 Woodrow Wilson… did he fit the Heroic model ? …a college President… and a State Governor…

32 Wilson’ s accomplishments President of Princeton University, N.J. Governor of New Jersey Significant Actions as 28 th President Progressive economic reforms including: Federal Reserve System, Income Tax, Tariff Reductions, Child Labor Laws, Federal Trade Commission (FTC) to enforce Anti-trust Laws Successfully led USA to victory in WWI…idealism “make the world safe for democracy” Unable to gain Senate approval of Versailles Treaty …due to concerns about the League of Nations

33 __11. A graduated (progressive) income tax is based on the idea that tax rates should 1) be the same for all individuals and businesses 2) be adjusted to achieve a balanced Federal budget 3) rise as individual or business incomes rise 4) increase more rapidly for business profits than for personal incomes

34 __12. The Federal Reserve System was created to (1) maintain a national petroleum supply (2) provide military support for the armed forces (3) protect consumers from fraud (4) manage the nation’s supply of currency and interest rates __13. The Clayton Antitrust Act was passed to (1) restore business competition (2) end stock market speculation (3) prosecute corrupt labor unions (4) break up city political party machines

35 __14. President Woodrow Wilson’s statement “The world must be made safe for democracy” was made to justify his decision to (1)end United States imperialism in Latin America (2) support tariff reform (3) send troops into Mexico to capture Pancho Villa (4) ask Congress to declare war against Germany __15. President Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Points were based on the belief that (1) military strength is a nation’s best path to world peace (2) isolationism should guide international relations (3) the principle of self-determination should be applied to people of all nations (4) industrial nations should have equal access to colonial possessions

36 __16. The Espionage Act (1917) and the Sedition Act (1918) were used by President Woodrow Wilson's administration during World War I to 1) discourage congressional support for the war effort 2) place German Americans in internment camps 3) remove Communists from government positions 4) silence critics of the war effort

37 __18. Why did the Senate reject the Versailles Treaty (1919)? (1) to keep the United States free from foreign entanglements (2) to express opposition to the harsh sanctions imposed on Germany (3) to avoid the dues for membership in the League of Nations (4) to reduce United States military forces in Europe __17. One goal for a lasting peace that President Woodrow Wilson included in his Fourteen Points was (1) establishing a League of Nations (2) maintaining a permanent military force in Europe (3) returning the United States to a policy of isolationism (4) blaming Germany for causing World War I

38 Franklin Roosevelt did not fit the heroic model… … he was best known as the losing candidate for Vice President in 1920 …his leadership as NY York Governor in the early years of the Great Depression… earned him credibility.

39 F.D.R.’ s Accomplishments Assistant Secretary of the Navy WWI NY State Governor … little “New Deal” Significant Actions as 32 nd President 1 st 100 Days…16 New Deal programs/actions Economic Reforms…NLRB, Social Security, FDIC, SEC, FHA, TVA, etc… Good Neighbor foreign policy w/ Latin America WW II …successful strategy to defeat Axis Powers Manhattan Project produces A-Bomb Atlantic Charter…United Nations…idealism

40 __19. The New Deal tried to solve many problems of the Great Depression by (1) providing federal aid to many sectors of the economy (2) reducing taxes on big business to stimulate job creation (3) lowering federal spending to maintain a balanced budget (4) decreasing foreign competition by raising tariffs __20. The creation of the Tennessee Valley Authority is an example of (1) federal intervention to meet regional needs (2) state-funded regional transportation (3) free-market capitalism (4) laissez-faire economics

41 __21. A major goal of the Government in creating the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) and the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) was to 1) increase the government's tax revenue 2) provide jobs for the unemployed 3) restore the public's faith in financial institutions 4) stimulate economic growth

42 __23. President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s response to Supreme Court decisions that declared several New Deal laws unconstitutional was to (1) ask Congress to limit the Court’s jurisdiction (2) propose legislation to increase the size of the court (3) demand the resignation of several justices (4) ignore the Court’s rulings __22. Which statement best illustrates a basic idea of President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New Deal? (1) Communism provides the only real solution to economic problems. (2) Unemployed workers should rely on the states rather than on the federal government for help. (3) The United States reached its economic peak in the 1920s and is now a declining industrial power. (4) The economy sometimes needs public money to encourage business activity.

