Presentation on theme: "By Jesse Sanzari and Yuna Chung (GATE 8)"— Presentation transcript:
1 By Jesse Sanzari and Yuna Chung (GATE 8) “So the word 'why' not only taught me to ask, but also to think. And thinking has never hurt anyone. On the contrary, it does us all a world of good.” – Anne FrankBy Jesse Sanzari and Yuna Chung (GATE 8)
3 Sources Used 3. Who 1. Timeline To become the fairest of them all, you must know why things occurred. The exhibits will explain the reasoning of why the Holocaust occurred and how we can stop something like this to happen again.Sources Used2. Where3. Who1. Timeline4. Mirror Mirror…
4 By seeing these two timelines, you will be able to identify the gradual increase of anti-Semitism and how it lead to the Holocaust.Timeline #1Timeline #2
5 Timeline of Anti-Semitism (Before 1930) 1290 – England expelled all of its Jews.753 BC – Roman Empire1348 – Black Plague in Europe1306 – France expelled all Jews.500 ~1750 – Middle Ages1480 – Spanish Inquisition
6 753 BC – Roman EmpireTemple in Jerusalem had been rebuilt three times due to damage – by Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylonia, Judaea’s foreign rulers, and Herod the GreatAccused Jews as “Christ Killer”Jews had no citizenshipByzantium (ancient Greek city) enforced anti-Jewish laws and that all Jews disappear from the eastern Roman Empire in 527Jews banished from Rome in 139 BCJewish-Roman Wars from 66 to 135 A.D. Rome vs. Jewish Rebels
7 500 ~1750 – Middle Ages Jews were classified as different & strange Jews were forbidden to own land, and so they could not be farmers – Jews became money lendersKing (all rulers were Christians) threw the Jews out of his kingdom & made a law saying that Christians did not have to pay Jews back the money that had borrowedJews were deported may be the reason Hitler deported all Jews to ghettos with the thought of “because people did this in the past, its okay to do it now.”
8 1348 – Black Plague in Europe When the Black Plague spread throughout Europe, Jews were accused for poisoning the waterMany Christians in Germany blamed the disease on the Jews and again killed Jews, so many Jews moved to Poland for safetyChristians everywhere in Europe went on a murderous rampage against Jews and burned them alive wherever they found them
9 1480 – Spanish InquisitionAnti-Semitism that swept across medieval Europe and arrived to Spain in the 14th century – tensions between Christians and JewsWas several inquisitions that occurred between the 12th and 19th centuriesWas the period of persecution of heretics (a baptized member of the Roman Catholic Church who disavows a revealed truth), Jews, and others from the 15th to 17th centuries
10 Timeline of Increased Anti-Semitism (World War 2, Holocaust) 1930193519391941 & Result19381933
11 1930September 14, Germans elect Nazis making them the 2nd largest political party in Germany.This indicates the beginning of Germany’s power. As the years go by, Germany’s power increases. The Nazi Party has the authority and power to usurp and harm Jews and other individuals not set to be a part of society without any penalty.
12 1933 January 30, 1933: Adolf Hitler becomes Chancellor of Germany. Now Hitler has the authority and the citizens’ attention to eliminate all Jews and other individuals who were not set to be a part of the society.
13 1933March 12, 1933: The first concentration camp at Oranianburg outside Berlin opened.The first concentration camps in Germany were established soon after Hitler's appointment as chancellor in January 1933.After this camp, many more are set up. These camps serve as place for physical and inhumane anti-Semitic acts take place.These are the very first prisoners to arrive at Oranian burg.
14 1933Joseph Goebbels, the Nazi minister of propaganda, speak about the boycott of Jewish-owned shops.April 1, 1933 – There was a one day Nazi boycott of Jewish owned shops.The boycott was organized by local Nazi party chiefs.Many Germans continued to shop in Jewish-owned stores.This event marked the beginning of a nationwide campaign by the Nazi party against the entire German Jewish population.
