Presentation on theme: "Recidivism rates among juvenile probationers in Yakima County, Washington, are too high. Probation officers supervise high volumes of cases, and face."— Presentation transcript:
Recidivism rates among juvenile probationers in Yakima County, Washington, are too high. Probation officers supervise high volumes of cases, and face bewildering client-failure rates. Thus, this study seeks to analyze why some adolescents continue to commit crimes while others, even those who have had prior criminal incidents, ultimately stop offending. Juvenile delinquent: A youth whose behavior violates the law and who may be persistently mischievous, antisocial, disobedient, who intractability thwarts corrective actions by his or her parents, or who has been constituted as a matter for action by the juvenile courts. Recidivism: The repetition of criminal behavior or when an offender reverts to a prior state of criminal behavior.
In the U.S. today the dilemma of juvenile crime and delinquency is on a steady increase. Society is frustrated, concerned, and alarmed more than ever before. Over the past 15 years, the nation’s juvenile justice centers in America have seen an overwhelming increase in juvenile violence.
Juvenile delinquency continues to be viewed as a major social problem, especially in recent years, as more and more young people join gangs and engage in violence. Juvenile offenders who continue to re-offend while on community supervision need rehabilitative programs aimed at reducing such behavior. Despite the fact that some programs are successful, research indicates that they are costly and not always successful. Comparing delinquent youth to the larger American juvenile population and found they were more prone to drug and alcohol abuse, sexual activity, truancy, and emotional problems at school and at home.
As the trend toward confining greater numbers of juveniles in corrections facilities continues, increasing attention is being paid to what happens once they are released back into the community.
A drastic 24% of females who were detained were charged with probation and parole violations as compared with 12% of male juveniles. One study identified five major risk factors associated with female juvenile delinquency: (a) abuse and exploitation, (b) alcohol and substance abuse, (c) teen pregnancy and parenthood, (d) low or damaged self-esteem, and (e) truancy and school drop out. Another study found that 80% of females in detention needed a mental health and drug evaluation. The females in this study were 33% more likely to be diagnosed with depression and anxiety.
According to the Juvenile Justice Report for Washington State (2001), “Girls accounted for approximately 27 percent of all 1999 juvenile arrests. No change from 1998, and a slight increase from 1997, when girls accounted for 26 percent of all arrests”. This study suggested that boys committed 73% of adjudicated offenses in the State of Washington. Sondheimer (2001) reported that the disparity between males and females is decreasing and becoming more similar in profile. In fact, Esbensen and Winfree (1998) found that in some areas girls ages 11-15 make up 46% of gangs. Poe-Yamagata and Butts (1996) also reported that a drastic 24% of females who were detained were charged with probation and parole violations as compared with 12% of male juveniles.
Defining at-risk or risk factors is difficult because these terms take on many meanings. The term “at-risk” was created by the medical field and since has taken on many meanings by the educational field; however, since the term has been used so widely, essentially it has lost its meaning. For example, at-risk of drug abuse, at-risk of dropping out of school and at-risk of failing in life are all too common in today’s educational jargon. The fact is that everyone is at-risk no matter what life’s circumstances may bring. Prior studies have focused on recidivism traits among adult and juvenile criminal offenders; however, many of these studies have only explored variables which omit gender differences among offenders, excluding female, juveniles.
Society and culture glorify boys who learn to become aggressive and, in fact, view aggression in boys as acceptable. Girls, on the other hand, have been taught to be passive and non- aggressive. Eighty-one percent of all referrals to the juvenile court were male. In a health profile of male incarcerated youth, findings suggested that males who were incarcerated were older, in poor health, on welfare and came from single parent families. In one study, Corbitt (2000) declared male juvenile offenders were more likely to come from poor, low-income families. In addition, this study found that males of juvenile offenders were also more likely to have parents of family members who had criminal histories. What researchers have attempted to understand is why males choose a path of delinquency and deviance more often than females?
Age at first offense Gender Prior criminal history School Negative peer association Gang Involvement Substance abuse Race Mental health Social Economic Status After review of the literature, it was determined that the following are known recidivism factors that may influence re- offending:
Risk assessment tools are one way for the juvenile justice system to fight recidivism, and, indeed, risk assessment tools are showing signs of success in the fight to stop crime and delinquency. 1. Criminal History 2. School 3. Use of Free Time 4. Employment 5. Relationships 6. A Family in Which Raised 6. B Current Family 7. Drugs and Alcohol 8. Mental Health 9. Attitudes/ Behaviors 10. Skills
Mentor Strong marital relationships Communication Positive peer relationships Autonomy Social competence Community recreational activities Humor High expectations Family race Pride in culture Educational opportunities and school performance
Sample Demographic, juvenile probation services and recidivism data from 100 juvenile offenders of both sexes (ages 12-17) was drawn at random from the Juvenile Justice Center, operated by the Yakima County during the fiscal year 1999-2001. Since all detention, arrest, and re-adjudication records were obtained from the YCJJC, this researcher could readily identify which of the 100 research subjects had recidivated and which had not. The primary goal of this study is to investigate selected recidivism factors among a sample of male and female juvenile probationers and thereby determine which factors are most closely associated with re-offending.
Did not recidivate while on community supervision. 0 75 50 25 100 Male 27 Female 23 27 23 Recidivated while on community supervision.