43 __24. In 1933, President Franklin D. Roosevelt announced the Good Neighbor policy primarily to 1) increase immigration from Latin America 2) grant diplomatic recognition to the Soviet Union 3) promote free trade with the nations of Europe 4) improve relations with Latin American nations

44 __25. A primary objective of United States foreign policy during the 1930s was to (1) avoid involvement in Asian and European conflicts (2) protect business interests in Africa through direct intervention (3) strengthen international peacekeeping organizations (4) acquire overseas land as colonies __26. During World War II, many Japanese Americans living on the West Coast were relocated to detention centers primarily because they (1) were known spies for Japan (2) were seen as a security threat (3) refused to serve in the United States military (4) expressed their support for Italy and Germany

45 __28. In 1944, Franklin D. Roosevelt was elected to a fourth term as President. Which action was taken to prevent future Presidents from breaking the two-term tradition? 1) Both major political parties agreed to nominate a new candidate for President after an incumbent's second term. 2) A constitutional amendment was adopted, placing term limits on the Presidency. 3) The Supreme Court ruled that a President could serve for only eight years. 4) An unwritten agreement was made by Presidential candidates that they would serve for no more than two terms. __27. President Franklin D. Roosevelt's election to an unprecedented third term was most strongly influenced by 1) his policy on immigration 2) his popularity among business executives 3) the beginning of the Great Depression 4) the advent of World War II in Europe

46 Harry Truman became President after FDR died in office in …he had served in the US Armed Forces in WWI …and had served the USA in the House and Senate.

47 Truman’ s Accomplishments Significant Actions as 33 rd President Defeated Japan in WWII using Atomic Weapons Marshall Plan to help Western Europe rebuild Berlin Airlift to keep West Berlin free from USSR Truman Doctrine to help Greece & Turkey rebuild Korean War against Communist Aggression in Asia Integrated US Armed forces in Korean War Vetoed Taft-Hartley Act to limit labor unions… but was overridden by Congress Unable to prevent 2 nd Red Scare…McCarthyism

48 __29. A reason that President Harry Truman decided to use atomic weapons against Japan was to 1) end the war while limiting the loss of American lives 2) punish the Japanese people by destroying their country 3) increase Japan's potential as a future aggressor 4) divert forces to fight Germany

49 __30. After World War II, the Marshall Plan was proposed as a way to (1) improve diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union (2) help European nations recover economically (3) remove nuclear weapons from Western Europe (4) bring Nazi war criminals to justice __31. President Harry Truman supported a containment policy after World War II in an attempt to (1) limit the use of atomic bombs and other nuclear weapons (2) end colonialism in Africa and Asia (3) bring German and Japanese war criminals to justice (4) reduce the influence of the Soviet Union in European countries __32. Which action occurred for the first time in the early 1950s during the Korean War? (1) United States and Soviet troops fought on the same side. (2) The United Nations used military force against an aggressor nation. (3) A president was impeached for abusing his power as commander in chief. (4) United States troops fought in Asia.

50 "There shall be a loyalty investigation of every person entering the civilian employment of any department or agency of the Executive Branch of the Federal Government.“ - The Truman Loyalty Order, March 22, 1947 __33. President Harry Truman issued this Executive order in response to the 1) fear of Communist Party influence in government 2) election of Socialist Party representatives to Congress 3) discovery of spies in defense industries 4) arrest and trial of high-ranking government employees for terrorism

51 __34. One way in which the Red Scare of the 1920's and McCarthyism of the 1950's were similar is that both (1) jeopardized the rights of individuals suspected of un- American activity (2) occurred during times of economic depression (3) addressed the issue of increased government bureaucracy after a world war (4) led to the imprisonment of ethnic minorities during wartime __35. President Harry Truman advanced the cause of civil rights for African Americans by 1) ordering the desegregation of the Armed Forces 2) appointing the first African American to the Supreme Court 3) supporting the ratification of the 14th and 15th amendments 4) establishing affirmative action policies for industry