15 1933May 10, 1933: Public burning of books written by Jewish people, political dissidents (protestors), and others who were not approved by the state.German university students burned 25,000 volumes of “un-German” and immortal books.One of the books being written by a beloved German Jewish poet Heinrich Heine, who wrote in his play Almansor the famous caution, "Where they burn books, they will also ultimately burn people."Click this link to see an actual footage of the burning on May 10, 1933:
16 1935September 15, 1935: German Jews stripped of rights by Nuremberg Race Laws.Jews were excluded from Reich citizenship and prohibited from marrying with Germans.The Germans identified Jew by seeing their family history: if he or she must had three or our Jewish grandparents, he or she is Jewish.Click on this link to see Hitler’s speech at the Nuremberg Laws.This artifact is in the National Archives presently. This states that Jews cannot marry Germans.
17 1938 November 9/10, 1938: Kristallnacht - The Night of Broken Glass Night of Broken Glass - shattered store windowpanes that covered German streets.Was a series of violent anti-Jewish pogroms throughout Germany, Austria, and in areas of the Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia recently occupied by German troops.In result - 7,000 Jewish businesses destroyed, 900 synagogues burned, 91 Jews killed, 30,000 Jewish men deported to concentration camps (Dachau, Buchenwald, Sachsenhausen).This article was written on Friday, November 11, 1938.
18 1939 January 30, 1939: Hitler threatens Jews during Reichstag speech. Hitler declares the horrifying resolution to the "Jewish problem”.“If the international finance-Jewry inside and outside Europe should succeed in plunging the nations into a world war yet again, then the outcome will not be the victory of Jewry, but rather the annihilation of the Jewish race in Europe!”
19 1941ResultHitler appoints Reinhard Heydrich to implement the “Final Solution of the Jewish Question.”This position gave Heydrich the power to crush Czech resistance and to push for deportations of Czech Jews to Poland.Previously, Heydrich ran the Prussian Gestapo, the largest political police force in the Reich.It is an inexplicable horror that the “elimination” of all Jews was classified as the “Jewish Question”.After 1939 about 6 million Jews were killed in the countries that Hitler controlled. Gypsies, homosexuals, mentally and physically disabled people and others who were against Hitler were also killed in the Holocaust.
20 Where?Places, such as, horrific concentration camps and terrible conditioned ghettos, affected everyone involved in the Holocaust by showing the true horror of how inhumane people can be.
21 DachauWas one of the first concentration camps – opened in March 22, 1933Became the model for other death camps that are later to be builtAs a result of the Kristallnacht, more than 10,000 Jewish men were in DachauPrisoners were tested by medical experiments, including high-altitude experiments using a decompression chamber, malaria and tuberculosis experiments, hypothermia experiments, and experiments testing new medications Hundreds of prisoners died or were permanently disabled as a result of these experiments.
22 Auschwitz—Birkenau Largest death camp Trains arrived at Auschwitz-Birkenau with transports of Jews from every country in Europe occupied by or allied to Germany Most were from Hungary – 426,0001.1 million Jews were deportedMore than 960,000 Jews were killedThree sub camps1. Opened in May 19402. Opened in October 19413. Opened in October 1942
23 Chelmeno Located in Poland First euthanasia camp where victims were executed by gas chambers that looked like shower stallsEuthanasia camps like Chelmeno also secretly gave lethal injections to the prisoners320,000 people were exterminatedThis is the site where the SS shot and burned the last 45 of 48 prisoners at Chelmno.
24 Buchenwald One of the largest concentration camps SS carried out shootings in the stables and hangings in the crematorium areaMedical experiments, viruses and contagious diseases, such as, typhus, cholera, and diphtheria, were tested on the prisonersSS Dr. Carl Vaernet conducted experiments that he claimed would “cure” homosexual inmatesElie Wiesel, author of “Night”, was a prisoner here
25 Chelmeno Located in Poland First euthanasia camp where victims were executed by gas chambers that looked like shower stallsEuthanasia camps like Chelmeno also secretly gave lethal injections to the prisoners320,000 people were exterminatedThis is the site where the SS shot and burned the last 45 of 48 prisoners at Chelmno.
26 Buchenwald One of the largest concentration camps SS carried out shootings in the stables and hangings in the crematorium areaMedical experiments, viruses and contagious diseases, such as, typhus, cholera, and diphtheria, were tested on the prisonersSS Dr. Carl Vaernet conducted experiments that he claimed would “cure” homosexual inmatesElie Wiesel, author of “Night”, was a prisoner here
27 Sachsenhausen Second concentration camp opened at Oranienburg in 1936 Many prisoners died due to lack of food and incredible cruelties of the SSSet the standard for other concentration camps – its design and the treatment of prisoners100,000 inmates died from exhaustion, disease, malnutrition or pneumonia from the freezing winter coldMany were executed or died as the result of brutal medical experimentationA prisoner of Sachsenhausen after the liberation of the Soviet Army.
