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2 Presentation Overview This presentation aims to help communities identify issues and strengths and build evidence to support community change efforts by: Highlighting key community factors that support healthy youth development; Providing data for your county on these factors; Providing information to help you prioritize issue areas to address in your community.

3 Presentation Outline 1. What community factors support healthy youth development? 2. Explanation of county rating system 3. County profile 4. Community factors Education and school climate Health and food environment 5. Summary of county priorities

4 What community factors support healthy youth development? Research tells us that communities can play an important role in supporting healthy youth development by: Providing supportive educational environments where youth have opportunities to participate and engage and are prepared for higher education; Building trusting and cohesive neighborhoods where youth participate actively in organizations and activities;

5 What community factors support healthy youth development? (continued) Ensuring access to needed resources, including access to nutritious food and health services; Promoting community norms which discourage substance use and decreasing access to alcohol, drugs, and tobacco; Addressing bullying and violence in school and in the community. More information on these topics and why they matter for youth is provided throughout the presentation.

6 County Rating System Green = HEALTHY Your county is doing well on this measure compared to most other counties. It is in the top 25% of CA counties on this measure. Yellow = LOW PRIORITY Your county is doing better than many CA counties, but has room for improvement. It is in the top of the middle range, between the top 25%-50% of counties. Orange = PRIORITY Needs attention. Most counties are doing better than your county on this measure. It is in the bottom of the middle range, between the lowest ranked 50%-75% of counties. Red = URGENT Requires urgent attention and action. Almost all counties are doing better than your county on this measure. It is in the bottom 25% of counties.

7 Fresno: County Profile Race/EthnicityPercent White32.7% Black/African American4.8% Asian9.3% American Indian/Alaskan Native0.6% Hispanic/Latino50.3% Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander0.1% Other0.2% Two or more races1.8% Total Population: 930,450 Males: 50% Females: 50% 16.8% between the ages of 10-19

8 Fresno: County Profile Economic Profile: –Median family income: $52,071 –Families below poverty line: 16.3% Families with related children under 18 years: 23.8% –Unemployment rate: 18.4% Social Profile: -Households with one or more people under 18 years: 44.6% -Percent with high school degree or higher: 72.6% -Percent with bachelor’s degree or higher: 19.4% -55.6% Owner-occupied housing, 44.4% Renter-occupied

9 This presentation includes data on community factors in the following areas 1.Education and school climate 2.Health and food environment


11 What percent of High School Students Drop Out? Average for bottom counties 28.1% Fresno 24.0% Statewide 18.9% Average for top counties 11.3%

12 Percent of High School Drop Outs

13 Why does high school dropout rate matter? Students who drop out of high school are more likely to: Use drugs and alcohol Get involved in criminal activity and be imprisoned Become teen parents Be unemployed and receive public assistance

14 Percent of Truant students in CA and Fresno Average rate for bottom counties 38.4% Fresno rate 33.0% Statewide rate 24.2% Average rate for top counties 15.7%

15 Why does school attendance matter? Frequent absence is linked to: Low school connectedness Academic failure and dropping out of school Substance abuse Gang involvement and criminal activity

16 Percent of students reporting high connectedness to school

17 Why does school connectedness matter? School connectedness increases resilience (the ability to thrive despite adversity) Students who feel connected are less likely to have social and behavioral issues at school or abuse substance abusers They are more likely to succeed academically Blum, R. W. 2005. Protective Factors in the Lives of Youth: The Evidence Base. World Bank HDNCY Youth Development Lecture Series US National Longitudinal Study on Adolescent Health

18 Percent of students who feel adults at school have high expectations of them

19 Why do adults’ expectations of students matter? High standards from teachers and other adults and higher self-expectations of academic achievement increase school connectedness. Consistent communication that youth can and will succeed improves academic performance

20 Percent of Students who report to have many opportunities for meaningful participation in school

21 Why do opportunities for participation matter? Increases school connectedness Improves problem solving, communication, and analytical skills Young people with active roles in organizations and communities tend to have fewer problems (such as academic failure and substance use) and be lifelong citizens

