2To persuade someone to accept your opinion, you are arguing FOR (SUPPORT) or AGAINST (OPPOSE) something.An opinion is what a person thinks about a subject.A fact is a true statement that can be proven. You must give reason for your opinion. One of ways to support your reasons is to give facts.
4Introduction contains of an opinion about the topic Introduction contains of an opinion about the topic. It should tell the reader what your opinion is on the topic.An opinion about the topic is about 1 – 2 sentences.In addition, thesis statement must be written as clear as possible.
5TOEFL Topics Making an Argument (MA) Agreeing or Disagreeing (AD). Stating a Preference (PR).Giving an Explanation (EX).Note: this classification is not always precise. Giving explanation can also be called making an argument in some cases. This classification is to guide you only.
6Contoh Topic Explanation: People attend college or university for many different reasons. Why do you think people attend college or university? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.
7Contoh Topic Explanation: People attend college for a lot of different reasons. I believe that the three most common reasons are to prepare for a career, to have new experiences, and to increase their knowledge of themselves and of the world around them.
8Contoh AD:Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? University should give the same amount of money to their students’ sport activities as they give to their university libraries. Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion.
9Contoh AD:I strongly disagree with idea that the same amount of money should go to university sport activities as to university libraries. Although playing sports is an important part of education, libraries are fundamental. Student cannot study without them and they require a lot of financial support to maintain up-to-date technology, to keep new books and magazines on the shelves, and to keep them operating.
10Contoh PR:Some people prefer to eat at food stands or restaurants. Other people prefer and eat food at home. Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.
11Contoh PR:Although many people prefer to eat at restaurants because it is easier than cooking at home, I prefer to prepare food at home. I believe it is much cheaper and healthier to eat at home, and it can be more convenient, too.
12Contoh MA:Neighbors are the people who live near us. In your opinion, what are qualities of a good neighbor? Use specific reasons and examples in your answers.
13Contoh MA:There are several qualities that a good neighbor has. If you have a good neighbor, you are a lucky person. You have someone who is respectful of your property, who is helpful with the little day-to day problems that arise, and who is supportive in times of crisis.
14Thesis statementIt focuses the direction of the topic and helps the readers understand what you want to say. It tells reader what your essay is about.
15How to write TS?Thesis statement ditulis dalam bentuk main idea baik berupa simple sentence, phrase, atau kata.Bisa ditulis dalam 1 kalimat atau lebih.Yang paling penting adalah ide yang ditulis harus paralel (kalimat, phrase, atau kata)
16Contoh satu kalimat, paralel kalimat: When you travel alone, you meet new people, you have new experience, and you learn more about yourself.
17Contoh satu kalimat, paralel anak kalimat Often they are people who love risks, who seek a feeling of power, and who need a way to deal with some personal problem.
18Contoh satu kalimat, paralel frase This routine fits my body’s rhythm, my work schedule, and my social life.
19Contoh satu kalimat, pararlel kata They could go there to socialize, have meeting, and just relax.
20Contoh lebih dari satu kalimat Parents are the most important model a child has, parents love their children, and they have expectation of them. All of these things are important influences on a child’s success in school.
21Write the introduction You need two things to write a good introduction.You need to have an opinion on the topic.You need to have topic sentences for each of the paragraph (TS with main ideas).
22Set phrases to express opinion In my opinionAccording to meTo my way of thinkingIn my viewTo meFrom my point of viewIt is my opinion thatI believeI thinkIt seems to me thatIt appears thatTo my mind
23Examples: In my opinion, people’s lives are easier today. It seems to me that most people prefer to spend their leisure time outdoors.Etc.
24Verbs to express opinion AgreeBelieveGuessHopeImagineInferRealizeSupposeThinkunderstand
25Examples:I agree that studying science is more important than studying literature.I understand why people like to work with their hands.
26Adjectives : certain, convinced, positive, sure Examples:I am certain that movies influence people behavior.I am convinced that having a pet can contribute to a child’s development.
27Adverb phrases to qualify opinion SeeminglyConceivablyPossiblyPerhapsMaybeProbablyPresumablyCertainlyAlmostDoubtlessNo doubtdefinitely
28Examples: Seemingly, playing games can teach us about life. Daily exercise definitely should be a part of every school day.Doubtless, helping a child to learn to read is important.Individual sports possibly better than team sports for some students.
29Other adverb phrases: All things considered Altogether As a rule BasicallyBy and largeEssentiallyFor the most partGenerallyIn generalOn the wholeoverallMertimbangkan semua halSecara keseluruhan/semuanya Biasanya/lazimnya Pada dasarnya Umumnya Pada dasarnya Sebagian besar umumnya umumnya Secara keseluruhan secara keseluruhan
30Examples:As a rule, it is better for a student to wear uniforms to school.For the most part, countries are more alike than different.On the whole, higher education should be available to all.