28 Berlin (Germany)City in which the Reichstag Speech was given to the Reichstag (seat of the German Parliament) on January 30, 1939Reichstag Speech was a public threat against all JewsReichstag Speech provided a horrifying resolution to the "Jewish problem"
29 Warsaw GhettoGermans deported about 265,000 Jews from Warsaw to Treblinka killing centerIn response to the deportations, several Jewish underground organizations created an armed self-defense unit known as the Jewish Combat OrganizationConducted the largest Jewish uprising from July 22 – September 12 of 1942Jewish fighters were armed with pistols and fought their German leadersInspired other uprisings by ghettos
30 TeresienstadtDanish leaders were persistent that the Danish Red Cross visit the Danish deportees to gather information on their treatmentModel concentration camp used to deceive the Danish Red Cross International Red Cross when visited in June 1944Gardens were planted, houses were painted, and barracks were renovated and the Nazis staged social and cultural eventsAfter visit, Germans resumed deportations from Theresienstadt until October 1944This is a photograph of the children at Teresienstadt on the day of the visit.
31 Who Victims, Perpetrators, Rescuers, Bystanders Countries For & AgainstVictims, Perpetrators, Rescuers, Bystanders
32 Countries Involved in the Holocaust ForAgainstNations in which Germany had collaborated by committing anti-Semitic acts against the Jews:ItalyJapanHungaryThe Allies:United StatesSoviet UnionUnited KingdomNetherlandsBelgiumChinaFrance
33 Germany, Italy, JapanThese three countries signed the Tripartite Pact (also known as the Axis Alliance).Germany chose the two nations because:A) Germany knew the countries’ hegemony (control over land):Italy: MediterraneanJapan: East Asia & PacificBecause as of a result of World War 1, Germany lost land in Europe.B) Had two common interests:Territorial expansionDestruction of Soviet Union (was the first totalitarian state to establish itself after World War One) (Totalitarian = dictatorial government)None of the allied countries wanted Jewish immigrants.
34 Germany, Italy, Japan (continued) Italy’s failed attempt to conquer Greece.Italy was the first Axis partner to give up.Japan fought on alone, surrendering formally on September 2, 1945.
35 HungaryJoined the Tripartite because they saw that Germany, Italy, and Japan were powerful. Hungary knew that if they were to go against the countries, Hungary would be defeated by the strong forces of the three countries.As of a result, they issued anti-Jewish legislation and supported the inhumane and inexplicable anti-Semitic acts towards the Jews.Hungary never surrendered.
36 The AlliesUS,UK, Soviet Union, France, China, Netherlands, Belgium are considered “The Allies”.They were against Germany in all that they did. They were against the harsh treatment of the Jewish people and the concentration camps.United States-bombed the Buchenwald Concentration camp, freeing thousands of prisoners.Soviet Union-Throughout the Soviet Union resisted the German advance, and the defeat of the German 6th Army at Stalingrad is considered a major turning point of the war. In April 1943, members of the Belgian resistance held up the twentieth convoy train to Auschwitz, and freed 231 people.Netherlands-The Netherlands became an Allied member after being invaded in 1940 by Germany, and began attacks on Germany and Poland.Belgium, a neutral country before the war, became an Allied member after being invaded on 10 May 1940 by Germany. They retaliated and bombed concentration camps. They freed thousands of prisoners.
37 China-Pressured the Nationalist Government to grant the Communists state and military positions in the government.France-The Battle of France in May–June 1940, which resulted in the defeat of the Allies, the fall of the French Third Republic and the creation of the rump state Vichy France which received diplomatic recognition by the major part of the international community, including the government of the United States.UK-Gave surprise attacks on Germany after becoming on of “The Allies.”In May 1940, German forces had overrun Belgium, the Netherlands and northern France using Blitzkrieg (‘Lightening War’) tactics. With the USA and the Soviet Union both still hesitant in isolationism, Britain now stood alone against Nazi Germany.Most all 7 countries created resistances and succeeded in freeing Jewish people and the other prisoners of the Nazis.