52 Dwight Eisenhower was one of America’s greatest Army Generals during WWII… …his leadership during the 1950’s would be marked by growing Cold War F E A R s

53 Eisenhower’ s Accomplishments Significant Actions as 34 th President Negotiates truce in Korean War …DMZ = 38 th parallel Eisenhower Doctrine to help Middle East nations stop the spread of communism US advisors sent to Vietnam to stop the spread of communism in Asia US Troops sent to Arkansas HS to enforce … School Integration…backed Supreme Court Eisenhower Interstate Highway System built Eisenhower’s farewell address warns Americans to beware of the “military-industrial complex”

54 __36. One similarity between the Truman Doctrine and the Eisenhower Doctrine is that both were designed to (1) limit the spread of communism (2) help develop the space program (3) restrict United States foreign aid (4) assist rebellions against the Soviet Union __37. Which foreign policy concept influenced the decision of the United States to become militarily involved in Southeast Asia in the 1950s and 196Os? (1)appeasement (3) peaceful coexistence (2) detente (4) domino theory

55 __ 38. What does this photograph indicate about the United States in the 1950’s? (1) Extraordinary steps were taken to hide atomic weapons. (2) The nation had become the only nuclear superpower. (3) Much fear was created by the Cold War. (4) Only government officials would be safe in a nuclear attack.

56 __39. Which statement is a valid conclusion based on President Dwight D. Eisenhower’s approach to applying the Brown v. Board of Education ruling to the desegregation of Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas? 1) State governors do not have to obey Supreme Court rulings. 2) Presidents refuse to allow military intervention in local disputes. 3) Some Supreme Court decisions are not effective unless the President enforces them. 4) Presidents have been unwilling to enforce laws pertaining to minorities.

57 John F. Kennedy fit the heroic model… …he was a Naval Hero during WWII… he would become the youngest elected President in US History in 1960.

58 J.f.k.’ s accomplishments WW II PT Boat Officer… rescued crewmates Won Pulitzer Prize in Literature US Senator from Massachusetts Significant Actions as 35 th US President Inspiring Inaugural Address…”new generation” TV address inspiring Americans for civil rights Established US Space Program goal…man on moon Started Peace Corps and VISTA volunteer programs Failed Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba to oust Castro Prevailed in Cuban Missile showdown w/ USSR

59 “... Let every nation know, whether it wishes us well or ill, that we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe to assure the survival and the success of liberty....” —40. President John F. Kennedy, Inaugural Address, 1961 This statement by President Kennedy suggests a continued commitment to the foreign policy of (1) isolationism (3) containment (2) appeasement (4) imperialism

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61 __41. President John F. Kennedy attempted to deal with the situation shown on the map by (1) bombing all the missile sites simultaneously (2) imposing a naval blockade to isolate Cuba from the Soviet Union (3) allowing the Soviet Union to keep some missiles in Cuba if the remainder were removed (4) landing an invasion force on the Cuban mainland __42. What was the main reason for President Kennedy’s action toward Cuba? (1) Cuba is located close to the United States. (2) The United States needed to protect business investments in Cuba. (3) The cost of building missile defense bases in Florida was high. (4) Cuba threatened to seize United States merchant ships in the Caribbean.

62 __43. President John F. Kennedy's New Frontier program was most successful in 1) establishing social welfare programs to end poverty 2) passing civil rights legislation assuring fair housing and equal employment opportunities 3) removing restrictions on the number of immigrants entering the United States 4) expanding the United States space program

63 Lyndon Johnson replaced the popular President Kennedy …in a very uncertain time …he was best known as a career politician …a deal maker in the nation’s Capital… …how would he lead ?