22 Percent of students who feel safe or very safe at school

23 Why does student safety matter? Physical and emotional safety is crucial for student learning and well being. Fosters the academic and social interactions needed for success in school: feeling unsafe hinders students’ development, concentration, and learning. Students who feel safe in school are more likely to feel connected to their school

24 Percent of students who currently consider themselves to be members of a gang

25 Why does gang involvement matter? Threatens youth safety Increases involvement in violent crime and selling drugs Schools with more gang members have more violence When female youth are part of gangs they are at greater risk of sexual assault

26 Percent of youth who have experienced bullying over the past year

27 Why does bullying matter? Bullying compromises students’ safety and can have many harmful effects. Youth who are bullied are more likely to : Be depressed and think about or attempt suicide Have behavior problems at school and difficulty learning Experience extreme anxiety

28 Education and school climate overview Drop out rate URGENT Attendance URGENT Connectedness PRIORITY Expectations PRIORITY Participation PRIORITY Safety PRIORITY Gang Involvement LOW PRIORITY Bullying PRIORITY


30 Average for bottom counties.16 grocery stores Fresno.23 grocery stores Average for top counties.47 grocery stores Food Access: Number of Grocery Stores per 1000 people

31 Average for bottom counties 4.4% of households Fresno 1.65% of households Average for top counties 0.71% of households Food Access: Percent of households with limited access to grocery stores

32 Food access: Food deserts in Fresno County Highlighted areas are classified as food deserts by the USDA.

33 Food deserts in and near the city of Fresno

34 Why does food access matter? A lack of healthy options can lead to poor diets and serious health problems such as obesity or diabetes. Urban areas with limited access generally have higher levels of racial segregation and income inequality. Low-income households with limited access may be more prone to food insecurity—not having enough food for active, healthy living.

35 Percent of 7 th grade Students at a Healthy Weight Average rate for bottom counties 62.9% 64.1% 68.9% Average rate for top counties 76.4% Statewide Rate Fresno

36 Students who are at a healthy weight: 7 th grade by race/ethnicity

37 Why does being at a healthy weight matter? Youth at a healthy weight are less likely to develop health problems and have weight problems as adults. They are at greater risk for high blood pressure, high cholesterol, asthma, and type 2 diabetes Youth in high-poverty neighborhoods are at greater risk Rates of obesity and overweight are particularly high in African American and Latino communities

38 Percent of students who perceive alcohol as very/fairly easy to obtain

39 Percent of students that perceive cigarettes as very/fairly easy to obtain

40 Percent of students who perceive marijuana as very/fairly easy to obtain

41 Percent of students who observe messages about not using alcohol, tobacco or drugs 7 th grade 84% 9 th grade 85% 11 th grade 85% California 7 th grade 81% 9 th grade 83% 11 th grade 82% Fresno

42 Cigarette use Community Norms: Peer Disapproval of Cigarettes

43 Why do community norms and accessibility of alcohol, drug and cigarettes matter? Perceiving that their community feels it’s okay to smoke, drink, or do drugs, and easy access to them can increase youth substance use. Youth substance use is linked to: Social and emotional difficulties Sexual activity Violence and criminal activity Academic problems

44 Health and food environment overview Food Access PRIORITY Healthy Weight PRIORITY Accessibility of drugs, alcohol, and cigarette PRIORITY Substance use community norms LOW PRIORITY

45 Drop out rateURGENT School AttendanceURGENT School ConnectednessPRIORITY Expectations at SchoolPRIORITY School ParticipationPRIORITY Community ParticipationPRIORITY SafetyPRIORITY Gang InvolvementLOW PRIORITY Bullying PRIORITY Food AccessPRIORITY Healthy WeightPRIORITY Accessibility of drugs, alcohol, cigarettesPRIORITY Substance use community normsLOW PRIORITY


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