39 Belgian Resistance(Belgium) In April 1943, members of the Belgian resistance held up the twentieth convoy train to Auschwitz, and freed 231 people.Belgium was another of the many countries included in Germany’s allied forces.Belgian soldiers that belong to the Belgian Resistance Forces.
40 Miep Gies- Rescuer (Netherlands) Miep Gies, the woman who tried to save Anne Frank and her family, is one of the most famous because of the wide distribution of The Diary of Anne Frank.Miep Gies was from Netherlands, one of the many countries of Germany’s allies.
41 Estelle Sapir-Victim (Poland) Estelle Sapir (c – 13 April 1999) was a Polish Jewish Holocaust survivor who achieved a measure of fame for her successful battle with the Swiss banking industry, in particular Credit Suisse, after a half-century of fighting for the return of her family's money, which had been deposited by her father, Józef Sapir, before he was sent to his death in the Nazi concentration camp at during World War II.
42 René Blum-Victim (France) René Blum was arrested on 12 December 1941 in his Parisian home, among the first Jews to be arrested in Paris by the French Police. He was held in the Beaune-la-Rolande camp, then in the Drancy Internment Camp. On September 23, 1942 he was shipped to the Auschwitz concentration camp where he was killed by the Nazis.
43 Adolf Hitler Leader of Nazi Party Chancellor of Germany of the Third Reich fromEncouraged others to blame the Jews for Germany’s statusPublically harassed the Jews in the Reichstag Speech:“If the international finance-Jewry inside and outside Europe should succeed in plunging the nations into a world war yet again, then the outcome will not be the victory of Jewry, but rather the annihilation of the Jewish race in Europe!”Had a passion for destruction, ruthless hatred, and the massacre of millions of innocent people
44 Josef Mengele Was known as the “Angel of Death” Know for pseudo-medical experiments especially on twins and GypsiesAssigned SS garrison physician of AuschwitzExamined the prisoners for the SelectionInnocent twins, such as these young girls, would be experimented by Dr. Mengele.
45 Pope Pius XII Born in Rome, Italy as Eugenio Pacelli Appointed Pope on March 2, 1939Only let Jews into Italy if they were baptized and would convert to Catholicism. Later, the Jews that entered Italy were revoked because they began to practice Judaism again and the Pope did nothing to stop it.Did not do anything else except stay neutral so he would not affect Catholicism in German lands.
46 German Citizens, Nazi Party, SS Guards… The categories of people named above saw the harsh, dehumanizing acts and said nothing.They were merely scared of the consequences that would follow if they had said “stop” or spoke for the unheard voices.Their actions show that they are as equally guilty as the perpetrators because they had the voice to speak, but chose not to.
47 Why is it Important to Know “When, Where, Who, and Why”? “Ever since I was a little girl and could barely talk, the word 'why' has lived and grown along with me. Even when I was older, I couldn't stop asking questions. When I got older, I noticed that not all questions can be asked and that many whys can never be answered. So the word 'why' not only taught me to ask, but also to think. And thinking has never hurt anyone. On the contrary, it does us all a world of good.”“How wonderful it is that nobody need wait a single moment before starting to improve the world.”Knowing why helps us prevent something terrible like the Holocaust from happening again.
48 Why did the Holocaust occur? Why did countries and individuals do such inexplicably horrifying things to Jews?Why were Jews tormented?Why did no one care?Why were people helping?
49 People Thought it was Okay to Repeat History. As you observed from the timeline, you can see that anti-Semitism had begun long before the start of World War II.In a time of Germany’s crisis, they needed a solution to regain their economy and hegemony status - they needed someone to blame. To figure out who to blame was simple - they chose the Jews because they were already victims of anti-Semitism in the past.For instance, why did Hitler deport people to ghettos? Because it was done in the past. In the Middle Ages, Jews were deported to ghettos. Thus, Hitler must have thought, “Because people did this in the past, its okay to do it now.”