64 Johnson’ s accomplishments Significant Actions as 36 th President Great Society program launched to end poverty in America…provide greater opportunity for all Civil Rights actions to support Martin Luther King Vietnam War escalation … Gulf of Tonkin Resolution Did not seek reelection in 1968 in an attempt to heal and unite the country

65 __ 44. Which initiative was part of President Lyndon Johnson’s Great Society program? (1) providing medical care to the poor and elderly (2) reducing federal aid to education (3) increasing foreign aid to the Soviet Union (4) opposing civil rights legislation __45. A major goal of President Lyndon B. Johnson’s Great Society was to (1) provide government aid to business (2) end poverty in the United States (3) conserve natural resources (4) stop emigration from Latin America

66 __46. One similarity between the actions of Presidents Franklin D. Roosevelt and Lyndon B. Johnson is that both 1) led the United States to victory in war 2) expanded the role of government in citizens' lives 3) vetoed legislation on the issue of rights for minorities 4) achieved a balanced Federal budget during their terms in office "The Congress approves and supports the determination of the President, as Commander in Chief, to take all necessary measures to repel any armed attack against the forces of the United States and to prevent further aggression." - Tonkin Gulf Resolution August 7, 1964 __47. The passage of this resolution led to 1) the building of the Berlin Wall 2) settlement of the Cuban missile crisis 3) increased United States involvement in the Vietnam War 4) the seizure of American hostages by Iran

67 Richard Nixon won a wild election in 1968 … a “law and order” candidate in a 3-way race against VP Hubert Humphrey and segregationist George Wallace. Elvis was not on the ticket… …but he did get a badge and a decoder ring to use.

68 Nixon’ s Accomplishments Significant Actions as 37 th President Signed Title IX Civil Rights Law which guarantees non-discrimination for women Negotiates nuclear arms limitation treaty w/USSR Détente foreign policy w/ USSR = fewer threats Opens diplomatic relations w/ Communist China Withdraws US Troops from Vietnam…after further escalating the conflict Lost two US Supreme Court Cases to keep military secrets and keep Whitehouse secrets Resigned from Presidency to avoid Impeachment

69 __48. President Richard Nixon’s policy of détente is best characterized by his (1)decision to dismantle the nuclear weapons arsenal of the United States (2) attempt to reduce tensions with the Soviet Union (3) order to bomb Cambodia (4) support for membership in the United Nations for communist countries __49. The War Powers Act of 1973 was passed by Congress as a response to the (1)spread of nuclear weapons during the Cold War (2) invasion of Kuwait by Iraq (3) threat of communism in the Middle East (4) United States involvement in the Vietnam

70 __50. Protests against United States involvement in Vietnam grew in the late 1960's and early 1970's mainly because many Americans 1) believed that the war was unjust 2) objected to the drafting of college students 3) feared nuclear war with the Soviet Union 4) opposed participation in conflicts involving the United Nations __51. The Supreme Court decisions in New York Times Co. v. United States (1971) and United States v. Nixon (1974) reinforced the principle that the president of the United States (1) has unlimited use of the veto power (2) is protected from unfair media criticism (3) may not be convicted of a crime (4) is not above the law

71 President Gerald Ford VP Nelson Rockefeller …due to scandals in the Nixon administration …the resignation of VP Spiro Agnew… Ford was appointed VP …the resignation of President Nixon… Ford became President …Rocky was chosen VP

72 Ford’ s accomplishments Significant Actions as 38 th President Restored confidence and dignity to the office of US President after a “national nightmare” of scandal Unable to prevent the fall of Saigon and the loss of South Vietnam to communist North Vietnam Unable to shape policies to stop economic woes of rising inflation and a stagnant economy Refused to bail out NY City after the “Big Apple” declared bankruptcy

73 Jimmy Carter was elected President in 1976 …he campaigned for peace and human rights …and he promised never to lie to the people. The first Arab-Israeli peace treaty was Carter’s career highlight…...other events were often trouble.