10 40 30 20 50 51 Male Female 2018 Age 14 and underOver the age of 14 4 23 25 4 Did not recidivate Cross Tabulation of Juvenile Offenders under the age of 14 and over the age of 14 who had Recidivated while on Community Supervision.
10 40 30 20 50 5 Male Female 18 Received Probation/Rehabilitation services while on community supervision 2222 5 Did not recidivate Did not receive Probation/Rehabilitation services while on community supervision 5 5 Cross Tabulation of Probation Services Offered to Juvenile Offenders who had Recidivated while on Community Supervision.
10 40 30 20 50 1 Male Female 1722 11 12 16 Did not recidivate With intact family-support status. 6 15 Without intact family-support status. Cross Tabulation of Juvenile Offenders with and without an Intact Family-Support Status who had Recidivated while on Community Supervision.
10 40 30 20 50 8 Male Female 1214 11 1817 Did not recidivate Caucasian Juveniles 9 11 Non-Caucasian Juveniles Cross Tabulation of Race/Ethnicity of Juvenile Offenders who had Recidivated while on Community Supervision.
Ethnicity Males Caucasian 40% Hispanic 48% Native American 8% Asian 2% African American 2% Females Caucasian 48% Hispanic 44% Native American 6% Asian 0% African American 2%
LOW MODERATE HIGH WAJCA-RA MaleFemale 0 Recidivated while on community supervision. 2 19 0 8 13
Did not recidivate while on community supervision. LOW MODERATE HIGH WAJCA-RA MaleFemale 5 15 9 12 5
Although a review of the research literature suggests that juvenile males still recidivate at a somewhat higher rate than females, this study found that gender was not, in and of itself, significantly associated with juvenile criminal recidivism. In other words, females in this sample were just as likely to recidivate while on community supervision as males.
Significant association between age ranges was not associated significantly with juvenile recidivism, although prior research suggests an association between recidivism and age, namely at first arrest. However, as mentioned above, this study found that a juvenile offender’s age was not related significantly to recidivism for either males or females. Secondly, this study found no significant relationship between recidivism and age. It was assumed that younger juvenile offenders would recidivate significantly more frequently than older juvenile offenders.
Thirdly, the study found no relationship, for either males or females, between the amount of rehabilitation/ probation services offered and subsequent criminal recidivism. This means that juvenile offenders who receive more services aren’t any less likely to recidivate. On the other hand, the study did find a significant relationship between family status and recidivism for both male and female juvenile offenders. Moreover, the association between family status and the tendency to recidivate was similar for both sexes; the findings in this study suggest male and female juvenile offenders from positive parental/ family support status recidivate significantly less than juveniles from non-positive parental/ support families. Strong parental communication/ support with children fosters a positive attitude, which, in turn, deters criminal behavior among adolescents.
In addition, this study found no association between race/ ethnicity and recidivism although it was assumed that race/ ethnicity would be a factor for both male and female juvenile offenders. Research findings also suggest that the WAJCA-RA tool may even be a better predictor of female juvenile offender recidivism than was initially expected. Finally, a strong association was found between scores from the WAJCA-RA recidivism prediction tool and the actual incidence of recidivism among the juvenile offenders in the sample. This suggests that the WAJCA-RA tool’s ability to predict recidivism among juvenile offenders was quite good. The juvenile offender cohorts who were assigned high, moderate, or low risk scores by the WAJCA-RA tool generally tended to recidivate at the frequency predicted by those scores.
How to successfully work with a youth offender Employment issues Education issues
Many adult offenders start their criminal careers as juvenile offenders Many adult offenders start out with minor juvenile crimes such as MIP, theft, auto theft, and malicious mischief
HOW TO WORK WITH YOUTH OFFENDERS The stereotype of a youth offender - Spiked, colored hair Various body piercing Spiked bracelets and collars Loud and obnoxious Tattooed
The reality is that youth offenders are just like any other kid. You cannot tell by looking at a youth to see if they have a criminal history.
The number one thing when working with youth offenders is RESPECT Accept the youth as they are and don't judge them If you show them respect, they are much more likely to be willing to work with you and be successful
Youth are motivated by a variety of things Attention - Positive versus Negative Monetary benefits - incentives, salaries Employment opportunities Educational benefits The chance to change their lives
Employment Issues Lack of work history Criminal record Lack of education Age
Career Planning Ask the youth "What do you want to be when you grow up?" and respect that choice. Keep options open for the youth. Be a guide not a barrier. Apprenticeships College Internships Job Placement
Create Partnerships Partner with employers Work with colleges Enlist apprenticeship programs
Educational Barriers 36% of youth offenders have learning disabilities nationwide At Echo Glen — 170 total population Most learn better in a hands on environment and would benefit from vocational education 80% test below grade level 50% have been in Special Education prior to incarceration
Selective Services Selective Service - While incarcerated a man cannot register for the selective service. If they do not register prior to their 26th birthday, they are not allowed to register for the selective service. ( see handouts) Federal financial aid and federal programs require that male participants over the age of 18 are registered with the selective service.
Financial Aid Barriers Federal aid is suspended to all adult who have been convicted of sale or possession of illegal drugs. (See handout) Juvenile drug offenders are not affected by this restriction. Incarcerated individuals are eligible for federal financial aid if they are incarcerated in a county or city jail. (See handout)