50 On the other hand, why were people helping? Because they knew repeating history was bad.When something bad has happened, we have the intention to think “forget the past”…that is wrong. Like Confucius said, “Study the past if you would define the future.” People need to be aware of what has happened before them in order to create a solid foundation for their future.The past should never be forgotten. “The past is never dead.” (William Faulkner)
51 How can we prevent an event like the Holocaust from occurring again? Study the past – Just because something happened before, does not give anyone the right to think it is “good” and repeat it. The past is filled with terrible mistakes and events that should be recognized to never appear in our future. Educating children is key to having a future with no negativity.Stop the hate and spread the love – The little jokes about Jews grew to become an inexplicably terrifying anti-Semitic event – the Holocaust. Stop the hate before it’s too late. We can do this in our everyday lives – stick up for those who are bullied or tell a teacher or a trusted adult. If you are one who teases, learn how to accept differences because spreading the love goes a long way, too.
52 Pyramid of HateAnti-Semitism has been around for millenniums. Even as far back as May 16, 474 BC (one day before Passover), a decree was sent to all satraps that they were to kill the Jews on March, BC.Hitler knew that Germany was in a state of financial crisis and felt that the country needed a specific person(s) to blame. Since it had been done before in history and there were Jewish people in Germany, Hitler chose to blame Germany’s problems on Jewish people.
53 Words of a SurvivorWas from Sighet (present-day part of Romania, but past in Hungary)Wrote a memoir “Night” that was originally titled “And the World Has Remained Silent”“I swore never to be silent whenever and wherever human beings endure suffering and humiliation.”
54 We all need to learn from the past and avoid letting people repeat the horrible events from the past. To do so, we have to educate everyone on how the Holocaust deeply effected people, families, communities, and the whole world. In addition, everybody is equal and nobody deserves to be treated like they are inferior to anybody else. Everybody needs and deserves to be treated with respect, kindness, caring, compassion, and love. By recognizing the horrible acts that have occurred in the past, we can ensure a brighter, more loving future for all.
55 Bibliography"Perpetrators." Fcit.usf.edu. Florida Center for Instructional Technology. Web. 4 Jan <http://fcit.usf.edu/holocaust/people/perps.htm>."Pope Pius XII." Jewish Virtual Library . Jewish Virtual Library . Web. 13 Jan <http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/anti-semitism/pius.html>."Reichstag." A View on Cities. A View on Cities . Web. 15 Jan <http://www.aviewoncities.com/berlin/reichstag.htm>."Adolf Hitler." Holocaust History. Holocaust History. Web. 15 Jan <http://www.holocaust-history.org/der-ewige-jude/hitler shtml>."Teresienstadt: Red Cross Visit." USHMM. USHMM. Web. 15 Jan <http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId= >.. "Warsaw ." USHMM. USHMM. Web. 17 Jan <http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId= >. "Warsaw Ghetto Uprising ." USHMM. USHMM. Web. 17 Jan <http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId= >. "Auschwitz." USHMM. USHMM. Web. 17 Jan <http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId= >."T-4 Euthanasia Program." Jewish Virtual Library . Jewish Virtual Library . Web. 18 Jan <http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Holocaust/t4.html>."Dachua ." USHMM. USHMM. Web. 22 Jan <http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId= >."Auschwitz Birkenau." UNESCO. UNESCO . Web. 22 Jan <http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/31>."History of the Memorial." Auschwitz. Memorial and Museum: Auschwits. Web. 22 Jan <http://en.auschwitz.org/m/index.php?option=com_content&task=blogcategory&id=13&Itemid=13>. "Buchenwald Concentration Camp." Jewish Virtual Library. Jewish Virtual Library . Web. 22 Jan <http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Holocaust/buchenwald.html>.Dachau . N.d. USHMMWeb. 23 Jan <http://www.ushmm.org/lcmedia/photo/wlc/image/55/55026.jpg>.Auschwitz—Birkenau . N.d. Bluespot PhotographyWeb. 23 Jan <http://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcT_54OTHLSIKhzvKPB5fNVIo9Jpdhe2GEna3bcIkVOz6tHcf473IQ>.Buchenwald. N.d. USHMMWeb. 23 Jan <http://t0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTZCGskf6BJvBs4tySYTo5TPZvgSNltRWcv4bO8bRc1rL6SNYYa>.Individual: Theresienstadt. N.d. Edu BlogsWeb. 23 Jan <http://saldal.edublogs.org/2011/01/26/individual-theresienstadt/>.Hitler's Reichstag Speech . N.d. Blogspot Web. 23 Jan <http://holocaust-forum.blogspot.com/2010/03/german-reichstag-passes-enabling-act.html>.