74 Carter’ s accomplishments Significant Actions as 39 th President Camp David Peace Accords Middle East Peace Pact Iran Hostage Crisis…444 Days of terror / humiliation US President unable to free American Hostages USA Olympic Boycott…Moscow games in USSR not attended by USA to protest USSR invasion of Afghanistan in 1979 Energy Crisis…2 nd OPEC Oil Embargo = oil s h o c k (Nixon-Ford-Carter) = inflation Human Rights foreign policy shows USA as champions of freedom in the Cold War

75 __52. Which foreign policy agreement had the most direct influence on the Middle East? (1) Kellogg-Briand Pact (2) Yalta Conference declaration (3) SALT I Treaty (4) Camp David Accords __53. One similarity between the presidencies of Woodrow Wilson and Jimmy Carter is that both leaders 1) emphasized moral principles in foreign policy 2) supported imperialism throughout the world 3) rejected human rights initiatives in Congress 4) sought to end the nuclear arms race

76 “... Our decision about energy will test the character of the American people and the ability of the President and the Congress to govern. This difficult effort will be the ‘moral equivalent of war’ — except that we will be uniting our efforts to build and not destroy....” — President Jimmy Carter Address to the Nation, April 18, 1977 __54. President Carter put these ideas into practice by (1) halting construction of nuclear power plants (2) increasing imports of foreign oil (3) urging the development of alternative fuel sources (4) imposing a price freeze on all petroleum products

77 Ronald Reagan was elected 40th President after serving as governor of California and was committed to “winning” the Cold War. VP Bush, President Reagan, and USSR’s Gorbachev end the Cold War.

78 Reagan’ s Accomplishments Significant Actions as 40 th President 1 st day in office Iran-Hostage Crisis ended… …suspicions about timing lead to later investigation Survives near fatal assassination attempt! Convinces Congress to pass the largest Tax-Cut in US History…part of “supply-side economics” US budget deficits grow, defense spending rises… Lobbied unsuccessfully for NAFTA…”free trade” Withdrew US Marines from Lebanon after terror attack Successfully invaded Grenada…stop communism Iran-Contra Scandal…administration charged w/ lying to Congress and Secret weapons deals Successful nuclear arms reduction treaty w/ USSR

79 "In this present crisis, government is not the solution to our problems....It is my intention to curb the size and influence of the Federal establishment and to demand recognition of the distinction between the powers granted to the Federal Government and those reserved to the States or to the people. All of us need to be reminded that the Federal Government did not create the States; the States created the Federal Government." - President Ronald Reagan First Inaugural Address January 20, 1981 __55. Which action did the Reagan administration take based on the belief expressed in these statements? 1)It increased government spending on social programs. 2) It reduced defense spending. 3) It increased corporate and personal income taxes. 4) It reduced government regulation of business.

80 __56. One way in which the Teapot Dome scandal, the Watergate affair, and the Iran-Contra affair are similar is that each of these political scandals resulted in (1) a loss of faith in elected government leaders (2) an attempt to abolish the electoral college (3) a movement to impeach the president (4) an effort to regulate the banking industry __57. The "trickle down" economic theory of President Herbert Hoover and the "supply side" economic policies under President Ronald Reagan were based on the idea that 1) balanced budgets are essential to economic success 2) the Federal Government needs to assume more responsibility for solving economic problems 3) economic growth depends on making increased amounts of capital available to business 4) economic stability is the responsibility of Federal monetary agencies

81 George Bush was elected 41 st US President after a very distinguished career in service to his country … WWII pilot / hero, Congressman, UN Ambassador, Ambassador to China, CIA Chief, Vice-President 8 years

82 George H. Bush’ s Accomplishments Significant Actions as 41 st US President Successful invasion of Panama to rid their country of notorious dictator Manuel Noriega Persian Gulf War Successful Operation Desert Shield to defend Saudi Arabia from Iraq / Saddam Hussein Successful Operation Desert Storm to defeat Iraqi forces and liberate Kuwait… Disruptions to US economy caused by the war… lead to higher fuel prices and unemployment Bush agrees to small income tax increase for upper-middle class = broken tax pledge promise Signed “Americans w/ Disabilities Act” into law

83 __58. Which event led directly to the end of the cold war? (1) reunification of Germany (2) formation of the European Union (3) breakup of the Soviet Union (4) creation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) __59. One way in which the Korean War, the Vietnam War, and the Persian Gulf War are similar is that in all three wars (1) the goal was to defeat the Soviet Union (2) the United States was primarily interested in protecting oil supplies (3) the United States was fighting without allies (4) no formal declaration of war was made by Congress