31sama sekali : at all, completely, altogether, totally, entirely, absolutely Semuanya: altogether, bodilySungguh: really, indeed, quite, actually, remarkably, altogetherUmumnya: generally, usually, mostly, in general, in most cases, altogetherpd keseluruhannya : on the whole, altogether, as a wholepd umumnya : in general, mostly, in most cases, on the whole, usually, altogetherpendek kata: in short, in brief, altogether
32Other adverb phrases: Almost In a way More or less practically, So to speakFor all intents and purposesTo some extentUp to a pointhampir agaknya/Sedikit banyakLebih kurang Scr praktis,Boleh dikatakan Untuk semua maksud dan tujuan Sampai batas tertentu Sampai titik
33Examples:Up to a point, people succeed because of hard work, not because of luck.For all intents and purposes, television has destroyed communication among family members.
34Introduction examples: Examples 1: Version A I believe that people attend college for many different reasons. These reasons are personal to them. Version B People attend college or universities for a lot of different reasons. I believe that the three most reasons are to prepare for a career, to have new experiences, and to increase their knowledge of themselves and the world around them.
35Example 2: Version A I think there are changes necessary in my hometown. It is always the same. There has to be something different. Version B If I could change one thing about my hometown I think it would be the fact that there is no sense of community here. People do not connected, they do not look out for each other, and they do not get to know their neighbors.
36Example 3: Version A I believe that some people like to eat at food stand, and some like to eat in restaurants. There are different reasons for this. Version B Some people like to eat out at food stand and restaurants, while others like to prepare food at home. Often it depends on the kind of lifestyle people have. Those with very busy jobs outside the house do not always time to cook. They like the convenience of eating out. Over all, I think it is cheaper and healthier to eat at home.
37Exercises Introduction: Even though job situation can be very different, there are several qualities that all good supervisors have in common. A good supervisor treats her employees fairly. She gives directions. Most important of all, she acts as a good example for her employees.Termasuk jenis topik apakah intro ini?Mana intronya?Mana TS-nya?
382. Some people will say that a new movie theater in our neighborhood would be a bad thing. However, I fully support the plan to build one. I feel that a movie theater would provide more opportunities for entertainment, reduce teenage delinquency, and bring more business to our own.Termasuk jenis topik apakah intro ini?Mana intronya?Mana TS-nya?
393. Airplane is form of transportation that has changed people’s live 3. Airplane is form of transportation that has changed people’s live. Thanks to plane, our lives are now faster, more exciting, and more convenient than before.Termasuk jenis topik apakah intro ini?Mana intronya?Mana TS-nya?
404. Some people think that attending a live performance is preferable to watching it on television. I say, however, that if you have a good TV, it is much better to watch a performance that way. It is much more convenient and comfortable, and it is cheaper, too.Termasuk jenis topik apakah intro ini?Mana intronya?Mana TS-nya?
41Exercises on Writing Introduction 1. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Television has destroyed communication among friends and family. Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion.Write:Your opinion about the topic.Your thesis statement.
42Exercises on Writing Introduction 2. Some people prefer to live in a small town. Others prefer to live in a big city. Which place would you prefer to live in? Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion.Write:Your opinion about the topic.Your thesis statement.
43Exercises on Writing Introduction 3. Many people visit museums when they travel to new places. Why do you think people visit museums? Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion.Write:Your opinion about the topic.Your thesis statement.
44Exercises on Writing Introduction 4. Some people believe that university students should be required to attend classes. Others believe that going to classes should be optional for students. Which point of view do you agree with? Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion.Write:Your opinion about the topic.Your thesis statement.
45Writing Body:Turn the main ideas into supporting ideas. Use of an outline.
46Write conclusion:A conclusion has a few sentences that support your thesis and remind the reader of your intention.
47Different ways of writing a conclusion Restatement: restating your thesis statement and/or restating your topic sentences.Generalization: use all information you provided and make a generalization about it.Prediction: summarize the information you provided and point the readers toward the next logical step.Question: it does not need an answer because the answer is in the question. This is rhetorical question.
48Transition wordsTo make your ideas flow, use transition words. (transition).
49Editing yourself:Grammar and Spelling 1. Check your spelling. 2. Check your grammar. 3. Read your essay again. 4. Make sure each sentence has a subject. 5. Make sure your subjects and verbs agree with each other. 6. Check the verb tenses of each sentence. 7. Make sure that each sentence makes sense.
50Style and Organization Make sure your essay has an introduction, supporting paragraphs, and a summary paragraph.Check that you have a thesis statement that identifies the main idea of the essay.Check that all your paragraphs follow the proper paragraph format.See if your essay is interesting.