56 "World War II Casualties. " Blogspot. N. p. Web. 11 Feb 2013 Timm, Kristen. "The Third Reich ." Samford . N.p.. Web. 11 Feb <http://www4.samford.edu/schools/artsci/scs/timm.html>."Timeline of Anti-Semitism." Library Thinkquest. N.p.. Web. 11 Feb <http://library.thinkquest.org/12307/astl_fr.html>."Blaming the Jews for the Black Death Plague." Six Million Crucifixions . N.p.. Web. 11 Feb <http://www.sixmillioncrucifixions.com/Blaming_the_Jews_for_the_Black_Death_plague.html>."Axis Alliance in World War II ." USHMM. USHMM. Web. 19 Feb <http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId= >.. "Collaboration ." USHMM. USHMM. Web. 19 Feb <http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId= >. "Poland - Hitler's First Target." Holocaust Forgotten . Holocaust Forgotten. Web. 19 Feb <http://www.holocaustforgotten.com/poland.htm>. "German Occupation." The Holocaust Explained. N.p.. Web. 19 Feb <http://www.theholocaustexplained.org/ks3/the-final-solution/german-expansionism/german-occupation-of-europe/ "Holocaust." Zionism-Israel. N.p.. Web. 19 Feb <http://www.zionism-israel.com/dic/Shoah.htm>."World War II: The Tripartite Pact." History Guy . N.p.. Web. 19 Feb <http://www.historyguy.com/worldwartwo/tripartite_pact_axis_treaty.htm>.
57 . 24 Feb 2013. <http://www.myhero.com/go/hero.asp? "A time-line of the Roman empire." Scaruffi. N.p.. Web. 21 Feb <http://www.scaruffi.com/politics/romans.html>. "Jews in the Middle Ages." History for Kids. N.p.. Web. 21 Feb <http://www.historyforkids.org/learn/religion/jews/middleages.htm>. "Jews in Roman Times." PBS. N.p.. Web. 21 Feb <http://www.pbs.org/empires/romans/empire/jews.html>."The Truth about Spanish Inquisition ." Catholic Education. N.p.. Web. 21 Feb <http://catholiceducation.org/articles/history/world/wh0075.html>."World War II in Europe." The History Place. N.p.. Web. 21 Feb <http://www.historyplace.com/worldwar2/timeline/threat.htm>."Sachsenhausen - Oranienburg Germany." Jewish Virtual Library . Jewish Virtual Library . Web. 24 Feb <http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Holocaust/Sach.html>."Belgian Resistance." . N.p., 20 Feb Web. 24 Feb. "The Story of Miep Gies." Where Teachers Come First. N.p.. Web. 24 Feb <http://teacher.scholastic.com/frank/miep.htm>.. "Miep Gies." Memorials A Place To Remember. N.p.. Web. 24 Feb <http://miep-gies.ememorials.in/. "LIFESAVER HERO: HERMINE SANTROUSCHITZ (MIEP GIES)." The My Hero Project. N.p., n.d. Web. "Fact Monster." Holocaust Reparations. Pearson Education, Inc., n.d. Web. 24 Feb <http://www.factmonster.com/spot/holocaust1.html>.. "BREAKING THE CODE NOVEMBER 19, 1996 TRANSCRIPT." Online NewsHour. N.p.. Web. 24 Feb 2013. "Estelle Sapir." . N.p., 2 Feb Web. 24 Feb <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Estelle_Sapir>.. "René Blum ( )." AU TEMPS DE L’ŒIL CACODYLATE. N.p.. Web. 24 Feb <http://dadaparis.blogspot.com/2010/06/blog-post.html>.Jennifer, Homans. "René Blum: Life of a Dance Master."Sunday Book Review. JENNIFER HOMANS, 8 Jul Web. 24 Feb 2013. . 24 Feb <http://www.myhero.com/go/hero.asp? "Josef Mengele ." USHMM. USHMM. Web. 24 Feb <http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId= >.