84 __61. In 1991, one of the reasons President George H. W. Bush committed United States troops to the Persian Gulf War was to (1) maintain the flow of trade through the Suez Canal (2) fulfill military obligations as a member of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) (3) contain the spread of communism in the Middle East (4) assure the flow of Middle East oil to the United States and its allies __60. One recent accomplishment in the struggle for equal rights for all Americans has been the 1) prohibition of discrimination against Americans with disabilities 2) passage of "English-only" laws in the workplace by many states 3) guarantee of the right to vote for all women 4) establishment of drug and alcohol testing by employers

85 Bill Clinton… Elected in with less than 50% of the popular vote both times… his Presidency was one of record economic growth… …tarnished by an impeachment trial and political turmoil.

86 Clinton’ s accomplishments Significant Actions as 42 nd President Successfully raised income tax rates on wealthiest Americans without stopping US economic growth Signed minimum-wage increases to help workers Signed “Family Leave” legislation to protect job security for working class families w/ children Successfully lobbied to pass NAFTA Treaty Unsuccessfully tried to create National Healthcare Unsuccessfully tried to integrate gays into military Whitewater Scandal = Congressional investigation …perjury charges / impeachment + trial in Senate US Peacekeeping troops sent to Bosnia

87 “Clinton Offers Economic Aid to Russia” “U.S. Sends Peacekeeping Troops to Bosnia” “U.S. Airlifts Food and Medicine to Somalia” __62. These headlines illustrate that United States foreign policy during the 1990s stressed (1) containment (2) collective security (3) global involvement (4) neutrality

88 __63. The main reason President Bill Clinton sent United States military forces into Haiti and Bosnia was to 1) remove communist threats in these nations 2) stop illegal immigration to the United States from these nations 3) help secure peace in these nations 4) establish permanent military bases in these nations

89 President George W. Bush won a very close Election in 2000…and is more often seen in his role as “commander-in-chief” than his immediate predecessor Bill Clinton.

90 George W Bush’ s Accomplishments Significant Actions as 43 rd US President Successfully assumed power after very controversial 2000 election…decided by Supreme Court Decision Terror Attack 911… President successfully united the country to pursue Al-Qaida terrorists Signed Patriot Act into law to help law enforcement Established new cabinet post…Homeland Security Successfully lobbied for income tax cuts to prevent economic recession due to “911” attacks Waged war in Afghanistan + Iraq in pursuit of terror threats on the US…controversy involved Survived bitter re-election campaign to win in 2004 …US treatment of POW’s and detainees = concern

91 __64. What has been the most frequent criticism of the electoral college system? 1) An excessive number of third-party candidates have been encouraged to run for office. 2) Electors frequently ignore the vote of the people. 3) The person who wins the popular vote has not always been chosen as President. 4) The electors are not chosen by political parties. __65. The dispute over counting Florida voter ballots in the presidential election of 2000 was settled by (1) an order of the governor of Florida (2) an agreement between the candidates (3) a vote of the United States Senate (4) a United States Supreme Court decision

92 The Clinton and Bush Presidencies… … more similar or different ? Post WWII Baby boomer generation Presidents Successes ? Failures ? Problems unresolved ?

93 __66. Which heading would be most appropriate for the partial outline below? I._____________________________ A. Wages lagging behind the cost of living B. Overproduction of consumer goods C. Excessive buying on credit (1) Mercantilist Economic Theory (2) Features of a Bull Stock Market (3) Monopolistic Business Practices (4) Causes of the Great Depression

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98 …did we say many didn’t measure up?… it’s only one artist’s point of view anyway …we missed one didn’t we ?...

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100 The President of the United States fulfills many roles. Actions taken by Presidents to fulfill these roles have increased the power of the Presidency. Presidents - Roles Abraham Lincoln - Chief executive Woodrow Wilson - Chief diplomat Franklin D. Roosevelt- Chief economist Harry Truman - Commander in Chief Lyndon B. Johnson - Chief legislator Ronald Reagan - Political party leader Select three of the Presidents and the roles with which they are paired. For each pair selected: Discuss one specific action taken by the President to fulfill that role Show the extent to which the power of the Presidency was increased as a result of that Presidential action


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